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1.  Probiotic Bacteria Regulate Intestinal Epithelial Permeability in Experimental Ileitis by a TNF-Dependent Mechanism 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e42067.
Background
We previously showed that the probiotic mixture, VSL#3, prevents the onset of ileitis in SAMP/YitFc (SAMP) mice, and this effect was associated with stimulation of epithelial-derived TNF. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) of VSL#3-mediated protection on epithelial barrier function and to further investigate the “paradoxical” effects of TNF in preventing SAMP ileitis.
Methods
Permeability was evaluated in SAMP mice prior to the onset of inflammation and during established disease by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) on ex vivo-cultured ilea following exposure to VSL#3 conditioned media (CM), TNF or VSL#3-CM + anti-TNF. Tight junction (TJ) proteins were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and confocal microscopy, and TNFRI/TNFRII expression measured in freshly isolated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from SAMP and control AKR mice.
Results
Culture with either VSL#3-CM or TNF resulted in decreased ileal paracellular permeability in pre-inflamed SAMP, but not SAMP with established disease, while addition of anti-TNF abrogated these effects. Modulation of the TJ proteins, claudin-2 and occludin, occurred with a significant decrease in claudin-2 and increase in occludin following stimulation with VSL#3-CM or TNF. TNF protein levels increased in supernatants of SAMP ilea incubated with VSL#3-CM compared to vehicle, while IEC-derived TNFR mRNA expression decreased in young, and was elevated in inflamed, SAMP versus AKR mice.
Conclusions
Our data demonstrate that the previously established efficacy of VSL#3 in preventing SAMP ileitis is due to direct innate and homeostatic effects of TNF on the gut epithelium, modulation of the TJ proteins, claudin-2 and occludin, and overall improvement of intestinal permeability.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042067
PMCID: PMC3405026  PMID: 22848704
2.  Glances in Immunology of HIV and HCV Infection 
Advances in Virology  2012;2012:434036.
Since the identification of HIV and HCV much progress has been made in the understanding of their life cycle and interaction with the host immune system. Despite these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their pathogenesis, they share many common features in their immune escape and survival strategy. Both viruses have developed sophisticated ways to subvert and antagonize host innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last years, much effort has been done in the study of the AIDS pathogenesis and in the development of efficient treatment strategies, and a fatal infection has been transformed in a potentially chronic pathology. Much of this knowledge is now being transferred in the HCV research field, especially in the development of new drugs, although a big difference still remains between the outcome of the two infections, being HCV eradicable after treatment, whereas HIV eradication remains at present unachievable due to the establishment of reservoirs. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate and adaptive immune recognition and activation during HIV and HCV mono-infections and evasion strategies. We also discuss the genetic associations between components of the immune system, the course of infection, and the outcome of the therapies.
doi:10.1155/2012/434036
PMCID: PMC3375159  PMID: 22754568

Results 1-2 (2)