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1.  Immunogenicity and Safety of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine (MenACWY-TT) Administered to Adults Aged 56 Years and Older: Results of an Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial 
Drugs & Aging  2013;30(5):309-319.
Background
The burden of invasive meningococcal disease is substantial in older adults in whom the case fatality rate is high. Travelers to regions with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as Hajj pilgrims, are at increased risk of meningococcal infection, and disease transmission from travelers to their close contacts has been documented. In younger individuals, meningococcal conjugate vaccines offer advantages over polysaccharide vaccines in terms of duration of protection and boostability, and induction of herd immune effects through reductions in nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. To date, few data are available evaluating meningococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults >55 years of age.
Objective
To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y vaccine with all serogroups conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT, Nimenrix™, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) and a licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS, Mencevax™ GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in adults >55 years of age.
Methods
This was a phase IIIb, open-label, randomized (3:1), controlled study conducted at one study center in Lebanon. A total of 400 healthy adults between 56 and 103 years of age without previous MenPS or tetanus toxoid vaccination within the previous 5 years or meningococcal conjugate vaccination at any time previously were included. They received a single-dose vaccination with MenACWY-TT or MenPS with blood sampling before and 1 month after vaccination. The main outcome measures were serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement source: rSBA) vaccine response (VR) rate [rSBA titer of ≥1:32 in initially seronegative subjects (rSBA titer <1:8); ≥4-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers between 1:8 and 1:128, and ≥2-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers ≥1:128]. The percentages of subjects with rSBA titers ≥1:8 and ≥1:128 and rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were assessed. Solicited adverse events were recorded for 4 days following vaccination, and all other adverse events, including the incidence of new onset chronic diseases, were recorded for 31 days after vaccination.
Results
One month after a single dose of MenACWY-TT, the rSBA VR rate in the MenACWY-TT group was 76.6 % for serogroup A, 80.3 % for serogroup C, 77.5 % for serogroup W-135 and 81.9 % for serogroup Y. VR rates in the MenPS group were 91.7, 84.8, 87.1 and 89.1 %, respectively. One month after vaccination, ≥93.2 % of subjects in the MenACWY-TT group and ≥93.9 % in the MenPS group had rSBA titers ≥1:128. In each group, GMTs increased by ≥13-fold for each serogroup. rSBA VR and GMTs tended to be lower in subjects who were over 65 years compared to 56–65 years of age. Only 6.3 % of MenACWY-TT recipients had anti-TT ≥0.1 IU/ml prior to vaccination, increasing to 28.1 % post-vaccination. The rSBA GMTs were 1.9- to 4-fold higher in anti-TT responders. Each local and general solicited symptom was reported by no more than 3.0 % of subjects in either group. No serious adverse events were considered vaccine related.
Conclusion
In adults 56 years of age and older, MenACWY-TT was immunogenic, with a vaccine response rate ≥76 % and with ≥93 % of subjects achieving rSBA titers ≥1:128 against all four serogroups after a single dose. MenACWY-TT induced low anti-TT concentrations in this population, which deserves further study.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40266-013-0065-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40266-013-0065-0
PMCID: PMC3634976  PMID: 23494214
2.  Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines coadministered with a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in toddlers 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2012;8(8):1036-1041.
A pooled analysis was conducted of 1257 toddlers who received a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) or Hib conjugate vaccine (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein) coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines (NCT00134719/NCT00289783). Noninferiority of immunological responses to MMR and VAR was demonstrated between groups and incidences of MMR- and VAR-specific solicited symptoms were similar, indicating that HibMenCY-TT can be coadministered with MMR and VAR.
doi:10.4161/hv.20357
PMCID: PMC3551873  PMID: 22617844
Haemophilus influenzae type b; Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y; MMR; varicella; vaccination; toddlers
3.  The safety profile of Haemophilus influenzae type b–Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY) 
The safety profile of HibMenCY was compared with licensed Hib conjugate vaccines in a pooled analysis that included more than 8,500 subjects who were administered a four-dose series of HibMenCY or commercially available Hib vaccines at 2, 4, 6 and 12–15 mo of age in two primary vaccination and two fourth dose phase 3 studies. In all studies, HibMenCY or Hib vaccine was co-administered with age-appropriate, routinely recommended vaccines. In one primary and one fourth dose study (n = 4180), local and general symptoms were solicited using diary cards for 4 d after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) indicating new onset of chronic disease (NOCD), rash, and conditions prompting Emergency Room (ER) visits were reported from dose 1 until 6 mo after dose 4. The incidences of solicited local and general symptoms were similar following HibMenCY and commercially available Hib vaccines. For some solicited symptoms (pain at the injection site and irritability), rates were lower in the HibMenCY group compared with the Hib control group (p value < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the incidences of SAEs, NOCDs, rash, or AEs leading to ER visits, with the exceptions of anemia and viral gastroenteritis, which occurred significantly less frequently in those receiving HibMenCY than those receiving commercially available Hib vaccines. In this pooled safety analysis, the safety profile of HibMenCY was similar to the safety profile of licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, despite the addition of meningococcal antigens.
 
These studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00345579 (primary vaccination study), NCT00345683 (fourth dose vaccination study) and NCT00289783 (primary and fourth dose vaccination studies)
doi:10.4161/hv.18752
PMCID: PMC3426078  PMID: 22327493
Neisseria meningitidis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; adverse drug event; vaccine
4.  Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience 
Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.
doi:10.4061/2011/846756
PMCID: PMC3170757  PMID: 21991444

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