PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
1.  Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period! 
We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.99728
PMCID: PMC3424805  PMID: 22919200
Long incubation period; Negri bodies; rabies; viral antigen
2.  Recent Advances in Prevention and Control of Rabies 
doi:10.4061/2011/956428
PMCID: PMC3180785  PMID: 21991447
3.  Role of Apoptosis in Rabies Viral Encephalitis: A Comparative Study in Mice, Canine, and Human Brain with a Review of Literature 
To evaluate the role of apoptosis in rabies encephalitis in humans and canines infected with wild-type street virus, in comparison with rodent model infected with street and laboratory passaged CVS strain, we studied postmortem brain tissue from nine humans, six canines infected with street rabies virus, and Swiss albino mice inoculated intramuscularly (IM) and intracerebrally (IC) with street and CVS strains. Encephalitis and high rabies antigen load were prominent in canine and human brains compared to rodents inoculated with street virus. Neuronal apoptosis was detectable only in sucking mice inoculated with CVS strain and minimal in street virus inoculated mice. In a time point study in suckling mice, DNA laddering was noted only terminally (7 days p.i.) following IC inoculation with CVS strain but not with street virus. In weanling and adult mice, apoptosis was restricted to inflammatory cells and absent in neurons similar to human and canine rabies-infected brains. Absence of neuronal apoptosis in wild-type rabies may facilitate intraneuronal survival and replication while apoptosis in inflammatory cells prevents elimination of the virus by abrogation of host inflammatory response.
doi:10.4061/2011/374286
PMCID: PMC3163028  PMID: 21876844
4.  N-methylisatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone derivative (SCH 16) is an inhibitor of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo 
Virology Journal  2008;5:64.
Background
During the early and mid part of 20th century, several reports described the therapeutic effects of N-methylisatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone (MIBT) against pox viruses, Maloney leukemia viruses and recently against HIV. However, their ability to inhibit flavivirus replication has not been investigated. Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the antiviral activity of 14 MIBT derivatives against Flaviviruses that are prevalent in India such as Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), Dengue-2 (Den-2) and West Nile viruses (WNV).
Results
Amongst the fourteen Mannich bases of MIBT derivatives tested one compound – SCH 16 was able to completely inhibit in vitro Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) replication. However no antiviral activity of SCH 16 was noted against Den-2 virus replication. This compound was able to inhibit 50% of the plaques (IC50) produced by JEV and WNV at a concentration of 16 μgm/ml (0.000025 μM) and 4 μgm/ml (0.000006 μM) respectively. Furthermore, SCH 16 at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight administered by oral route twice daily was able to completely (100%) prevent mortality in mice challenged with 50LD50 JEV by the peripheral route. Our experiments to understand the mechanism of action suggest that SCH 16 inhibited JEV replication at the level of early protein translation.
Conclusion
Only one of the 14 isatin derivatives -SCH 16 exhibited antiviral action on JEV and WNV virus infection in vitro. SCH 16 was also found to completely inhibit JEV replication in vivo in a mouse model challenged peripherally with 50LD50 of the virus. These results warrant further research and development on SCH 16 as a possible therapeutic agent.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-5-64
PMCID: PMC2408923  PMID: 18498627
5.  Evaluation of a new five-injection, two-site,intradermal schedule for purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine: A randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India 
Background:
Human rabies is an ongoing significant public health problem inmany developing countries, with India reporting the highest incidence of rabies-related deaths (∼20,000 per year). Many people living in India cannot afford the standard IM postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with cell-culture vaccines, which are administered using a 5-dose regimen developed in Essen, Germany. A potentially less expensive intradermal (ID) regimen, based on the Essen regimen, has been developed at the Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bangalore, India.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and local and systemic tolerability of the KIMS-1D regimen with those of the standard Essen IM regimen in healthy adult volunteers in India.
Methods:
This randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial was conductedat the Antirabies Clinic, Medical College, KIMS. Healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) using the KIMS-1D regimen (0.1 mL injected ID at 2 body sites on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 [“2-2-2-2-2”]) or the Essen IM regimen (1 mL injected IM at 1 body site on the same days Subjects were followed up for 365 days by the treating physician and encouraged to voluntarily report any adverse events (AEs). Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations were measured before the first injection on day 0 (baseline) and on days 14, 28, 90, 180, and 365, using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.
Results:
Ninety-one subjects were enrolled and included in the tolerabilityand immunogenicity analyses. The ID group comprised 45 subjects (26 men, 19 women; mean [SD] age, 20.84 [1.48] years); the IM group, 46 subjects (28 men, 18 women; mean [SD] age, 21.02 [1.16] years). The most common local AEs were pain at the injection site (2/225 [0.9%] in the ID group and 10/230 [4.3%] in the IM group; P < 0.006) and itching at the injection site (5/225 [2.2%] in the ID group and none in the IM group; P = 0.026). All of the AEs were transient and resolved without the need for medication. All subjects had serum RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/mL—considered protective by the World Health Organization—at all follow-up visits. However, the mean RVNA concentrations in the IM group were significantly higher compared with those in the ID group from days 14 to 365 (all, P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
In this study in healthy volunteers, PEP with PCECV administered using the KIMS-ID regimen was well tolerated and immunologically efficacious for 365 days. Adequate RVNA levels were maintained with the KIMS-ID regimen from days 14 to 365, although these levels were significantly lower than those achieved in the group receiving the Essen IM regimen (all, P < 0.001).
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2005.08.009
PMCID: PMC3964532  PMID: 24672132
rabies; intradermal rabies vaccination; KIMS-ID regimen; randomizedcontrolled trial

Results 1-5 (5)