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author:("Usluer, gave")
1.  Vancomycin and daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration distribution and occurrence of heteroresistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates in Turkey 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:583.
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates, the prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and the relationship between hVISA and vancomycin MIC values.
A total of 175 MRSA blood isolates were collected from seven university hospitals in Turkey. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin by reference broth microdilution (BMD) and by standard Etest method. BMD test was performed according to CLSI guidelines and Etest was performed according to the instructions of the manufacturer. All isolates were screened for the presence of the hVISA by using macro Etest (MET) and population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) methods.
The vancomycin MIC50, MIC90 and MIC ranges were 1, 2, and 0.5-2 μg/ml, respectively, by both of BMD and Etest. The daptomycin MIC50, MIC90 and MIC ranges were 0.5, 1 and 0.125 -1 μg/ml by BMD and 0.25, 0.5 and 0.06-1 μg/ml by Etest, respectively. The vancomycin MIC for 40.6% (71/175) of the MRSA isolates tested was >1 μg/ml by BMD. No vancomycin and daptomycin resistance was found among MRSA isolates. Percent agreement of Etest MICs with BMD MICs within ±1 doubling dilution was 100% and 73.1% for vancomycin and daptomycin, respectively. The prevalence of hVISA among MRSA blood isolates was 13.7% (24/175) by PAP-AUC method. MET identified only 14 of the hVISA strains (sensitivity, 58.3%), and there were 12 strains identified as hVISA that were not subsequently confirmed by PAP-AUC (specificity, 92.1%).
Agreement between BMD and Etest MICs is high both for vancomycin and daptomycin. Daptomycin was found to be highly active against MRSA isolates including hVISA. A considerable number of isolates are determined as hVISA among blood isolates. As it is impractical to use the reference method (PAP-AUC) for large numbers of isolates, laboratory methods for rapid and accurate identification of hVISA need to be developed.
PMCID: PMC3866574  PMID: 24325260
Vancomycin; Daptomycin; MIC; Heteroresistance; MRSA; Blood isolates
2.  Efficacy and Tolerability of Antibiotic Combinations in Neurobrucellosis: Results of the Istanbul Study 
No data on whether brucellar meningitis or meningoencephalitis can be treated with oral antibiotics or whether an intravenous extended-spectrum cephalosporin, namely, ceftriaxone, which does not accumulate in phagocytes, should be added to the regimen exist in the literature. The aim of a study conducted in Istanbul, Turkey, was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ceftriaxone-based antibiotic treatment regimens with those of an oral treatment protocol in patients with these conditions. This retrospective study enrolled 215 adult patients in 28 health care institutions from four different countries. The first protocol (P1) comprised ceftriaxone, rifampin, and doxycycline. The second protocol (P2) consisted of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, and doxycycline. In the third protocol (P3), the patients started with P1 and transferred to P2 when ceftriaxone was stopped. The treatment period was shorter with the regimens which included ceftriaxone (4.40 ± 2.47 months in P1, 6.52 ± 4.15 months in P2, and 5.18 ± 2.27 months in P3) (P = 0.002). In seven patients, therapy was modified due to antibiotic side effects. When these cases were excluded, therapeutic failure did not differ significantly between ceftriaxone-based regimens (n = 5/166, 3.0%) and the oral therapy (n = 4/42, 9.5%) (P = 0.084). The efficacy of the ceftriaxone-based regimens was found to be better (n = 6/166 [3.6%] versus n = 6/42 [14.3%]; P = 0.017) when a composite negative outcome (CNO; relapse plus therapeutic failure) was considered. Accordingly, CNO was greatest in P2 (14.3%, n = 6/42) compared to P1 (2.6%, n = 3/117) and P3 (6.1%, n = 3/49) (P = 0.020). Seemingly, ceftriaxone-based regimens are more successful and require shorter therapy than the oral treatment protocol.
PMCID: PMC3294949  PMID: 22155822
3.  Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza Infection 
Objective. 2009 H1N1 virus is a new virus that was firstly detected in April 2009. This virus spreads from human to human and causes a worldwide disease. This paper aimed to review the clinical and epidemiological properties of patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza who were hospitalized and monitored at Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine Hospital. Setting. A 1000-bed teaching hospital in Eskisehir, Turkey. Patients-Methods. Between 05 November 2009–01 February 2010, 106 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza, who were hospitalized, were prospectively evaluated. Results. Out of 106 patients who were hospitalized and monitored, 99 (93.4%) had fever, 86 (81.1%) had cough, 48 (45.3%) had shortness of breath, 47 (44.3%) had sore throat, 38 (35.8%) had body pain, 30 (28.3%) had rhinorrhea, 17 (16%) had vomiting, 15 (14.2%) had headache, and 14 (13.2%) had diarrhea. When the patients were examined in terms of risk factors for severe disease, 83 (78.3%) patients had at least one risk factor. During clinical monitoring, pneumonia was the most frequent complication with a rate of 66%. While 47.2% of the patients were monitored in intensive care unit, 34% of them required mechanical ventilation support. Conclusion. Patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza, who were hospitalized and monitored, should be carefully monitored and treated.
PMCID: PMC3447285  PMID: 23074669
4.  Assessment of the requisites of microbiology based infectious disease training under the pressure of consultation needs 
Training of infectious disease (ID) specialists is structured on classical clinical microbiology training in Turkey and ID specialists work as clinical microbiologists at the same time. Hence, this study aimed to determine the clinical skills and knowledge required by clinical microbiologists.
A cross-sectional study was carried out between June 1, 2010 and September 15, 2010 in 32 ID departments in Turkey. Only patients hospitalized and followed up in the ID departments between January-June 2010 who required consultation with other disciplines were included.
A total of 605 patients undergoing 1343 consultations were included, with pulmonology, neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology, nephrology, dermatology, haematology, and endocrinology being the most frequent consultation specialties. The consultation patterns were quite similar and were not affected by either the nature of infections or the critical clinical status of ID patients.
The results of our study show that certain internal medicine subdisciplines such as pulmonology, neurology and dermatology appear to be the principal clinical requisites in the training of ID specialists, rather than internal medicine as a whole.
PMCID: PMC3260124  PMID: 22177310
Infectious disease; clinical microbiology; training; consultation
5.  Report of the First Meeting of the Middle East and Eastern Europe Rabies Expert Bureau, Istanbul, Turkey (June 8-9, 2010) 
Rabies is a threat in all parts of the world where animal reservoirs persists, including Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Rabies experts from seven Middle East and Eastern European countries (Croatia, Egypt, Georgia, Iran, Serbia, Turkey, and Ukraine) met for two days in Istanbul, Turkey (June 8-9, 2010), to exchange information on the epidemiological situation concerning human and animal rabies in their respective countries and to discuss strategies for rabies elimination and control. They decided to establish a regional network, the Middle East and Eastern Europe Rabies Expert Bureau (MEEREB), a regional network of experts, to increase collaboration in rabies prevention and control at the local, regional, and global levels.
PMCID: PMC3173715  PMID: 21991443
6.  A multicenter point-prevalence study: antimicrobial prescription frequencies in hospitalized patients in turkey 
Accurate information about prescribing patterns in hospitals is valuable in improving the quality of antimicrobial prescriptions.
Data on the use of antimicrobial agents in eighteen tertiary care hospitals were collected on March 20th 2002.
One or more antimicrobials were ordered in 2900 (30.6 %)of 9471 hospitalized patients. The reasons of hospitalization of the patients receiving antimicrobials were medical treatment (42.5 %), elective surgery (39.6 %), treatment of infectious disease (17.1 %) and emergent surgical procedures (10.4 %). The highest consumption frequencies were found in surgical (81.6 %) and medical (55.2 %) intensive care units. The 48.8 % of antimicrobials were given for treatment and 44.2 % for prophylactic use. The most common reasons for treatment were found as lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, surgical wound infections and febrile neutropenia. Antimicrobials were ordered empirically in 78.4 % of patients. The proven infection ratio was found as 30.7 %. The 56.4 % and 13.4 % of orders were evaluated as clinically and microbiologically appropriate respectively.
These results suggest that antimicrobial prescription and empirical treatment ratios were high and inappropriate at inpatient groups.
PMCID: PMC1276781  PMID: 16202139
antimicrobial use; appropriate antimicrobial use; cost

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