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2.  Endogenous BTG2 expression stimulates migration of bladder cancer cells and correlates with poor clinical prognosis for bladder cancer patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;108(4):973-982.
The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is considered to act as a tumour-suppressor gene because of its antiproliferative and antimigratory activities. Higher levels of BTG2 expression in tumour cells have been linked to a better clinical outcome for several cancer entities. Here, we investigated the expression and function of BTG2 in bladder cancer.
The expression of BTG2 in bladder cancer cells was silenced by RNA interference. Cell motility was investigated by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The protein expression of BTG2 in bladder cancer was studied by immunohistochemistry.
We observed that targeted suppression of BTG2 by RNA interference did not result in growth stimulation but led to a substantial inhibition of bladder cancer cell motility. Tissue microarray analyses of bladder cancer cystectomy specimens revealed that higher BTG2 expression levels within the tumours correlated strongly with a decreased cancer-specific survival for bladder cancer patients.
These results indicate that endogenous BTG2 expression contributes to the migratory potential of bladder cancer cells. Moreover, high levels of BTG2 in bladder cancers are linked to decreased cancer-specific survival. These findings question the conception that BTG2 generally acts as a tumour suppressor and typically represents a favourable clinical marker for cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3590653  PMID: 23299537
bladder cancer; BTG2; cell migration; tumour suppressor
3.  Significance of the Intraoperative Methylene Blue Test for Postoperative Evaluation of the Vesicourethral Anastomosis 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:702412.
We prospectively investigated whether routine evaluation of the vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) after radical prostatectomy can be waived. Primary integrity of the VUA was analysed by an intraoperative methylene-blue test (IMBT) and postoperatively by conventional cystography. Data on the IMBT, contrast extravasation and prostate volume as well as pad usage were collected prospectively. Significantly more patients with a primary watertight anastomosis demonstrated by the MBT had no leakage in the postoperative cystography (P < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for prostate size and surgeon, the positive correlation between IMBT and postoperative cystography remained statistically significant (P = 0.001). The IMBT is easy to perform, inexpensive, and timesaving. With it postoperative evaluation of VUA for integrity can be waived in a significant number of patients. Following our algorithm, the Foley can be removed without further testing of the VUA, whenever the IMBT detected no leakage.
PMCID: PMC3424637  PMID: 22924039
4.  Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein Livin in renal cell carcinoma and non-tumorous adult kidney 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;97(9):1271-1276.
The antiapoptotic Livin/ML-IAP gene has recently gained much attention as a potential new target for cancer therapy. Reports indicating that livin is expressed almost exclusively in tumours, but not in the corresponding normal tissue, suggested that the targeted inhibition of livin may present a novel tumour-specific therapeutic strategy. Here, we compared the expression of livin in renal cell carcinoma and in non-tumorous adult kidney tissue by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. We found that livin expression was significantly increased in tumours (P=0.0077), but was also clearly detectable in non-tumorous adult kidney. Transcripts encoding Livin isoforms α and β were found in both renal cell carcinoma and normal tissue, without obvious qualitative differences. Livin protein in renal cell carcinoma samples exhibited cytoplasmic and/or nuclear staining. In non-tumorous kidney tissue, Livin protein expression was only detectable in specific cell types and restricted to the cytoplasm. Thus, whereas the relative overexpression of livin in renal cell carcinoma indicates that it may still represent a therapeutic target to increase the apoptotic sensitivity of kidney cancer cells, this strategy is likely to be not tumour-specific.
PMCID: PMC2360474  PMID: 17968430
inhibitor of apoptosis; Livin/ML-IAP/KIAP; renal cell carcinoma; tumour therapy
5.  Hypospadias 
Advances in Urology  2008;2008:650135.
Objective. The great possibility of variations in the clinical presentation of hypospadia, makes its therapy challenging. This has led to the development of a number of techniques for hypospadia repair. This article assesses past and present concepts and operative techniques with the aim of broadening our understanding of this malformation. Materials and Methods. The article not only reviews hypospadia in general with its development and clinical presentation as well as historical and current concepts in hypospadiologie on the basis of available literature, but it is also based on our own clinical experience in the repair of this malformation. Results and Conclusion. The fact that there are great variations in the presentation and extent of malformations existent makes every hypospadia individual and a proposal of a universal comprehensive algorithm for hypospadia repair difficult. The Snodgrass technique has found wide popularity for the repair of distal hypospadias. As far as proximal hypospadias are concerned, their repair is more challenging because it not only involves urethroplasty, but can also, in some cases, fulfil the dimensions of a complex genital reconstruction. Due to the development of modern operating materials and an improvement in current surgical techniques, there has been a significant decrease in the complication rates. Nonetheless, there still is room and, therefore, need for further improvement in this field.
PMCID: PMC2577154  PMID: 18989369

Results 1-5 (5)