This study was conducted to determine the changes in the insular cortex in alcohol dependent subjects, and to compare the same with controls, the associated clinical findings.
The study group consisted of 30 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) selected randomly from the out patient services of the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. The control group consisted of 30 matched subjects selected randomly from the out patient department and from patients screened for uncomplicated headache. Both groups were examined by a computerized scan (CT), and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE).
Chi square, and ‘t’ test were done after calculating the Evan's ratio. The two groups were compared to assess the cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement. Cognitive functions were tested by MMSE, and the scores were compared. Atrophy was significantly higher in the experimental group; however, it was not significant. Cognitive functioning was found to be significantly impaired in the experimental group.
The study showed that alcohol dependence leads to cortical atrophy which is age independent. The statistically significant disturbance in the MMSE scores along with the frontal and parietal cortical atrophy is also indicative of the insular cortex involvement in the experimental group.
Alcohol dependence leads to cerebral atrophy along with the involvement of the insular cortex.
Alcohol related disorders; Cerebral cortex; Cognition; Computed tomography
Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG8 plays an important role in excretion of cholesterol from liver. Common genetic polymorphisms in ABCG8 gene may genetically predispose an individual to coronary artery disease (CAD) along with response to atorvastatin therapy. Thus, we aimed to examine the role of ABCG8 D19H polymorphism (rs11887534) in susceptibility to CAD and its influence on atorvastatin response.
Methodology: The study included 213 CAD patients and 220 controls. Genotyping of ABCG8 D19H polymorphism was done by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Our results showed that ABCG8 ‘H’ allele was conferring significant risk for CAD in a dominant model (OR = 2.54; p = 0.014). This increased risk for CAD was more pronounced in males (OR = 2.69; p = 0.030). No correlation of ABCG8 genotypes with the risk factors (diabetes, hypertension and smoking) of CAD was observed. On atorvastatin treatment there was a significant decrease in the LDL-C levels (p = 0.021). However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that this decease was not associated with ABCG8 genetic variant (p = 0.845). Observed determinants of variation in interindividual response to atorvastatin therapy were pre-treatment LDL-C (p = 0.024) and TC (p = 0.017).
Conclusion: Although the genetic variant 19H of ABCG8 confers risk for CAD in North Indian population, it is not associated with interindividual response to atorvastatin therapy.
Coronary artery disease; polymorphism; ABCG8; Atorvastatin therapy; PCR-RFLP
Aim: To develop a low-dose controlled-release delivery system for the treatment of periodontal infections. A new sustained release drug system of Poly e-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers containing doxycycline (DOX) was successfully electrospun and evaluated clinically for periodontal diseases. The retentive doxycycline nanofibres were shown to provide a controlled delivery of the drug.
Material and Methods: Nanofibers were prepared with DOX in PCL by electrospinning technique. The drug-coated nanofibres provided sustained effect up to a period of 11 days (264 h) and followed first order release. Forty sites in 7 patients (4 females and 3 males) with chronic periodontitis (5-8mm probing depth) were allocated in 2 experimental treatment groups, Group A-SRP (Scaling and Root Planing)
+ DOX nanofibers and Group B –SRP (Scaling and Root Planing) alone (control group). All these patients were evaluated clinically for probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI).
Results: Both the treatment groups were found to be efficacious in the treatment of periodontal disease as demonstrated by improvement in PD, PI and GI.
Conclusion: Combination of SRP (Scaling and Root Planing) + DOX nanofibers (Group A) resulted in added benefits compared to the control group.
Chronic periodontitis; Doxycycline; Nanofibers; Poly e-caprolactone
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer in men in the United States, which disproportionately affects African American descents. While metastasis is the most common cause of death among PCa patients, no specific markers have been assigned to severity and ethnic biasness of the disease. MicroRNAs represent a promising new class of biomarkers owing to their inherent stability and resilience. In the present study, we investigated potential miRNAs that can be used as biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets and can provide insight into the severity and ethnic biasness of PCa. PCR array was performed in FFPE PCa tissues (5 Caucasian American and 5 African American) and selected differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR, in 40 (15 CA and 25 AA) paired PCa and adjacent normal tissues. Significantly deregulated miRNAs were also analyzed in urine samples to explore their potential as non-invasive biomarker for PCa. Out of 8 miRNAs selected for validation from PCR array data, miR-205 (p<0.0001), mir-214 (p<0.0001), miR-221(p<0.001) and miR-99b (p<0.0001) were significantly downregulated in PCa tissues. ROC curve shows that all four miRNAs successfully discriminated between PCa and adjacent normal tissues. MiR-99b showed significant down regulation (p<0.01) in AA PCa tissues as compared to CA PCa tissues and might be related to the aggressiveness associated with AA population. In urine, miR-205 (p<0.05) and miR-214 (p<0.05) were significantly downregulated in PCa patients and can discriminate PCa patients from healthy individuals with 89% sensitivity and 80% specificity. In conclusion, present study showed that miR-205 and miR-214 are downregulated in PCa and may serve as potential non-invasive molecular biomarker for PCa.
The global burden of dengue continues to worsen, specifically in tropical and subtropical countries, and has evolved as a major public health problem. We investigated the changes in serum proteome in dengue fever (DF) patients from a dengue-endemic area of India to obtain mechanistic insights about the disease pathogenesis, the host immune response, and identification of potential serum protein biomarkers of this infectious disease. In this study, serum samples from DF patients, healthy subjects, and patients with falciparum malaria (an infectious disease control) were investigated by 2D-DIGE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The findings were validated with Western blotting. Functional clustering of the identified proteins was performed using PANTHER and DAVID tools. Compared to the healthy controls, we found significant changes in the expression levels of 48 protein spots corresponding to 18 unique proteins (7 downregulated and 11 upregulated) in DF patients (p<0.05). Among these differentially-expressed proteins, 11 candidates exhibited different trends in dengue fever compared to falciparum malaria. Importantly, our results suggest that dengue virus infection leads to alterations in expression levels of multiple serum proteins involved in diverse and vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, complement cascades, hemostasis, and blood coagulation. For the first time we report here that the serum levels of hemopexin, haptoglobin, serum amyloid P, and kininogen precursor, are altered in DF. This study informs the pathogenesis and host immune response to dengue virus infection, as well as the current search for new diagnostic and molecular drug targets.
Context. Usnea ghattensis G. Awasthi (Usneaceae) endemic fruticose lichen found growing luxuriantly in Northern Western Ghats of India, it also contains Usnic acid as a major chemical and tested against some human pathogenic bacteria. Objective. To explore antimicrobial properties of Usnea ghattensis against some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods. The lichen was extracted in acetone, methanol, and ethanol. In vitro antimicrobial activity was tested initially by Kirby-Bauer technique of disc diffusion method and was confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration using Broth microdilution method according to the NCCLS guidelines. Results. Ethanol extract was most effective against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a zone of inhibition 29.8 ± 0.6 mm and 12.3 ± 0.5 mm diameters at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. Acetone and methanol extract demonstrated almost similar activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the zone of inhibition was 24.6 ± 0.5 and 24.7 ± 0.4 mm. Only methanol extract was showing activity against Streptococcus faecalis with a 13.5 ± 0.8 mm zone. MIC value noted against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis was 6.25 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL, whereas against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MIC calculated was 3.125 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates the relatively higher activity of this lichen against not only gram (+) but significantly also against gram (−) bacteria. This indicates that this lichen might be a rich source of effective antimicrobial agents.
Artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is recommended throughout India as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Due to the presence of several eco-epidemiological zones of malaria and variable drug pressure, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in different regions of India. The objective of this study was to use clinical and molecular methods to monitor the efficacy of AS + SP in three diverse sites.
The study was undertaken in three high endemic sites of central and eastern India. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and followed for 28 days. Molecular genotyping was conducted for merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) to differentiate between re-infection and recrudescence and for the dhfr and dhps genes to monitor antifolate drug resistance.
In all, 149 patients were enrolled at the three sites. The crude cure rates were 95.9%, 100%, and 100% in Ranchi, Keonjhar, and West Garo Hills respectively. PCR-corrected cure rates were 100% at all sites. In dhfr, 27% of isolates had triple mutations, while 46% isolates were double-mutants. The most prevalent mutation was S108N followed by C59R. 164 L mutation was observed in 43/126 (34%) isolates. In dhps, most (76%) of the isolates were wild-type. Only 2.5% (2/80) isolates showed double mutation. dhfr-dhps two locus mutation were observed in 16% (13/80) isolates. Parasite clearance time was not related with antifolate mutations.
AS + SP combination therapy remained effective against falciparum malaria despite common mutations promoting resistance to antifolate drugs. Although the prevalence of double and triple mutations in dhfr was high, the prevalence of dhfr-dhps two locus mutations were low. Even isolates with dhfr triple and dhfr-dhps two locus mutations achieved adequate clinical and parasitological response.
Artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine; Plasmodium falciparum; Dihydrofolate reductase; Dihydropteroate synthetase; Falciparum malaria
Gingival enlargement related to pregnancy is sometimes seen in the oral cavity. Pregnancy is a physiological state that brings full of changes in a woman's life. The metabolism and immunology of the body are modified by progesterone and estrogen as well as other local factors, these sex hormones may modify the oral mucosa and may lead to various periodontal diseases. A case of female patient 23 yrs of age reported during 8th month of pregnancy with a localised gingival enlargement affecting the buccal aspect of left maxillary central incisor upto canine. The hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy may be associated with generalized or localised gingival enlargement and the presence of local factors may accentuate the gingival response. Rarely the enlargement becomes maasive and protrude out extraorally.
Gingival enlargement; periodontal disease; pregnancy
Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is a multifactorial and multistep disease. Apart from female gender and increasing age being the documented non-modifiable risk factor for gallstones the pathobiological mechanisms underlying the phenotypic expression of CGD appear to be rather complex, and one or more variations in genes could play critical roles in the diverse pathways further progressing to cholesterol crystal formation. In the present study we performed genotyping score, Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and Classification and Regression Tree analysis (CART) to identify combinations of alleles among the hormonal, hepatocanalicular transporter and adipogenesis differentiation pathway genes in modifying the risk for CGD.
The present case-control study recruited total of 450 subjects, including 230 CGD patients and 220 controls. We analyzed common ESR1, ESR2, PGR, ADRB3, ADRA2A, ABCG8, SLCO1B1, PPARγ2, and SREBP2 gene polymorphisms to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to CGD risk, using multi-analytical approaches (G-score, MDR, and CART).
Single locus analysis by logistic regression showed association of ESR1 IVS1-397C>T (rs2234693), IVS1-351A>G (rs9340799) PGR ins/del (rs1042838) ADRB3-190 T>C (rs4994) ABCG8 D19H (rs11887534), SLCO1B1 Exon4 C>A (rs11045819) and SREBP2 1784G>C (rs2228314) with CGD risk. However, the MDR and CART analysis revealed ESR1 IVS1-397C>T (rs2234693) ADRB3-190 T>C (rs4994) and ABCG8 D19H (rs11887534) polymorphisms as the best polymorphic signature for discriminating between cases and controls. The overall odds ratio for the applied multi-analytical approaches ranged from 4.33 to 10.05 showing an incremental risk for cholesterol crystal formation. In conclusion, our muti-analytical approach suggests that, ESR1, ADRB3, in addition to ABCG8 genetic variants confer significant risk for cholesterol gallstone disease.
The Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway seen in almost all eukaryotes including the pathogenic species Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This pathway comprises of several novel reactions which include the initial formation of precursor Z from guanosine triphosphate (GTP), catalysed by two enzymes MoaA and MoaC. Although Moco biosynthesis is well understood, the first step is still not clear. In M. tuberculosis H37Rv, three orthologous genes of MoaC have been annotated: moaC1 (Rv3111), moaC2 (Rv0864) and moaC3 (Rv3324c). Rv0864 (MoaC2) is a 17.5 kDa protein and is reported to be down-regulated by ∼3 times in the nutrient starvation model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The crystal structure of Moco-biosynthesis protein MoaC2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2.20 Å resolution, space group P213) has been determined. Based on a comparative analysis of structures of homologous proteins, conserved residues were identified and are implicated in structural and functional roles. Molecular docking studies with probable ligands carried out in order to identify its ligand, suggests that pteridinebenzomonophosphate as the most likely ligand. Sequence based interaction study identified MoaA1 to interact with MoaC2. A homology model of MoaA1 was then complexed with MoaC2 and protein–protein interactions are also discussed.
Nucleolar organizer region (NOR) associated proteins are argyrophilic and visualized by silver stains. AgNOR pleomorphic dots increase in cancer and most researchers have done a common count of single dots. Pleomorphic dots are few and perhaps indicate a more severe prognosis. The present study was aimed at investigating the relative preponderance and diagnostic value of both pleomorphic and single AgNOR dots in cervical carcinogenesis.
Silver nitrate staining was performed in 50 cervical smears each of cytologically diagnosed normal, inflammatory, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma cases registered at C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India.
The accumulated data revealed a positive and significant correlation of cell counts of both pleomorphic (r = 0.94; p < 0.01) and single dots (r = 0.95; p < 0.01) with disease severity. The rate of increase in cell counts of pleomorphic dots (β = 2.61) was 1.1 times higher than the rate of increase in cell counts of single dots (β = 2.29).
This study indicates the diagnostic potential of pleomorphic dots in the process of cervical carcinogenesis. The number of pleomorphic dots also varies significantly in different types of SIL, which may help in discriminating precancerous lesions of the cervix.
single and pleomorphic AgNOR dots; cervical precancer; cancer
Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times.
Dharma; Hindu; morality; vedanta; vedas
In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
Analgesic; antiinflammatory; antipyretic; carrageenan; Costus speciosus
Over the last few decades, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have become main health evils. The health problems of obesity are well-recognized. However, the fact that all obese individuals are not at the same risk of developing a disease is also recognized. The apolipoprotein B (APOB) plays a central role in lipid metabolism. So we compare the association of APOB XbaI gene polymorphism and lipid profile total in obese north Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A total of 132 obese (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m2) and 132 age matched non-obese (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2) subjects were studied after taking detailed clinical profile. Lipid profile in serum/plasma was done using commercial kits. Genetic analysis of APOB XbaI was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Leanth polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
Statistical analysis was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 11.5) software (IBM Corporation). All continuous variables were expressed as mean ± SD and tested by analysis of variance test. Comparisons of categorical variables were assessed using χ2 tests or Fisher's exact test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.
Analysis showed that obese subjects had significantly higher value of the waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), and lipid profile. In APOB XbaI gene polymorphism, we did not find significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies. Moreover, none of the studied metabolic parameters (lipid profile) showed any association with the gene polymorphism.
Study reveals no considerable association of APOB XbaI gene polymorphism with obesity and lipid profile in north Indians.
Body mass index; lipid profile; obesity; polymorphism
Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is usually underreported and frequently not diagnosed. The phenomenon that cleft lip and palate are regularly combined in the same pedigree makes it unique. A meticulous examination of a patient with lip pits may reveal a hidden form of a cleft, for example, submucous. This paper presents a case of VWS in a ten-year-old boy with characteristic orofacial features. Special emphasis has also been given on the need for appropriate genetic counseling.
The metabolism of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde generated during lipid peroxidation, was studied in isolated perfused rat hearts. High performance liquid chromatography separation of radioactive metabolites recovered from [3H]HNE-treated hearts revealed four major peaks. Based on the retention times of synthesized standards, peak I, which accounted for 20% radioactivity administered to the heart, was identified to be due to glutathione conjugates of HNE. Peaks II and III, containing 2 and 37% radioactivity, were assigned to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene (DHN) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid, respectively. Peak IV was due to unmetabolized HNE. The electrospray ionization mass spectrum of peak I revealed two prominent metabolites with m/z values corresponding to [M + H]+ of HNE and DHN conjugates with glutathione. The presence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid in peak III was substantiated using gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectroscopy. When exposed to sorbinil, an inhibitor of aldose reductase, no GS-DHN was recovered in the coronary effluent, and treatment with cyanamide, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, attenuated 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid formation. These results show that the major metabolic transformations of HNE in rat heart involve conjugation with glutathione and oxidation to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid. Further metabolism of the GS-HNE conjugate involves aldose reductase-mediated reduction, a reaction catalyzed in vitro by homogenous cardiac aldose reductase.
There is genetic variability in Terminalia species which is a very tall tree ranging from 5 to 30 meters. Government of India has established a tissue culture laboratory and the callus formation and differentiation tests were conducted at Ranchi, and it was found that this plant can be used for pharmacognosy and fibre.
In pharmacognosy, through tissue culture, anti-oxidative properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia bark was tested against sodium flouride induced oxidative stress in heart. The activities of various antioxidant enzymes, levels of cellular metabolites reduced carbonyl contents were already determined in the cardiac tissue. Tissue culture is a specialised area of production which should be exploited by Ayurvedic researches. Terminalia Arjuna was cultured on nutrient media supplemented with different concentration of phyto-hormones along with auxins and cytokinins implemented with coconut water.
Adenine Sulphate at the rate 25 mg/lt were added for nodal and auxiliary explants, and these nodal explants and shoot tips of T. arjuna were cultured again to have shoot proliferation. This can be used for other herbal plants for exploitation in medicinal and other useful purposes. In Ayurveda it can help in cost reduction and efficacy enhancement.
Culture the new variety of Terminalia species can be developed with the help of tissue culture from Ayurvedic point of view, which can reduce the level of lipid profile, and angiotensin activity should be compared with others.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444) and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach.
An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to investigate the strength of the association.
Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC) while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096–1.481, P = 0.002). Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level.
The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.
Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) generates high concentrations of unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE). These aldehydes are mitogenic to vascular smooth muscle cells and sustain a vascular inflammation. Nevertheless, the processes that mediate and regulate the vascular metabolism of these aldehydes have not been examined. In this communication, we report the identification of the major metabolic pathways and products of [3H]-HNE in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of the radioactivity recovered from these cells revealed that a large (60–65%) proportion of the metabolism was linked to glutathione (GSH). Electrospray mass spectrometry showed that glutathionyl-1,4 dihydroxynonene (GS-DHN) was the major metabolite of HNE in these cells. The formation of GS-DHN appears to be due aldose reductase (AR)-catalyzed reduction of glutathionyl 4-hydroxynonanal (GS-HNE), since inhibitors of AR (tolrestat or sorbinil) prevented GS-DHN formation, and increased the fraction of the glutathione conjugate remaining as GS-HNE. Gas chromatography–chemical ionization mass spectroscopy of the metabolites identified a subsidiary route of HNE metabolism leading to the formation of 4-hydroxynonanoic acid (HNA). Oxidation to HNA accounted for 25–30% of HNE metabolism. The formation of HNA was inhibited by cyanamide, indicating that the acid is derived from an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-catalyzed pathway. The overall rate of HNE metabolism was insensitive to inhibition of AR or ALDH, although inhibition of HNA formation by cyanamide led to a corresponding increase in the fraction of HNE metabolized by the GSH-linked pathway, indicating that ALDH-catalyzed oxidation competes with glutathione conjugation. These metabolic pathways may be the key regulators of the vascular effects of HNE and oxidized LDL.
Lipid peroxidation; 4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal; Glutathione conjugates; Aldose reductase; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Atherosclerosis
The objective of this study was to determine whether the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase mediates diabetes abnormalities in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth. Aldose reductase inhibitors (tolrestat or sorbinil) or antisense aldose reductase mRNA prevented hyperproliferation of cultured rat aortic SMCs induced by high glucose. Cell cycle progression in the presence of high glucose was blocked by tolrestat, which induced a G0-G1 phase growth arrest. In situ, diabetes increased SMC growth and intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured carotid arteries of streptozotocin-treated rats, when examined 7 or 14 days after injury. Treatment with tolrestat (15 mg · kg−1 · day−1) diminished intimal hyperplasia and decreased SMC content of the lesion by 25%. Although tolrestat treatment increased immunoreactivity of the lesion with antibodies raised against protein adducts of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal, no compensatory increase in lesion fibrosis was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of aldose reductase prevents glucose-induced stimulation of SMC growth in culture and in situ. Even though inhibition of aldose reductase increases vascular oxidative stress, this approach may be useful in preventing abnormal SMC growth in vessels of diabetic patients.
Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger), an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS) in experimental animal models.
Materials and Methods:
The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm). Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund's adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models.
The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties.
Arthritis; Costus speciosus; diclofenac sodium; Freund's complete adjuvant; paw volume
Prevention of periodontal disease progression is the primary goal of periodontal therapy. When conventional therapy is found to be inadequate in achieving periodontal health in chronic periodontitis, local antimicrobial agents are used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP), which produces encouraging results. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a low-dose controlled-release delivery system for the treatment of periodontal infections. A new sustained release drug system of poly e-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers containing metronidazole (MET) was successfully electrospun and evaluated clinically for periodontal diseases. The retentive nanofibres were shown to provide a controlled delivery of the drugs.
Materials and Methods:
Nanofibers were prepared with MET in PCL by electrospinning technique. The drug-coated nanofibers provided sustained effect up to a period of 11 days (264 h) and followed first-order release. Forty sites in seven patients (four females and three males) with chronic periodontitis (5–8 mm probing depth) were allocated in two experimental treatment groups: Group A treated with SRP + MET nanofibers and Group B treated with SRP alone (control group). All these patients were evaluated clinically for probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI).
Both the treatment groups were found to be efficacious in the treatment of periodontal disease as demonstrated by improvement in PD, PI, and GI.
Combination of SRP + MET nanofibers (Group A) resulted in added benefits, compared to the control group.
Chronic periodontitis; local drug delivery; metronidazole; nanofibers
This study was conducted to analyze alterations in the human serum proteome as a consequence of infection by malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to obtain mechanistic insights about disease pathogenesis, host immune response, and identification of potential protein markers. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with falciparum malaria (FM) (n = 20), vivax malaria (VM) (n = 17) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 20) were investigated using multiple proteomic techniques and results were validated by employing immunoassay-based approaches. Specificity of the identified malaria related serum markers was evaluated by means of analysis of leptospirosis as a febrile control (FC). Compared to HC, 30 and 31 differentially expressed and statistically significant (p<0.05) serum proteins were identified in FM and VM respectively, and almost half (46.2%) of these proteins were commonly modulated due to both of the plasmodial infections. 13 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in FM compared to VM. Functional pathway analysis involving the identified proteins revealed the modulation of different vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, chemokine and cytokine signaling, complement cascades and blood coagulation in malaria. A panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models. By employing PLS-DA and other classification methods the clinical phenotypic classes (FM, VM, FC and HC) were predicted with over 95% prediction accuracy. Individual performance of three classifier proteins; haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I and retinol-binding protein in diagnosis of malaria was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The discrimination of FM, VM, FC and HC groups on the basis of differentially expressed serum proteins demonstrates the potential of this analytical approach for the detection of malaria as well as other human diseases.
Background & objectives:
Bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy has emerged as one of the option for the treatment of Stroke. Several preclinical studies have shown that the treatment with mononuclear cell (MNCs) can reduce the infarct size and improve the functional outcome. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and clinical outcome of administering bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNCs) intravenously to patients with subacute ischaemic stroke.
In a non-randomized phase-I clinical study, 11 consecutive, eligible and consenting patients, aged 30-70 yr with ischaemic stroke involving anterior circulation within 7 to 30 days of onset of stroke were included. Bone marrow was aspirated from iliac crest and the harvested mononuclear cells were infused into antecubital vein. Outcomes measured for safety included immediate reactions after cell infusion and evidence of tumour formation at one year in whole body PET scan. Patients were followed at week 1, 4-6, 24 and 52 to determine clinical progress using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), MRI, EEG and PET. Feasibility outcomes included target-dose feasibility. Favourable clinical outcome was defined as mRS score of 2 or less or BI score of 75 to 100 at six months after stem cell therapy.
Between September 2006 and April 2007, 11 patients were infused with bone-marrow mononuclear cells (mean 80 million with CD-34+ mean 0.92 million). Protocol was target-dose feasible in 9 patients (82%). FDG-PET scan at 24 and 52 wk in nine patients did not reveal evidence of tumour formation. Seven patients had favourable clinical outcome.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Intravenous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy appears feasible and safe in patients with subacute ischaemic stroke. Further, a randomized controlled trial to examine its efficacy is being conducted.
Autologous therapy; bone marrow; ischaemic stroke; mononuclear cell