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1.  Recent Developments in Computed Tomography for Urolithiasis: Diagnosis and Characterization 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:606754.
Objective. To critically evaluate the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging, advances in computed tomography (CT) and standard film radiography in the diagnosis, and characterization of urinary tract calculi. Conclusion. CT has a valuable role when utilized prudently during surveillance of patients following endourological therapy. In this paper, we outline the basic principles relating to the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of CT scanning. We discuss the current developments in low-dose CT technology, which have resulted in significant reductions in CT radiation doses (to approximately one-third of what they were a decade ago) while preserving image quality. Finally, we will discuss an important recent development now commercially available on the latest generation of CT scanners, namely, dual energy imaging, which is showing promise in urinary tract imaging as a means of characterizing the composition of urinary tract calculi.
doi:10.1155/2012/606754
PMCID: PMC3431047  PMID: 22952473

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