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1.  Assessment of antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing patterns for TURP: A need for Canadian guidelines? 
Background:
While antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended to all patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), little data exist regarding prescribing patterns of urologists prior to this procedure. Here, we sought to determine real-world antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing patterns at a high volume Canadian institution and determine compliance rates to recommendations put forth by the American Urological Association’s (AUA) Best Practice Statement (BPS) on antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Methods:
A retrospective chart review of 488 patients undergoing TURP was conducted. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine antibiotics prescribed 3 hours preoperatively and 24 hours postoperatively. For patients without a catheter, compliance was defined as those receiving an antibiotic prior to TURP. In patients with an indwelling catheter, compliance was defined as those receiving antibiotics from two different classes prior to surgery.
Results:
Overall, a total of 30 antibiotic regimens were utilized. The most common single antibiotic regimens prescribed were ciprofloxacin (32%), cefazolin (25%) and gentamicin (3%). In those patients with indwelling Foley catheters prior to TURP, a significant increase in gentamicin, as well as combination antibiotic regimens, was noted. The compliance rate with the AUA BPS in patients without a preoperative catheter was 81%, while the compliance rate for patients with an indwelling catheter prior to TURP was 37%.
Interpretation:
Collectively, our results demonstrate that prescribing patterns vary significantly prior to TURP, with compliance to AUA BPS being lower than anticipated. Overall, these results support educational efforts in this area, and the development of Canadian recommendations to improve uptake by practicing urologists.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.205
PMCID: PMC3758947  PMID: 24032065
2.  The Use of Regenerative Medicine in the Management of Invasive Bladder Cancer 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:653652.
Muscle invasive and recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancers have been traditionally treated with a radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. The urinary diversion is generally accomplished through the creation of an incontinent ileal conduit, continent catheterizable reservoir, or orthotopic neobladder utilizing small or large intestine. While radical extirpation of the bladder is often successful from an oncological perspective, there is a significant morbidity associated with enteric interposition within the genitourinary tract. Therefore, there is a great opportunity to decrease the morbidity of the surgical management of bladder cancer through utilization of novel technologies for creating a urinary diversion without the use of intestine. Clinical trials using neourinary conduits (NUC) seeded with autologous smooth muscle cells are currently in progress and may represent a significant surgical advance, potentially eliminating the complications associated with the use of gastrointestinal segments in the urinary reconstruction, simplifying the surgical procedure, and greatly facilitating recovery from cystectomy.
doi:10.1155/2012/653652
PMCID: PMC3457671  PMID: 23019421

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