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1.  Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men 
Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n = 2682) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n = 952). Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18) age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.
doi:10.4061/2011/478741
PMCID: PMC3216364  PMID: 22111009
2.  Vibrotactile Feedback for Brain-Computer Interface Operation 
To be correctly mastered, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) need an uninterrupted flow of feedback to the user. This feedback is usually delivered through the visual channel. Our aim was to explore the benefits of vibrotactile feedback during users' training and control of EEG-based BCI applications. A protocol for delivering vibrotactile feedback, including specific hardware and software arrangements, was specified. In three studies with 33 subjects (including 3 with spinal cord injury), we compared vibrotactile and visual feedback, addressing: (I) the feasibility of subjects' training to master their EEG rhythms using tactile feedback; (II) the compatibility of this form of feedback in presence of a visual distracter; (III) the performance in presence of a complex visual task on the same (visual) or different (tactile) sensory channel. The stimulation protocol we developed supports a general usage of the tactors; preliminary experimentations. All studies indicated that the vibrotactile channel can function as a valuable feedback modality with reliability comparable to the classical visual feedback. Advantages of using a vibrotactile feedback emerged when the visual channel was highly loaded by a complex task. In all experiments, vibrotactile feedback felt, after some training, more natural for both controls and SCI users.
doi:10.1155/2007/48937
PMCID: PMC2267023  PMID: 18354734
3.  EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Tetraplegics 
Movement-disabled persons typically require a long practice time to learn how to use a brain-computer interface (BCI). Our aim was to develop a BCI which tetraplegic subjects could control only in 30 minutes. Six such subjects (level of injury C4-C5) operated a 6-channel EEG BCI. The task was to move a circle from the centre of the computer screen to its right or left side by attempting visually triggered right- or left-hand movements. During the training periods, the classifier was adapted to the user's EEG activity after each movement attempt in a supervised manner. Feedback of the performance was given immediately after starting the BCI use. Within the time limit, three subjects learned to control the BCI. We believe that fast initial learning is an important factor that increases motivation and willingness to use BCIs. We have previously tested a similar single-trial classification approach in healthy subjects. Our new results show that methods developed and tested with healthy subjects do not necessarily work as well as with motor-disabled patients. Therefore, it is important to use motor-disabled persons as subjects in BCI development.
doi:10.1155/2007/23864
PMCID: PMC2233767  PMID: 18288247

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