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Advances in Preventive Medicine (1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology (1)
Pathology Research International (1)
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Madhusudana, S. N. (3)
Mahadevan, Anita (2)
Shankar, S. K. (2)
Bourhy, Hervé (1)
Briggs, Deborah (1)
Desai, Anita (1)
Ghodkirekar, M. S. G. (1)
Perumal, Yogeeswari (1)
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Sapico, Silvano Dias (1)
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Shampur, Madhusudana N (1)
Sriram, D (1)
Suja, M. S. (1)
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Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!
Shankar, S. K.
Sapico, Silvano Dias
Ghodkirekar, M. S. G.
Pinto, R. G. W.
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.
Long incubation period; Negri bodies; rabies; viral antigen
Recent Advances in Prevention and Control of Rabies
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Role of Apoptosis in Rabies Viral Encephalitis: A Comparative Study in Mice, Canine, and Human Brain with a Review of Literature
Suja, M. S.
Shankar, S. K.
Pathology Research International
To evaluate the role of apoptosis in rabies encephalitis in humans and canines infected with wild-type street virus, in comparison with rodent model infected with street and laboratory passaged CVS strain, we studied postmortem brain tissue from nine humans, six canines infected with street rabies virus, and Swiss albino mice inoculated intramuscularly (IM) and intracerebrally (IC) with street and CVS strains. Encephalitis and high rabies antigen load were prominent in canine and human brains compared to rodents inoculated with street virus. Neuronal apoptosis was detectable only in sucking mice inoculated with CVS strain and minimal in street virus inoculated mice. In a time point study in suckling mice, DNA laddering was noted only terminally (7 days p.i.) following IC inoculation with CVS strain but not with street virus. In weanling and adult mice, apoptosis was restricted to inflammatory cells and absent in neurons similar to human and canine rabies-infected brains. Absence of neuronal apoptosis in wild-type rabies may facilitate intraneuronal survival and replication while apoptosis in inflammatory cells prevents elimination of the virus by abrogation of host inflammatory response.
N-methylisatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone derivative (SCH 16) is an inhibitor of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo
During the early and mid part of 20th century, several reports described the therapeutic effects of N-methylisatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone (MIBT) against pox viruses, Maloney leukemia viruses and recently against HIV. However, their ability to inhibit flavivirus replication has not been investigated. Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the antiviral activity of 14 MIBT derivatives against Flaviviruses that are prevalent in India such as Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), Dengue-2 (Den-2) and West Nile viruses (WNV).
Amongst the fourteen Mannich bases of MIBT derivatives tested one compound – SCH 16 was able to completely inhibit in vitro Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) replication. However no antiviral activity of SCH 16 was noted against Den-2 virus replication. This compound was able to inhibit 50% of the plaques (IC50) produced by JEV and WNV at a concentration of 16 μgm/ml (0.000025 μM) and 4 μgm/ml (0.000006 μM) respectively. Furthermore, SCH 16 at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight administered by oral route twice daily was able to completely (100%) prevent mortality in mice challenged with 50LD50 JEV by the peripheral route. Our experiments to understand the mechanism of action suggest that SCH 16 inhibited JEV replication at the level of early protein translation.
Only one of the 14 isatin derivatives -SCH 16 exhibited antiviral action on JEV and WNV virus infection in vitro. SCH 16 was also found to completely inhibit JEV replication in vivo in a mouse model challenged peripherally with 50LD50 of the virus. These results warrant further research and development on SCH 16 as a possible therapeutic agent.
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