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1.  Virus Particle Release from Glycosphingolipid-Enriched Microdomains Is Essential for Dendritic Cell-Mediated Capture and Transfer of HIV-1 and Henipavirus 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(16):8813-8825.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits dendritic cells (DCs) to promote its transmission to T cells. We recently reported that the capture of HIV-1 by mature dendritic cells (MDCs) is mediated by an interaction between the glycosphingolipid (GSL) GM3 on virus particles and CD169/Siglec-1 on MDCs. Since HIV-1 preferentially buds from GSL-enriched lipid microdomains on the plasma membrane, we hypothesized that the virus assembly and budding site determines the ability of HIV-1 to interact with MDCs. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the N-terminal basic domain (29/31KE) or deletion of the membrane-targeting domain of the HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein that altered the virus assembly and budding site to CD63+/Lamp-1-positive intracellular compartments resulted in lower levels of virion incorporation of GM3 and attenuation of virus capture by MDCs. Furthermore, MDC-mediated capture and transmission of MA mutant viruses to T cells were decreased, suggesting that HIV-1 acquires GSLs via budding from the plasma membrane to access the MDC-dependent trans infection pathway. Interestingly, MDC-mediated capture of Nipah and Hendra virus (recently emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses) M (matrix) protein-derived virus-like particles that bud from GSL-enriched plasma membrane microdomains was also dependent on interactions between virion-incorporated GSLs and CD169. Moreover, capture and transfer of Nipah virus envelope glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivirus particles by MDCs were severely attenuated upon depletion of GSLs from virus particles. These results suggest that GSL incorporation into virions is critical for the interaction of diverse enveloped RNA viruses with DCs and that the GSL-CD169 recognition nexus might be a conserved viral mechanism of parasitization of DC functions for systemic virus dissemination.
IMPORTANCE Dendritic cells (DCs) can capture HIV-1 particles and transfer captured virus particles to T cells without establishing productive infection in DCs, a mechanism of HIV-1 trans infection. We have recently identified CD169-mediated recognition of GM3, a host-derived glycosphingolipid (GSL) incorporated into the virus particle membrane, as the receptor and ligand for the DC-HIV trans infection pathway. In this study, we have identified the matrix (MA) domain of Gag to be the viral determinant that governs incorporation of GM3 into HIV-1 particles, a previously unappreciated function of the HIV-1 MA. In addition, we demonstrate that the GSL-CD169-dependent trans infection pathway is also utilized as a dissemination mechanism by henipaviruses. GSL incorporation in henipaviruses was also dependent on the viral capsid (M) protein-directed assembly and budding from GSL-enriched lipid microdomains. These findings provide evidence of a conserved mechanism of retrovirus and henipavirus parasitization of cell-to-cell recognition pathways for systemic virus dissemination.
PMCID: PMC4136256  PMID: 24872578
2.  Gag-Dependent Enrichment of HIV-1 RNA near the Uropod Membrane of Polarized T Cells 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(21):11912-11915.
The enrichment of HIV-1 macromolecules at the uropod of polarized T cells can significantly promote virus assembly and cell-mediated infection. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that full-length HIV-1 RNA is enriched at the uropod membrane; furthermore, the presence of HIV-1 Gag containing a functional nucleocapsid domain is necessary for this HIV-1 RNA enrichment. The results from these studies provide novel insights into the mechanism of HIV-1 replication in polarized T cells.
PMCID: PMC3807364  PMID: 23966405
4.  Viral Infection: An Evolving Insight into the Signal Transduction Pathways Responsible for the Innate Immune Response 
Advances in Virology  2012;2012:131457.
The innate immune response is initiated by the interaction of stereotypical pathogen components with genetically conserved receptors for extracytosolic pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or intracytosolic nucleic acids. In multicellular organisms, this interaction typically clusters signal transduction molecules and leads to their activations, thereby initiating signals that activate innate immune effector mechanisms to protect the host. In some cases programmed cell death—a fundamental form of innate immunity—is initiated in response to genotoxic or biochemical stress that is associated with viral infection. In this paper we will summarize innate immune mechanisms that are relevant to viral pathogenesis and outline the continuing evolution of viral mechanisms that suppress the innate immunity in mammalian hosts. These mechanisms of viral innate immune evasion provide significant insight into the pathways of the antiviral innate immune response of many organisms. Examples of relevant mammalian innate immune defenses host defenses include signaling to interferon and cytokine response pathways as well as signaling to the inflammasome. Understanding which viral innate immune evasion mechanisms are linked to pathogenesis may translate into therapies and vaccines that are truly effective in eliminating the morbidity and mortality associated with viral infections in individuals.
PMCID: PMC3446651  PMID: 22997518
5.  Metastatic Complications from Staphylococcus intermedius, a Zoonotic Pathogen 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(3):1099-1101.
Metastatic infection is an infrequent complication of non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococcal infection. Here we report a case of bloodstream infection due to Staphylococcus intermedius. To our knowledge, ours is the only known case of metastatic infection with S. intermedius.
PMCID: PMC3295128  PMID: 22170938
6.  Intracellular Cytokine Production by Dengue Virus–specific T cells Correlates with Subclinical Secondary Infection 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;203(9):1282-1291.
The pathophysiology of dengue virus infection remains poorly understood, although secondary infection is strongly associated with more severe disease. In the present study, we performed a nested, case-control study comparing the responses of pre-illness peripheral blood mononuclear cells between children who would subsequently develop either subclinical or symptomatic secondary infection 6–11 months after the baseline blood samples were obtained and frozen. We analyzed intracellular cytokine production by CD4+ and CD8+ cells in response to stimulation with dengue antigen. We found higher frequencies of dengue virus–specific TNFα, IFNγ-, and IL-2–producing T cells among schoolchildren who subsequently developed subclinical infection, compared with those who developed symptomatic secondary dengue virus infection. Although other studies have correlated immune responses during secondary infection with severity of disease, to our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a pre-infection dengue-specific immune response that correlates specifically with a subclinical secondary infection.
PMCID: PMC3069729  PMID: 21335561
7.  Glycosphingolipid Composition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Particles Is a Crucial Determinant for Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 trans-Infection▿  
Journal of Virology  2009;83(8):3496-3506.
Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with dendritic cells (DCs) are multifactorial and presumably require nonredundant interactions between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and molecules expressed on the DC surface that define the cellular fate of the virus particle. Surprisingly, neutralization of HIV-1 gp120-dependent binding interactions with DCs was insufficient to prevent HIV-1 attachment. Besides gp120, HIV-1 particles also incorporate host cell-derived proteins and lipids in their particle membrane. In this study, we demonstrate a crucial role for host cell-derived glycosphingolipids (GSLs) for the initial interactions of HIV-1 particles with both immature and mature DCs. Production of HIV-1 particles from virus producer cells treated with ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 or glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) resulted in the production of virus particles that, although capable of binding previously defined HIV-1 gp120-specific attachment factors CD4, DC-SIGN, and syndecans, were attenuated in their ability to be captured by both immature and mature DCs. Furthermore, GSL-deficient HIV-1 particles were inhibited in their ability to establish productive infections in DC-T-cell cocultures. These studies provide initial evidence for the role of HIV-1 particle membrane-associated GSLs in virus invasion of DCs and also provide additional novel cellular targets, GSL biosynthetic pathways and GSL-dependent HIV-1 interactions with DCs, for development of antiviral therapy.
PMCID: PMC2663285  PMID: 19193785

Results 1-7 (7)