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1.  Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to cardiometabolic risk in children: cross-sectional findings from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study 
Background
Lower levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk among children. However, little is known about the independent and combined associations of PA and SB as well as different types of these behaviours with cardiometabolic risk in children. We therefore investigated these relationships among children.
Methods
The subjects were a population sample of 468 children 6–8 years of age. PA and SB were assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents and validated by a monitor combining heart rate and accelerometry measurements. We assessed body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressure and calculated a cardiometabolic risk score using population-specific Z-scores and a formula waist circumference + insulin + glucose + triglycerides - HDL cholesterol + mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We analysed data using multivariate linear regression models.
Results
Total PA was inversely associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (β = -0.135, p = 0.004), body fat percentage (β = -0.155, p < 0.001), insulin (β = -0.099, p = 0.034), triglycerides (β = -0.166, p < 0.001), VLDL triglycerides (β = -0.230, p < 0.001), VLDL cholesterol (β = -0.168, p = 0.001), LDL cholesterol (β = -0.094, p = 0.046) and HDL triglycerides (β = -0.149, p = 0.004) and directly related to HDL cholesterol (β = 0.144, p = 0.002) adjusted for age and gender. Unstructured PA was inversely associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (β = -0.123, p = 0.010), body fat percentage (β = -0.099, p = 0.027), insulin (β = -0.108, p = 0.021), triglycerides (β = -0.144, p = 0.002), VLDL triglycerides (β = -0.233, p < 0.001) and VLDL cholesterol (β = -0.199, p < 0.001) and directly related to HDL cholesterol (β = 0.126, p = 0.008). Watching TV and videos was directly related to the cardiometabolic risk score (β = 0.135, p = 0.003), body fat percentage (β = 0.090, p = 0.039), waist circumference (β = 0.097, p = 0.033) and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.096, p = 0.039). Resting was directly associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (β = 0.092, p = 0.049), triglycerides (β = 0.131, p = 0.005), VLDL triglycerides (β = 0.134, p = 0.009), VLDL cholesterol (β = 0.147, p = 0.004) and LDL cholesterol (β = 0.105, p = 0.023). Other types of PA and SB had less consistent associations with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Conclusions
The results of our study emphasise increasing total and unstructured PA and decreasing watching TV and videos and other sedentary behaviours to reduce cardiometabolic risk among children.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-55
PMCID: PMC4008488  PMID: 24766669
Child; Metabolic diseases/metabolism; Motor activity/physiology; Risk factors; Sedentary lifestyle
2.  Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men 
Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n = 2682) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n = 952). Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18) age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.
doi:10.4061/2011/478741
PMCID: PMC3216364  PMID: 22111009

Results 1-3 (3)