Many of the target molecules that reside in blood are also present in oral fluids, albeit at lower concentrations. Oral fluids are, however, relatively easy and safe to collect without the need for specialized equipment and training. Thus, oral fluids provide convenient samples for medical diagnostics. Recent advances in lab-on-a-chip technologies have made minute, fully integrated diagnostic systems practical for an assortment of point-of-care tests. Such systems can perform either immunoassays or molecular diagnostics outside centralized laboratories within time periods ranging from minutes to an hour. The article briefly reviews recent advances in devices for point-of-care testing with a focus on work that has been carried out by the authors as part of a NIH program.
lab-on-a-chip; point-of-care testing; oral-based diagnostics; microfluidics
We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes.
HIV infections; Streptococcus mutans; genotype; saliva; CD8+ T-lymphocytes; HAART
There have been significant advances in techniques for the detection of biomarker signals in the oral cavity (e.g., ELISAs for proteins, PCR for RNA and DNA) as well as the engineering and development of microfluidic approaches to make oral-based point-of-care (POC) methods for the diagnosis for both local and systemic conditions a reality. In this section, we focus on three such approaches, namely, periodontal disease management, early markers for systemic diseases, and salivary markers useful for pharmacogenomic studies. Novel approaches using non-invasive, salivary samples and user-friendly devices offer results that are as sensitive and specific as laboratory-based analyses using blood or urine.
biomarkers; saliva; cardiovascular disease; pharmacogenomics; periodontal diseases; lab-on-a-chip
In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses—gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection.
HIV; AIDS; viral; antiviral; innate immune system
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an alkyl sulfate surfactant derived from an organic alcohol, possesses surfactant properties but also denatures and unfolds both monomeric and subunit proteins. In preliminary experiments, we demonstrated that SDS is a potent inactivator of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at concentrations comparable to those used for the surfactant nonoxynol-9. We hypothesized that SDS might be capable of denaturing the capsid proteins of nonenveloped viruses. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of rabbit, bovine, and human papillomaviruses after brief treatment with dilute solutions of SDS. Effective concentrations were nontoxic to rabbit skin and to split-thickness grafts of human foreskin epithelium. This is the first report of a microbicidal surfactant that will inactivate papillomaviruses. We propose that SDS is now a candidate microbicide for formulation and testing with humans.
Safe and effective vaginal microbicidal compounds are being sought to offer women an independent method for protection against transmission of sexually acquired pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of two formulations of one such compound, C31G, against Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E alone, its host epithelial cell (HEC-1B) alone, and against chlamydiae-infected HEC-1B cells. Preexposure of isolated, purified infectious chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) to C31G, at pHs 7.2 and 5.7, for 1 h at 4 degrees C resulted in reduced infectivity of EB for HEC-1B cells. Examination of the C31G-exposed 35S-EB on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiographs and by Western blotting revealed a C31G concentration-dependent and pH-dependent destabilization of the chlamydial envelope, resulting in the release of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and proteins. Interestingly, when the host human genital columnar epithelial cells were infected with chlamydiae and then exposed to dilute concentrations of C31G which did not alter epithelial cell viability, chlamydial infectivity was also markedly reduced. C31G gained access to the developing chlamydial inclusion causing damage to or destruction of metabolically active reticulate bodies as well as apparent alteration of the inclusion membrane, which resulted in premature escape of chlamydial antigen to the infected epithelial surface. These studies show that the broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial microbicide C31G also has antichlamydial activity.
Streptococcus gordonii M5 expresses a lectin on its surface (SSP-5) which binds to human salivary agglutinin (SAG). This interaction requires sialic acid residues of SAG and divalent cations and may mediate the colonization of oral tissues by this organism. In this report, we show that the binding of SAG to SSP-5 requires calcium and that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein. SAG-mediated aggregation of S. gordonii M5 was inhibited by 1 mM EDTA, and the restoration of aggregation occurred only upon the readdition of calcium. To ascertain the level at which calcium exerts its effects, the calcium-binding properties of SSP-5 were evaluated by using a 45Ca binding assay. In addition, a kinetic analysis of calcium binding was carried out by using fura2, a fluorescent calcium-binding dye. These analyses showed that SSP-5 is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein that binds 1 mol of calcium per mol of protein and has a dissociation constant of 0.45 +/- 0.2 microM. The calcium-binding capacity of SSP-5 was also calculated independently to be 1.0 +/- 0.2 mol of Ca per mol of SSP-5 by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25 equilibrated with 10 microM 45Ca. To localize the calcium binding site of SSP-5, a series of C-terminal deletion mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for calcium-binding activity. Deletion of the 250 C-terminal residues of SSP-5 had little effect on calcium binding. However, deletion of residues 1168 to 1250 resulted in the loss of calcium-binding activity, suggesting that this region is important for calcium binding by SSP-5.
We previously observed that when human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T lymphocytes are added to epithelial cells, they adhere, polarize, and secrete virions unidirectionally onto the epithelium. Epithelial cells subsequently take up virus and become productively infected. We report here that colchicine treatment of T-lymphocyte suspensions induced lymphocyte polarization, redistribution of F-actin into a pseudopod, and secretion of HIV from the pseudopod. Immobilization of T lymphocytes on negatively charged plastic also caused redistribution of F-actin and unidirectional secretion of HIV onto the plastic. As neither colchicine nor adhesion caused an increase in HIV secretion, they apparently act by focusing secretion to the tip of the pseudopod. We speculate that adhesion-induced polar secretion of HIV, from activated mononuclear cells onto epithelia, is a cytoskeleton-mediated process which may be involved in HIV transmission in vivo.
Interspecies binding is important in the colonization of the oral cavity by bacteria. Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this adherence is enhanced by saliva. The salivary and bacterial molecules that mediate this interaction were investigated. Salivary agglutinin, a mucinlike glycoprotein known to mediate the aggregation of many oral streptococci in vitro, was found to mediate the adherence of S. mutans to S. sanguis or A. viscosus. Adherence of S. mutans to saliva- or agglutinin-coated S. sanguis and A. viscosus was inhibited by antibodies to the bacterial agglutinin receptor. Expression of the S. sanguis receptor (SSP-5) gene in Enterococcus faecalis increased adhesion of this organism to saliva- or agglutinin-coated S. sanguis and A. viscosus. This interaction could be inhibited by antibodies to the agglutinin receptor. The results suggest that salivary agglutinin can promote adherence of S. mutans to S. sanguis and A. viscosus through interactions with the agglutinin receptor on S. mutans.
The interaction of a high-molecular-weight salivary glycoprotein (agglutinin) with Streptococcus sanguis M5 leads to the formation of bacterial aggregates. We have previously shown that the SSP-5 surface antigen from S. sanguis M5 binds the salivary agglutinin and therefore may be involved in the aggregation process. Here we report the transformation of a nonaggregating Enterococcus faecalis strain with the SSP-5 gene and show that the protein is expressed on the cell surface and confers an aggregation-positive phenotype. E. faecalis S161 protoplasts were transformed with pAM401 EB-5, a shuttle vector containing the S. sanguis SSP-5 gene, resulting in the isolation of E. faecalis S161EB-5. Crude cell extracts from this transformant and from S. sanguis M5 were analyzed by Western blotting. Extracts from S. sanguis M5 possessed peptides of 190 and 205 kilodaltons that reacted strongly with polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant SSP-5 antigen. E. faecalis S161EB-5 contained only the 190-kilodalton immunoreactive protein, suggesting that the antigen may be processed differently in E. faecalis S161EB-5. The parent strain, E. faecalis S161, did not react with this antibody preparation. Immunogold labeling of intact E. faecalis S161EB-5 and S. sanguis M5 with anti-SSP-5 immunoglobulin G showed that both organisms expressed similar levels of the antigen. Both organisms formed visible aggregates upon incubation with salivary agglutinin. These results suggest that the SSP-5 antigen may mediate both the binding of agglutinin to S. sanguis M5 and the subsequent formation of bacterial aggregates.
Human saliva contains a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (agglutinin) which binds to specific streptococci in a calcium-dependent reaction leading to the formation of bacterial aggregates. We report the cloning of a gene encoding a surface antigen from Streptococcus sanguis M5 and show that the expressed protein inhibits agglutinin-mediated aggregation and specifically binds the salivary agglutinin in a calcium-dependent fashion. Clones isolated from the immunological screening of S. sanguis M5 genomic libraries with polyclonal antibodies against whole cells were assayed for the ability to compete with S. sanguis for agglutinin. One clone, pSSP-5, expressed antigens of 165 and 130 kilodaltons (kDa) possessing this activity. A 3-kilobase-pair (kbp) insert fragment from this clone was used to screen a genomic library in lambda EMBL3 which resulted in the isolation of clone SSP-5A. This clone contained an insert of 17 kb and expressed proteins of 170 to 205 kDa that reacted with the anti-S. sanguis antibodies. Subcloning of a 5.3-kbp EcoRI-BamHI fragment from SSP-5A produced pEB-5, which expressed streptococcal components that were indistinguishable from SSP-5A. The streptococcal antigen was purified by gel permeation and ion exchange chromatography and shown to potently compete with S. sanguis M5 cells for agglutinin. The antigen also bound purified salivary agglutinin in the presence of 1 mM CaCl2. This binding was inhibited by EDTA. Both the SSP-5 antigen and a 205-kDa protein in surface protein extracts from S. sanguis M5 cross-reacted with antibodies directed against antigen B from S. mutans and SpaA from S. sobrinus 6715. These results indicate that a 205-kDa surface protein that is antigenically related to SpaA and antigen B is involved in the binding of salivary agglutinin to S. sanguis M5.
C31G, an equimolar mixture of alkyl dimethyl glycine and alkyl dimethyl amine oxide, was evaluated for antimicrobial and antiadherence properties. The efficacy of C31G, its two components, and several commercial mouth rinses was determined in assays measuring inhibition of glycolysis, inhibition of bacterial adherence, and MICs. Inhibition of glycolysis was determined by using a saliva sediment model, with glycolytic activity expressed as the change in pH relative to that of a control. Adherence studies were undertaken with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 to measure inhibition of adherence to nichrome wires. MICs were determined against selected microorganisms by standard methods. C31G demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties, with activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and Candida albicans, a yeast. C31G inhibited both glycolysis by salivary bacteria and adherence of Streptococcus strains to wire mesh. C31G was more effective in the assays conducted than any commercial formulation tested and was as effective as chlorhexidine. A synergistic effect was demonstrated between the individual components of C31G, and no loss of activity was noted when it was formulated into a mouth rinse vehicle.
Aggregation of bacteria by zinc and lysozyme was studied and compared with aggregation induced by a high-molecular-weight salivary agglutinin. Each ligand was found to exhibit a unique profile of properties when examined by both a microradiochemical centrifugation assay and a turbidimetric assay. Significant differences in rate of aggregation and bacterial species specificity were noted. Zinc- and lysozyme-mediated aggregations were shown to be calcium independent and to proceed rapidly at 0 degree C, in contrast to the salivary agglutinin. Zinc produced large, asymmetric aggregates, saliva produced intermediate-sized aggregates, and lysozyme produced the smallest aggregates. These size differences are consistent with many of the observed reaction properties.
A leukotoxin from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was isolated by a procedure that includes polymyxin B extraction, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The procedure resulted in the recovery of 48% of the toxin with a 99-fold increase in specific activity. The isolated toxin has a molecular mass of 180,000 daltons by gel filtration and 115,000 daltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It retains all the major biological characteristics previously documented for crude leukotoxin preparations, including susceptibility to heat and proteolytic enzymes and neutralization by sera from patients with juvenile periodontitis. The isolated leukotoxin destroys human but not rat or guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes and has no apparent effect on human erythrocytes. The availability of the A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin should facilitate studies on its chemistry and mode of action as well as its role in the pathogenesis of human periodontal disease.
Human and animal sera contain potent inhibitors of saliva-mediated aggregation of oral streptococci. The inhibitors consist of a high-molecular-weight heat-labile factor and a lower-molecular-weight heat-activated factor. The latter appears to be serum albumin. Analyses of purified blood-derived proteins indicated that several high-molecular-weight proteins (fibrinogen, fibronectin, and ferritin) were able to inhibit aggregation at low concentrations. These data suggest that high-molecular-weight proteins may modulate the aggregation process.
To facilitate the study of the effects of carbon catabolite repression and mutations on 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase (EC 188.8.131.52) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a sensitive in situ assay was developed, using cells permeabilized by five cycles of freezing and thawing. Enzymatic activity was measured by colorimetric determination of porphobilinogen with a modified Ehrlich reagent. For normal strains, porphobilinogen production was linear for 15 min, and the reaction rate was directly proportional to the permeabilized cell concentration up to 20 mg (dry weight) per ml. The reaction exhibited Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics, and an apparent Km of 2.6 mM was obtained for 5-aminolevulinic acid. This value is only slightly higher than the value of 1.8 mM obtained for the enzyme assayed in cell extracts. The in situ assay was used to assess catabolite repression-dependent changes in 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase during batch culture on glucose medium. In normal S. cerevisiae cells, the enzyme is strongly repressed as long as glucose is present in the medium. In contrast, a strain bearing the hex2-3 mutation exhibits derepressed levels of enzyme activity during growth on glucose. Synthesis of cytochromes by this strain is also resistant to catabolite repression. Similar studies employing a strain containing the glc1 mutation, which enhances porphyrin accumulation, did not reveal any significant phenotypic change in catabolite regulation of 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase.
A study of saliva-mediated aggregation and adhesion has been carried out in a group of caries-resistant (CR) and caries-susceptible (CS) individuals. The submandibular saliva of the CS group had a much greater potency, as determined by dilution, in promoting adherence to hydroxyapatite beads than did the saliva of CR group. In contrast, the CR group demonstrated a twofold enhancement of saliva-mediated aggregation compared with the CS group. These observations support the hypothesis that saliva-mediated aggregation and adherence are important factors in caries resistance.
Comparison of saliva-mediated aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus mutans and adhesion of these organisms to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite showed that there was no relationship between these two activities. Adsorption of salivary aggregating activity to bacteria appears to have little effect on the ability of the residual saliva to support adherence; conversely, adsorption of salivary adherence factors to hydroxyapatite does not affect aggregation. Although heating saliva significantly reduces bacterial aggregation, it has little or no effect on adherence. A comparison of aggregation and adhesion with serial dilutions of saliva demonstrated that adhesion could still be detected at 100 to 500-fold-lower concentrations of salivary protein that bacterial aggregation. These findings support the concept that aggregation and adherence involve two distinct mechanisms of microbial clearance in the oral cavity.
Using a quantitative assay to measure saliva-mediated bacterial aggregating activity, we have surveyed 20 streptococcal strains with saliva samples obtained from a large population study. Individual saliva samples demonstrated characteristic levels of aggregating activity for Streptococcus sanguis M5. In general, high activity for this strain was associated with high activity for other strains of S. sanguis. Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The population distribution of aggregating activity for Streptococcus mutans, however, was different.
Two new assays for saliva-mediated aggregation of oral bacteria have been developed, based on the use of [3H]thymidine-labeled cells. One assay separates free cells from aggregated cells by centrifugation through sucrose, whereas the other utilizes membrane filters (8 micrometers, Nuclepore) to effect the separation. Comparison of these assays with the turbidity method reveals that they are faster (X20 to 40) and require 10 times less saliva and bacteria. The aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis M5, as determined with these assays, is complete in 5 min and is dose dependent on added cells and saliva. The reaction exhibits a temperature optimum of 42 degrees C with no reaction at 0 degrees C. If the pH is reduced to below 5, saliva-dependent aggregation is inhibited. The salivary factor(s) are heat labile, losing 100% of their activity after 100 degrees C, 10 min or 70 degrees C, 30 min.
Levulinic acid, a competitive inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was used to inhibit cytochrome biosynthesis in growing yeast cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the antimetabolite acts by inhibiting delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in vivo, causing an accumulation of intracellular delta-aminolevulinic acid and simultaneous decreases in all classes of mitochondrial cytochromes. Changes in cellular cytochrome content with increasing levulinic acid concentration suggested the existence of different regulatory patterns in S. cerevisiae and Candida utilis. In C. utilis, cytochrome a.a3 formation is very resistant to the antimetabolite action of levulinic acid. In this aerobic yeast, cytochrome c+c1 is the most sensitive to levulinic acid, and cytochrome b exhibits intermediate sensitivity.