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1.  Blockade of BFA-mediated apoptosis in macrophages by the HIV-1 Nef protein 
Cell Death & Disease  2014;5(2):e1080-.
HIV-1 Nef protein has key roles at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. We assessed the role of Nef and of the translation elongation factor eEF1A in primary human macrophages. Nuclear retention experiments and inhibition of the exportin-t (Exp-t) pathway suggested that cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A, mediated by Exp-t occurs in Nef-treated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We observed the presence of tRNA in the Nef/eEF1A complexes. Nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of the Nef/eEF1A complexes prevented stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with brefeldin A. Blockade of stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with HIV-1 Nef resulted from enhanced nucleocytoplasmic transport of eEF1A with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and from increased tRNA binding to cytochrome c, ultimately leading to an inhibition of caspase activation. Our results indicate that HIV-1 Nef, through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A and tRNAs, enhances resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in primary human macrophages.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.16
PMCID: PMC3944234  PMID: 24556695
Nef; eEF1A; tRNA; cytochrome c; apoptosis; macrophage
3.  Molecular Understanding of HIV-1 Latency 
Advances in Virology  2012;2012:574967.
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been an important breakthrough in the treatment of HIV-1 infection and has also a powerful tool to upset the equilibrium of viral production and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Despite the advent of potent combinations of this therapy, the long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs like cells from monocyte-macrophage lineage and resting memory CD4+ T cells which are established early during primary infection constitute a major obstacle to virus eradication. Further HAART interruption leads to immediate rebound viremia from latent reservoirs. This paper focuses on the essentials of the molecular mechanisms for the establishment of HIV-1 latency with special concern to present and future possible treatment strategies to completely purge and target viral persistence in the reservoirs.
doi:10.1155/2012/574967
PMCID: PMC3324883  PMID: 22548060
4.  Inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis in macrophages by nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A by the HIV-1 Nef protein 
Cell Death & Disease  2012;3(4):e292-.
HIV-1 Nef protein has key roles at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. We assessed the role of the Nef/eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha) complex in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in primary human macrophages. Nuclear retention experiments and inhibition of the exportin-t (Exp-t) pathway suggested that cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A, mediated by Exp-t, occurs in Nef-treated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We observed the presence of tRNA in the Nef/eEF1A complexes. Nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of the Nef/eEF1A complexes prevented stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with brefeldin-A. Blockade of stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with HIV-1 Nef resulted from enhanced nucleocytoplasmic transport of eEF1A with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and from increased tRNA binding to cytochrome c, ultimately leading to an inhibition of caspase activation. Our results indicate that HIV-1 Nef, through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A and tRNAs, enhances resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in primary human macrophages.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.32
PMCID: PMC3358010  PMID: 22476100
Nef; eEF1A; tRNA; cytochrome; apoptosis; macrophage

Results 1-4 (4)