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1.  Adaptation-Based Resistance to Siderophore-Conjugated Antibacterial Agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has become so threatening to human health that new antibacterial platforms are desperately needed to combat these deadly infections. The concept of siderophore conjugation, which facilitates compound uptake across the outer membrane by hijacking bacterial iron acquisition systems, has received significant attention in recent years. While standard in vitro MIC and resistance frequency methods demonstrate that these compounds are potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents whose activity should not be threatened by unacceptably high spontaneous resistance rates, recapitulation of these results in animal models can prove unreliable, partially because of the differences in iron availability in these different methods. Here, we describe the characterization of MB-1, a novel siderophore-conjugated monobactam that demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested using standard assay conditions. Unfortunately, the in vitro findings did not correlate with the in vivo results we obtained, as multiple strains were not effectively treated by MB-1 despite having low MICs. To address this, we also describe the development of new in vitro assays that were predictive of efficacy in mouse models, and we provide evidence that competition with native siderophores could contribute to the recalcitrance of some P. aeruginosa isolates in vivo.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00629-13
PMCID: PMC3754284  PMID: 23774440
2.  Identification and Evaluation of Twin-Arginine Translocase Inhibitors 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6223-6234.
The twin-arginine translocase (TAT) in some bacterial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contributes to pathogenesis by translocating extracellular virulence determinants across the inner membrane into the periplasm, thereby allowing access to the Xcp (type II) secretory system for further export in Gram-negative organisms, or directly to the outside surface of the cell, as in M. tuberculosis. TAT-mediated secretion appreciably contributes to virulence in both animal and plant models of bacterial infection. Consequently, TAT function is an attractive target for small-molecular-weight compounds that alone or in conjunction with extant antimicrobial agents could become novel therapeutics. The TAT-transported hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) of P. aeruginosa and its multiple orthologs produced by the above pathogens can be detected by an accurate and reproducible colorimetric assay using a synthetic substrate that detects phospholipase C activity. Such an assay could be an effective indicator of TAT function. Using carefully constructed recombinant strains to precisely control the expression of PlcH, we developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to evaluate, in duplicate, >80,000 small-molecular-weight compounds as possible TAT inhibitors. Based on additional TAT-related functional assays, purified PlcH protein inhibition experiments, and repeat experiments of the initial screening assay, 39 compounds were selected from the 122 initial hits. Finally, to evaluate candidate inhibitors for TAT specificity, we developed a TAT titration assay that determines whether inhibition of TAT-mediated secretion can be overcome by increasing the levels of TAT expression. The compounds N-phenyl maleimide and Bay 11-7082 appear to directly affect TAT function based on this approach.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01575-12
PMCID: PMC3497164  PMID: 23006747
3.  Clinically Relevant Gram-Negative Resistance Mechanisms Have No Effect on the Efficacy of MC-1, a Novel Siderophore-Conjugated Monocarbam 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6334-6342.
The incidence of hospital-acquired infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens is increasing at an alarming rate. Equally alarming is the overall lack of efficacious therapeutic options for clinicians, which is due primarily to the acquisition and development of various antibiotic resistance mechanisms that render these drugs ineffective. Among these mechanisms is the reduced permeability of the outer membrane, which prevents many marketed antibiotics from traversing this barrier. To circumvent this, recent drug discovery efforts have focused on conjugating a siderophore moiety to a pharmacologically active compound that has been designed to hijack the bacterial siderophore transport system and trick cells into importing the active drug by recognizing it as a nutritionally beneficial compound. MC-1, a novel siderophore-conjugated β-lactam that promotes its own uptake into bacteria, has exquisite activity against many Gram-negative pathogens. While the inclusion of the siderophore was originally designed to facilitate outer membrane penetration into Gram-negative cells, here we show that this structural moiety also renders other clinically relevant antibiotic resistance mechanisms unable to affect MC-1 efficacy. Resistance frequency determinations and subsequent characterization of first-step resistant mutants identified PiuA, a TonB-dependent outer membrane siderophore receptor, as the primary means of MC-1 entry into Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the MICs of these mutants were increased 32-fold relative to the parental strain in vitro, we show that this resistance phenotype is not relevant in vivo, as alternative siderophore-mediated uptake mechanisms compensated for the loss of PiuA under iron-limiting conditions.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01345-12
PMCID: PMC3497185  PMID: 23027195
4.  Early Insights into the Interactions of Different β-Lactam Antibiotics and β-Lactamase Inhibitors against Soluble Forms of Acinetobacter baumannii PBP1a and Acinetobacter sp. PBP3 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5687-5692.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly problematic pathogen in United States hospitals. Antibiotics that can treat A. baumannii are becoming more limited. Little is known about the contributions of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), the target of β-lactam antibiotics, to β-lactam–sulbactam susceptibility and β-lactam resistance in A. baumannii. Decreased expression of PBPs as well as loss of binding of β-lactams to PBPs was previously shown to promote β-lactam resistance in A. baumannii. Using an in vitro assay with a reporter β-lactam, Bocillin, we determined that the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for PBP1a from A. baumannii and PBP3 from Acinetobacter sp. ranged from 1 to 5 μM for a series of β-lactams. In contrast, PBP3 demonstrated a narrower range of IC50s against β-lactamase inhibitors than PBP1a (ranges, 4 to 5 versus 8 to 144 μM, respectively). A molecular model with ampicillin and sulbactam positioned in the active site of PBP3 reveals that both compounds interact similarly with residues Thr526, Thr528, and Ser390. Accepting that many interactions with cell wall targets are possible with the ampicillin-sulbactam combination, the low IC50s of ampicillin and sulbactam for PBP3 may contribute to understanding why this combination is effective against A. baumannii. Unraveling the contribution of PBPs to β-lactam susceptibility and resistance brings us one step closer to identifying which PBPs are the best targets for novel β-lactams.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01027-12
PMCID: PMC3486531  PMID: 22908165
5.  Molecular Investigations of PenA-mediated β-lactam Resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei 
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis. Because of the bacterium’s intrinsic resistance and propensity to establish latent infections, melioidosis therapy is complicated and prolonged. Newer generation β-lactams, specifically ceftazidime, are used for acute phase therapy, but resistance to this cephalosporin has been observed. The chromosomally encoded penA gene encodes a putative twin arginine translocase (TAT)-secreted β-lactamase, and penA mutations have been implicated in ceftazidime resistance in clinical isolates. However, the role of PenA in resistance has not yet been systematically studied in isogenetic B. pseudomallei mutant backgrounds. We investigated the effects of penA deletion, point mutations, and up-regulation, as well as tat operon deletion and PenA TAT-signal sequence mutations. These experiments were made possible by employing a B. pseudomallei strain that is excluded from Select Agent regulations. Deletion of penA significantly (>4-fold) reduced the susceptibility to six of the nine β-lactams tested and ≥16-fold for ampicillin, amoxicillin, and carbenicillin. Overexpression of penA by single-copy, chromosomal expression of the gene under control of the inducible Ptac promoter, increased resistance levels for all β-lactams tested 2- to 10-fold. Recreation of the C69Y and P167S PenA amino acid substitutions previously observed in resistant clinical isolates increased resistance to ceftazidime by ≥85- and 5- to 8-fold, respectively. Similarly, a S72F substitution resulted in a 4-fold increase in resistance to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Susceptibility assays with PenA TAT-signal sequence and ΔtatABC mutants, as well as Western blot analysis, confirmed that PenA is a TAT secreted enzyme and not periplasmic but associated with the spheroplastic cell fraction. Lastly, we determined that two LysR-family regulators encoded by genes adjacent to penA do not play a role in transcriptional regulation of penA expression.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2011.00139
PMCID: PMC3129521  PMID: 21747814
Burkholderia pseudomallei; melioidosis; antibiotic resistance; β-lactams; β-lactamase; TAT secretion
6.  The Acinetobacter baumannii 19606 OmpA Protein Plays a Role in Biofilm Formation on Abiotic Surfaces and in the Interaction of This Pathogen with Eukaryotic Cells▿  
Infection and Immunity  2009;77(8):3150-3160.
The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to adhere to and persist on surfaces as biofilms could be central to its pathogenicity. The production of pili and a biofilm-associated protein and the expression of antibiotic resistance are needed for robust biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces. This multistep process also depends on the expression of transcriptional regulatory functions, some of which could sense nutrients available to cells. This report extends previous observations by showing that although outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of A. baumannii 19606 plays a partial role in the development of robust biofilms on plastic, it is essential for bacterial attachment to Candida albicans filaments and A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast to abiotic surfaces, the interaction with biotic surfaces is independent of the CsuA/BABCDE-mediated pili. The interaction of A. baumannii 19606 with fungal and epithelial cells also results in their apoptotic death, a response that depends on the direct contact of bacteria with these two types of eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the bacterial adhesion phenotype correlates with the ability of bacteria to invade A549 epithelial cells. Interestingly, the killing activity of cell-free culture supernatants proved to be protease and temperature sensitive, suggesting that its cytotoxic activity is due to secreted proteins, some of which are different from OmpA.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00096-09
PMCID: PMC2715673  PMID: 19470746
7.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa Twitching Motility-Mediated Chemotaxis towards Phospholipids and Fatty Acids: Specificity and Metabolic Requirements▿ ‡  
Journal of Bacteriology  2008;190(11):4038-4049.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrates type IV pilus-mediated directional twitching motility up a gradient of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Only one of four extracellular phospholipases C of P. aeruginosa (i.e., PlcB), while not required for twitching motility per se, is required for twitching-mediated migration up a gradient of PE or phosphatidylcholine. Whether other lipid metabolism genes are associated with this behavior was assessed by analysis of transcription during twitching up a PE gradient in comparison to transcription during twitching in the absence of any externally applied phospholipid. Data support the hypothesis that PE is further degraded and that the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) moieties of PE are completely metabolized via β-oxidation and the glyoxylate shunt. It was discovered that P. aeruginosa exhibits twitching-mediated chemotaxis toward unsaturated LCFAs (e.g., oleic acid), but not saturated LCFAs (e.g., stearic acid) of corresponding lengths. Analysis of mutants that are deficient in glyoxylate shunt enzymes, specifically isocitrate lyase (ΔaceA) and malate synthase (ΔaceB), suggested that the complete metabolism of LCFAs through this pathway was required for the migration of P. aeruginosa up a gradient of PE or unsaturated LCFAs. At this point, our data suggested that this process should be classified as energy taxis. However, further evaluation of the ability of the ΔaceA and ΔaceB mutants to migrate up a gradient of PE or unsaturated LCFAs in the presence of an alternative energy source clearly indicated that metabolism of LCFAs for energy is not required for chemotaxis toward these compounds.
doi:10.1128/JB.00129-08
PMCID: PMC2395028  PMID: 18390654
8.  Klebsiella pneumoniae Multiresistance Plasmid pMET1: Similarity with the Yersinia pestis Plasmid pCRY and Integrative Conjugative Elements 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(3):e1800.
Background
Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes has become an important public health and biodefense threat. Plasmids are important contributors to the rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria.
Principal Findings
The nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistance plasmid pMET1 comprises 41,723 bp and includes Tn1331.2, a transposon that carries the blaTEM-1 gene and a perfect duplication of a 3-kbp region including the aac(6′)-Ib, aadA1, and blaOXA-9 genes. The replication region of pMET1 has been identified. Replication is independent of DNA polymerase I, and the replication region is highly related to that of the cryptic Yersinia pestis 91001 plasmid pCRY. The potential partition region has the general organization known as the parFG locus. The self-transmissible pMET1 plasmid includes a type IV secretion system consisting of proteins that make up the mating pair formation complex (Mpf) and the DNA transfer (Dtr) system. The Mpf is highly related to those in the plasmid pCRY, the mobilizable high-pathogenicity island from E. coli ECOR31 (HPIECOR31), which has been proposed to be an integrative conjugative element (ICE) progenitor of high-pathogenicity islands in other Enterobacteriaceae including Yersinia species, and ICEKp1, an ICE found in a K. pneumoniae strain causing primary liver abscess. The Dtr MobB and MobC proteins are highly related to those of pCRY, but the endonuclease is related to that of plasmid pK245 and has no significant homology with the protein of similar function in pCRY. The region upstream of mobB includes the putative oriT and shares 90% identity with the same region in the HPIECOR31.
Conclusions
The comparative analyses of pMET1 with pCRY, HPIECOR31, and ICEKp1 show a very active rate of genetic exchanges between Enterobacteriaceae including Yersinia species, which represents a high public health and biodefense threat due to transfer of multiple resistance genes to pathogenic Yersinia strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001800
PMCID: PMC2262945  PMID: 18350140
9.  Genetic and Molecular Characterization of a Dental Pathogen Using Genome-Wide Approaches 
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans causes periodontitis, a costly chronic infection that affects a large number of patients. The pathogenesis of this dental infection is a multifactorial process that results in a serious degenerative disease of the periodontium. Although significant progress has been achieved after the identification of this gram-negative bacterium as the etiological agent of this infection, much remains to be done to understand in detail the bacterial factors and host-pathogen interactions involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Classical research approaches have resulted in the identification of important virulence factors and cellular processes, although they have provided a rather narrow picture of some of steps of this complex process. In contrast, a much wider picture could be obtained with the application of tools such as bioinformatics and genomics. These tools will provide global information regarding the differential expression of genes encoding factors and processes that lead to the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, comparative genomics has the potential of helping to understand the emergence and evolution of this human pathogen. This genome-wide approach should provide a more complete picture of the pathogenesis process of this disease, and will facilitate the development of efficient diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures for this disease.
PMCID: PMC1262653  PMID: 15126217
A. actinomycetemcomitans; dental pathogen; genomics; bioinformatics; iron metabolism
10.  Genetic and Functional Analyses of the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans AfeABCD Siderophore-Independent Iron Acquisition System  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(6):3758-3763.
The Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans afeABCD iron transport system, the expression of which is controlled by iron and Fur, was identified in three different isolates. The protein products of this locus are related to bacterial ABC transporters involved in metal transport. Transformation of the Escherichia coli 1017 iron acquisition mutant with a plasmid harboring afeABCD promoted cell growth under iron-chelated conditions. However, insertion disruption of each of the afeABCD coding regions abolished this growth-relieving effect. The replacement of the parental afeA allele with the derivative afeA::EZ::TN drastically reduced the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans cells to grow under iron-chelated conditions.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3758-3763.2005
PMCID: PMC1111845  PMID: 15908408
11.  Cloning and Sequencing of a Genomic Island Found in the Brazilian Purpuric Fever Clone of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup Aegyptius  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(4):1927-1938.
A genomic island was identified in the Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) strain F3031. This island, which was also found in other BPF isolates, could not be detected in non-BPF biogroup aegyptius strains or in nontypeable or typeable H. influenzae strains, with the exception of a region present in the type b Eagan strain. This 34,378-bp island is inserted, in reference to H. influenzae Rd KW20, within a choline transport gene and contains a mosaic structure of Mu-like prophage genes, several hypothetical genes, and genes potentially encoding an Erwinia carotovora carotovoricin Er-like bacteriocin. The product of the tail fiber ORF in the bacteriocin-like region shows a hybrid structure where the C terminus is similar to an H. influenzae phage HP1 tail protein implicating this open reading frame in altering host specificity for a putative bacteriocin. Significant synteny is seen in the entire genomic island with genomic regions from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi CT18, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01, Chromobacterium violaceum, and to a lesser extent Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP. In a previous work, we isolated several BPF-specific DNA fragments through a genome subtraction procedure, and we have found that a majority of these fragments map to this locus. In addition, several subtracted fragments generated from an independent laboratory by using different but related strains also map to this island. These findings underscore the importance of this BPF-specific chromosomal region in explaining some of the genomic differences between highly invasive BPF strains and non-BPF isolates of biogroup aegyptius.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.4.1927-1938.2005
PMCID: PMC1087403  PMID: 15784532
12.  Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii Insertion Derivatives Generated with a Transposome System 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2002;68(12):6353-6360.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a metabolically versatile pathogen that causes severe infections in compromised patients. However, little is known about the genes and factors involved in its basic physiology and virulence properties. Insertion mutagenesis was used to initiate the identification and characterization of some of these factors and genes in the prototype strain 19606. The utilization of the pLOFKm suicide delivery vector, which harbors a suicide mini-Tn10 derivative, proved to be unsuccessful for this purpose. The EZ::TN 〈R6Kγori/KAN-2〉 Tnp transposome system available from Epicentre was then used in conjunction with electroporation to generate isogenic insertional derivatives of A. baumannii 19606. Replica plating showed that 2% of the colonies that grew after electroporation on agar plates without antibiotics also grew in the presence of 40 μg of kanamycin per ml. DNA hybridization proved that all of the kanamycin-resistant derivatives contained the EZ::TN 〈R6Kγori/KAN-2〉 insertion element, which was mapped to different genomic locations. Replica plating on Simmons citrate agar and microtiter plate-plastic tube assays identified growth- and biofilm-defective derivatives, respectively. The location of the insertion in several of these derivatives was determined by self-ligation of NdeI- or EcoRI-digested genomic DNA and electroporation of Escherichia coli TransforMax EC100D (pir+). Sequence analysis of the recovered plasmids showed that some of the A. baumannii 19606 growth-defective derivatives contain insertions within genes encoding activities required for the generation of energy and cell wall components and for the biosynthesis of amino acids and purines. A gene encoding a protein similar to the GacS sensor kinase was interrupted in four derivatives, while another had an insertion in a gene coding for a hypothetical sensor kinase. A. baumannii 19606 derivatives with defective attachment or biofilm phenotypes had insertions within genes that appear to be part of a chaperone-usher transport system described for other bacteria. DNA hybridization experiments showed that the presence of strain 19606 genes encoding regulatory and attachment or biofilm functions is widespread among other A. baumannii clinical isolates.
doi:10.1128/AEM.68.12.6353-6360.2002
PMCID: PMC134429  PMID: 12450860
13.  Non-Traditional Antibacterial Screening Approaches for the Identification of Novel Inhibitors of the Glyoxylate Shunt in Gram-Negative Pathogens 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51732.
Antibacterial compounds that affect bacterial viability have traditionally been identified, confirmed, and characterized in standard laboratory media. The historical success of identifying new antibiotics via this route has justifiably established a traditional means of screening for new antimicrobials. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens has expedited the need for new antibiotics, though many in the industry have questioned the source(s) of these new compounds. As many pharmaceutical companies' chemical libraries have been exhaustively screened via the traditional route, we have concluded that all compounds with any antibacterial potential have been identified. While new compound libraries and platforms are being pursued, it also seems prudent to screen the libraries we currently have in hand using alternative screening approaches. One strategy involves screening under conditions that better reflect the environment pathogens experience during an infection, and identifying in vivo essential targets and pathways that are dispensable for growth in standard laboratory media in vitro. Here we describe a novel screening strategy for identifying compounds that inhibit the glyoxylate shunt in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a pathway that is required for bacterial survival in the pulmonary environment. We demonstrate that these compounds, which were not previously identified using traditional screening approaches, have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when they are tested under in vivo-relevant conditions. We also show that these compounds have potent activity on both enzymes that comprise the glyoxylate shunt, a feature that was supported by computational homology modeling. By dual-targeting both enzymes in this pathway, we would expect to see a reduced propensity for resistance development to these compounds. Taken together, these data suggest that understanding the in vivo environment that bacterial pathogens must tolerate, and adjusting the antibacterial screening paradigm to reflect those conditions, could identify novel antibiotics for the treatment of serious MDR pathogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051732
PMCID: PMC3519852  PMID: 23240059

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