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author:("herbstein, G.")
1.  Blockade of BFA-mediated apoptosis in macrophages by the HIV-1 Nef protein 
Cell Death & Disease  2014;5(2):e1080-.
HIV-1 Nef protein has key roles at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. We assessed the role of Nef and of the translation elongation factor eEF1A in primary human macrophages. Nuclear retention experiments and inhibition of the exportin-t (Exp-t) pathway suggested that cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A, mediated by Exp-t occurs in Nef-treated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We observed the presence of tRNA in the Nef/eEF1A complexes. Nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of the Nef/eEF1A complexes prevented stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with brefeldin A. Blockade of stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with HIV-1 Nef resulted from enhanced nucleocytoplasmic transport of eEF1A with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and from increased tRNA binding to cytochrome c, ultimately leading to an inhibition of caspase activation. Our results indicate that HIV-1 Nef, through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A and tRNAs, enhances resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in primary human macrophages.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.16
PMCID: PMC3944234  PMID: 24556695
Nef; eEF1A; tRNA; cytochrome c; apoptosis; macrophage
3.  Molecular Understanding of HIV-1 Latency 
Advances in Virology  2012;2012:574967.
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been an important breakthrough in the treatment of HIV-1 infection and has also a powerful tool to upset the equilibrium of viral production and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Despite the advent of potent combinations of this therapy, the long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs like cells from monocyte-macrophage lineage and resting memory CD4+ T cells which are established early during primary infection constitute a major obstacle to virus eradication. Further HAART interruption leads to immediate rebound viremia from latent reservoirs. This paper focuses on the essentials of the molecular mechanisms for the establishment of HIV-1 latency with special concern to present and future possible treatment strategies to completely purge and target viral persistence in the reservoirs.
doi:10.1155/2012/574967
PMCID: PMC3324883  PMID: 22548060
4.  Inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis in macrophages by nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A by the HIV-1 Nef protein 
Cell Death & Disease  2012;3(4):e292-.
HIV-1 Nef protein has key roles at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. We assessed the role of the Nef/eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha) complex in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in primary human macrophages. Nuclear retention experiments and inhibition of the exportin-t (Exp-t) pathway suggested that cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A, mediated by Exp-t, occurs in Nef-treated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We observed the presence of tRNA in the Nef/eEF1A complexes. Nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of the Nef/eEF1A complexes prevented stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with brefeldin-A. Blockade of stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with HIV-1 Nef resulted from enhanced nucleocytoplasmic transport of eEF1A with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and from increased tRNA binding to cytochrome c, ultimately leading to an inhibition of caspase activation. Our results indicate that HIV-1 Nef, through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A and tRNAs, enhances resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in primary human macrophages.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.32
PMCID: PMC3358010  PMID: 22476100
Nef; eEF1A; tRNA; cytochrome; apoptosis; macrophage
6.  55- and 75-kilodalton tumor necrosis factor receptors mediate distinct actions in regard to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary human macrophages. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(5):4150-4156.
We report in this study that repeated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) pretreatment, starting before and continued after infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), inhibits replication of the monocytotropic Ada strain in primary tissue culture-differentiated macrophages (TCDM), as assessed by sixfold lower levels of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity than that in untreated cells and absence of syncytium formation in TCDM cultures. In order to determine the pathways involved in inhibition of HIV-1 replication in primary TCDM pretreated with TNF-alpha, we tested TNF-alpha mutants T55 and T75, which recognize either the 55-kDa (TNF-R1) or the 75-kDa (TNF-R2) TNF receptor, respectively. Pretreatment of TCDM with the T75 mutant decreased the RT activity compared with that in untreated infected control cells fivefold and almost totally inhibited syncytium formation. In contrast, when TCDM were pretreated with the T55 mutant alone, syncytia were observed and RT activity was decreased about one-half. These results suggest that the inhibition of HIV-1 replication in TCDM pretreated with TNF-alpha might be mediated mainly through the 75-kDa TNF receptor (TNF-R2) rather than through the 55-kDa receptor (TNF-R1). Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in TCDM was observed with both T75 mutant pretreatment and posttreatment, starting at 1 h or 3 days after infection, whereas posttreatment with the T55 mutant, but not pretreatment, stimulated HIV-1 growth in primary TCDM. Both pre- and posttreatment with TNF-alpha inhibited HIV-1 replication in primary TCDM. The stimulation of HIV-1 replication by TNF-alpha in a chronically infected promonocytic cell line, U1, which contains two copies of integrated provirus, was mediated through the 55-kDa TNF-R1 alone and not through the 75-kDa TNF-R2. These results demonstrate that the 55-kDa TNF-R1 is involved in postintegration stimulation of HIV-1 while the 75-kDa TNF-R2 is involved in the inhibition of an early step of the viral life cycle in primary human TCDM.
PMCID: PMC191574  PMID: 9094699
7.  Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 into primary human macrophages: a selective role for the 75-kilodalton receptor. 
Journal of Virology  1996;70(11):7388-7397.
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is readily detected after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of primary macrophages in vitro and is present in plasma and tissues of patients with AIDS. Previous studies have shown that human recombinant TNFalpha (hrTNFalpha) enhances HIV replication in both chronically infected promonocytic and T-lymphoid cell lines in vitro. We report here that in contrast to untreated tissue culture-differentiated macrophages (TCDM), in which the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR) could be detected as soon as 8 h postinfection by a PCR assay, TCDM pretreatment for 3 days by hrTNFalpha markedly delayed its appearance until 72 h after infection with the HIV-1 Ada monocytotropic strain. Moreover the inhibition of formation of the proviral LTR in HIV-1-infected TCDM was directly proportional to the concentration of hrTNFalpha used. To determine if the inhibition of LTR formation results from blockade of viral entry, we performed a reverse transcription PCR assay to detect intracellular genomic viral RNA as early as 2 h after infection. Pretreatment of primary TCDM by hrTNFalpha for 3 days and even for only 2 h inhibits 75% of the viral entry into the cells. The inhibition of viral entry by hrTNFalpha was totally abolished by the use of anti-human TNFalpha monoclonal antibody. By using TNFalpha mutants specific for each human TNFalpha receptor, we showed that the inhibition of HIV-1 entry into TCDM was mediated not through the 55-kDa TNF receptor but through the 75-kDa TNF receptor. Although prolonged (1 to 5 days) TNFalpha treatment can downregulate CD4 expression in primary human TCDM, surface CD4 levels were not reduced by 2 h of treatment and was therefore not a limiting step for HIV-1 entry. In contrast to the inhibition of viral entry into primary TCDM, pretreatment with hrTNFalpha did not modify HIV-1 entry into phytohemagglutinin A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. TNFalpha-pretreatment inhibited HIV-1 replication in primary TCDM but not in phytohemagglutinin A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes as assessed by decreased reverse transcriptase activity in culture supernatants. These results demonstrate that TNFalpha is able to enhance host cellular resistance to HIV-1 infection and that selective inhibition of HIV-1 entry into primary TCDM by TNFalpha involves the 75-kDa TNF receptor but not the 55-kDa TNF receptor.
PMCID: PMC190806  PMID: 8892857

Results 1-7 (7)