We investigated the signalling pathways by which epidermal growth factor (EGF) modulates paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in SiHa human cervical cancer cells. SiHa cells exposed to paclitaxel underwent apoptosis, which was strongly inhibited by EGF. This inhibition of apoptosis by EGF was not altered by pharmacological blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI-3K) with the PI-3K specific inhibitor LY294002 or blockade of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) with the MEK specific inhibitor PD98059, or by transfection of the cells with PI-3K or MEK dominant-negative expression vectors. EGF did not stimulate PI-3K/Akt, MEK/MAPK, or p38 MAPK activity in SiHa cells but did transiently activate the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Co-exposure of SiHa cells to SB202190 at concentrations that inhibit JNK abolished the protective effect of EGF on SiHa cells against paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the JNK signaling pathway plays an important role in EGF-mediated protection from paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in SiHa cells. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
paclitaxel; apoptosis; EGF; JNK; PI-3K; MAPK
Central airways stenosis (CAS) after lung transplant is a poorly understood complication. Objectives of this study were to determine if CAS was associated with chronic rejection or worse survival after transplant as well as to identify factors associated with CAS in a large cohort of lung transplant recipients. Lung transplant recipients transplanted at a single center were retrospectively reviewed for the development of CAS requiring airway dilation. 467 subjects met inclusion criteria with 60 (13%) of these developing CAS requiring intervention. Of these 60 recipients, 22 (37%) had resolution of CAS with bronchoplasty alone, while 32 (53%) ultimately required stent placement. CAS that required intervention was not a risk factor for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or worse overall survival. Significant risk factors for the subsequent development of CAS in a time-dependant multivariable model were pulmonary fungal infections and the need for post-operative tracheostomy. While CAS was not associated with BOS or worse survival, it remains an important complication after lung transplant with potentially preventable risk factors.
lung transplantation; stenosis; stent; infection
Rifapentine (RPT) is an antituberculosis drug that may shorten treatment duration when substituted for rifampin (RIF). The maximal tolerated daily dose of RPT and its potential for cytochrome 3A4 induction and autoinduction at clinically relevant doses are unknown. In this phase I, dose-escalation study among healthy volunteers, daily doses as high as a prespecified maximum of 20 mg/kg/day were well tolerated. Steady-state RPT concentrations increased with dose from 5 to 15 mg/kg, but area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–24) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were similar in the 15- and 20-mg/kg cohorts. Although RPT pharmacokinetics (PK) appeared to be time-dependent, accumulation occurred with daily dosing. The mean AUC0–12 of oral midazolam (MDZ), a cytochrome 3A (CYP3A) probe drug, was reduced by 93% with the coadministration of RPT and by 74% with the coadministration of RIF (P < 0.01). Changes in the oral clearance of MDZ did not vary by RPT dose. In conclusion, RPT was tolerated at doses as high as 20 mg/kg/day, its PK were less than dose-proportional, and its CYP3A induction was robust.
The outcome of T-cell-mediated responses, immunity or tolerance, critically depends on the balance of cytopathic versus regulatory T (Treg) cells. In the creation of stable tolerance to MHC incompatible allografts, reducing the unusually large mass of donorreactive cytopathic T effector (Teff) cells via apoptosis is often required. Cyclosporine (CsA) blocks activation-induced cell death (AICD) of Teff cells, and is detrimental to tolerance induction by costimulation blockade, whereas Rapamycin (RPM) preserves AICD, and augments the potential of costimulation blockade to create tolerance. While differences between CsA and RPM in influencing apoptosis of activated graft-destructive Teff cells are apparent, their effects on graft-protective Treg cells remain enigmatic. Moreover, it is unclear whether tolerizing regimens foster conversion of naïve peripheral T cells into alloantigen-specific Treg cells for graft protection. Here we show, using reporter mice for Treg marker Foxp3, that RPM promotes de novo conversion of alloantigen-specific Treg cells, whereas CsA completely inhibits this process. Upon transfer, in vivo converted Treg cells potently suppress the rejection of donor but not third party skin grafts. Thus, the differential effects of RPM and CsA on Teff and Treg cells favor the use of RPM in shifting the balance of aggressive to protective type alloimmunity.
Antigen specific; cyclosporine; de novo generation; Foxp3; Rapamycin; regulatory T cells; tolerance
For women with breast cancer who undergo mastectomy, immediate breast reconstruction (IR) offers a cosmetic and psychological advantage. We evaluated the association between demographic, hospital, surgeon and insurance factors and receipt of IR. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based analysis with the Perspective database. Women who underwent a mastectomy for invasive breast cancer (IBC) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from 2000 to 2010 were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors predictive of IR. Analyses were stratified by age (<50 vs. ≥50) and IBC versus DCIS. Of the 108,992 women with IBC who underwent mastectomy, 30,859 (28.3 %) underwent IR, as compared to 6,501 (44.2 %) of the 14,710 women with DCIS who underwent mastectomy underwent IR. In a multivariable model for IBC, increasing age, black race, being married, rural location, and increased comorbidities were associated with decreased IR. Odds ratios (OR) of IR increased with commercial insurance (OR 3.38) and Medicare (OR 1.66) insurance (vs. self-pay), high surgeon-volume (OR 1.19), high hospital-volume (OR 2.24), and large hospital size (OR 1.20). The results were identical for DCIS, and by age category. The absolute difference between the proportion of patients who received IR with commercial insurance compared to other insurance, increased over time. Immediate in-hospital complication rates were higher for flap reconstruction compared to implant or no reconstruction (15.2, 4.0, and 6.1 %, respectively, P <.0001). IR has increased significantly over time; however, modifiable factors such as insurance status, hospital size, hospital location, and physician volume strongly predict IR. Public policy should ensure that access to reconstructive surgery is universally available.
Breast reconstruction; Insurance; Hospital volume
Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are responsible for cancer initiation, relapse, and metastasis. Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is typically classified into proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer. The gradual changes in CRC molecular features within the bowel may have considerable implications in colon and rectal CICs. Unfortunately, limited information is available on CICs derived from rectal cancer, although colon CICs have been described. Here we identified rectal CICs (R-CICs) that possess differentiation potential in tumors derived from patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. The R-CICs carried both CD44 and CD54 surface markers, while R-CICs and their immediate progenies carried potential epithelial–mesenchymal transition characteristics. These R-CICs generated tumors similar to their tumor of origin when injected into immunodeficient mice, differentiated into rectal epithelial cells in vitro, and were capable of self-renewal both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, subpopulations of R-CICs resisted both 5-fluorouracil/calcium folinate/oxaliplatin (FolFox) and cetuximab treatment, which are the most common therapeutic regimens used for patients with advanced or metastatic rectal cancer. Thus, the identification, expansion, and properties of R-CICs provide an ideal cellular model to further investigate tumor progression and determine therapeutic resistance in these patients.
rectal adenocarcinoma; cancer-initiating cells (CICs); chemoresistance; CD44; CD54
Gpr97 is an orphan adhesion GPCR and is highly conserved among species. Up to now, its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Gpr97 deficiency results in an extensive reduction in B220+ lymphocytes in mice. More intensive analyses reveal an expanded marginal zone but a decreased follicular B-cell population in Gpr97−/−spleen, which displays disorganized architecture characterized by diffuse, irregular B-cell areas and the absence of discrete perifollicular marginal and mantle zones. In vivo functional studies reveal that the mutant mice could generate antibody responses to T cell-dependent and independent antigens, albeit enhanced response to the former and weakened response to the latter. By screening for the molecular events involved in the observed phenotypes, we found that lambda 5 expression is downregulated and its upstream inhibitor Aiolos is increased in the spleen of mutant mice, accompanied by significantly enhanced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of cAMP response element-binding protein. Interestingly, increased constitutive Nf-κb p50/p65 expression and activity were observed in Gpr97−/− spleen, implicating a crucial role of Gpr97 in regulating Nf-κb activity. These findings uncover a novel biological function of Gpr97 in regulating B-cell development, implying Gpr97 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of immunological disorders.
Gpr97; knockout mice; B lymphopoiesis; follicular B cells; lambda 5 gene
This study utilized a community-based, participatory research model between the Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration (AFTD) and the Education Core of the Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center. A total of 30 caregivers of persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) participated in 6 focus groups in 3 cities. The majority of participants were spouses of the person with FTD and had been providing care for an average of 6 years. Transcript analysis revealed 7 prominent themes: willingness to participate, when/how the issue of brain donation is raised, who initiates discussion about brain donation, who is involved in decisions about brain donation, motivation for participating in brain donation, lack of effective communication, and barriers to research participation. Caregivers demonstrated a strong desire to participate in research and contribute to advancing knowledge. The lack of effective communication between the clinicians and caregivers was a barrier to developing positive rapport, detrimentally impacting research participation.
frontotemporal dementia; brain donation; caregivers; community-based participatory research
The role of sex hormonal influence in explaining the strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) needs attention.
A nation-wide nested case–control study was initiated from the Swedish Multi-Generation Register with subjects born since 1932. The study exposures were the number of children and age at having the first child. Cases of EA, gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (EJA), and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were identified. Ten age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected for each case. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
In women, 115 EA, 246 EJA, and 363 SCC were identified. Comparing parous with non-parous women, a decreased risk of EA was indicated (OR=0.66, 95% CI 0.38–1.14), which became statistically significant when EA and EJA were combined (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.53–0.99). All these associations were, however, at least as strong in men. Age at first birth did not show significant risk in women, but showed risk in men. In addition, the results were similar for SCC in both sexes.
These findings indicate that associations between the reproductive factors parity and age at first birth, and risk of EA might not be explained by sex hormonal influence.
oesophageal adenocarcinoma; age at first birth; parity; sex hormone
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with negative health outcomes, including infections. Vitamin D modulates inflammation and down-regulates the expression of calprotectin, a molecule which influences neutrophil functions and which has been linked to oral candidiasis (OC), the most prevalent oral lesion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We hypothesized a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and OC, and that this effect was partially modulated by calprotectinemia. Plasma calprotectin and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were measured in stored samples from 84 HIV-seropositive Chicago women enrolled in the Oral Substudy of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). OC and vitamin D deficiency were diagnosed in, respectively, 14 (16.7%) and 46 (54.8%) of those studied. Vitamin D deficiency was positively associated with OC (p = 0.011) and with higher calprotectinemia (p = 0.019) in univariate analysis. After adjustment for CD4, HIV viral load, HIV treatment, and tobacco and heroin/methadone use, vitamin D deficiency remained a significant predictor of OC (OR 5.66; 95% confidence interval 1.01-31.71). This association weakened after adjustment for calprotectinemia, supporting a role for calprotectinemia as a moderator of this effect. These findings support studies to examine the effect of vitamin D status on calprotectinemia, neutrophil functions, and opportunistic mucosal infections in HIV.
innate immunity; women’s health; mucosal immunity; immune suppression; yeast infection; metabolic disease
Intranasal exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as mucosal or parenteral immunization with a recently developed killed pneumococcal whole cell vaccine, confer Th17-mediated protection against subsequent S. pneumoniae colonization in mice. Given our interest in the function of Th17 cells and the ongoing efforts to develop this vaccine for use in infants and children in developing countries, we analyzed Th17 responses to the whole cell antigen (WCA) and individual pneumococcal antigens in healthy individuals and patients with pneumococcal disease and compared responses in children and adults from Sweden and Bangladesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Swedish adults produced IL-17A after stimulation with WCA, with the pneumolysoid PdT and with the protein required for cell separation in group B streptococci (PcsB). IL-22 and IFN-γ responses were also detected, but these cytokines originated from separate CD4+ T cell subsets. PBMCs from Swedish children produced lower levels of IL-17A in response to WCA compared to adults, whereas no such difference was noted from the samples from Bangladesh, where responses by children and adults were both significantly higher than those in Sweden. High IL-17A responses to stimulation with WCA were also observed in children with proven or probable pneumococcal pneumonia. Our results thus demonstrate the presence of Th17-type T cells that are specific for pneumococcus in both children and adults. The different levels of Th17 responses to pneumococci in children and adults in developing and developed countries, which may at least partly be due to differences in exposure to pneumococci, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of candidate pneumococcal protein-based vaccines in human trials.
T cell; IL-17A; Streptococcus pneumoniae; children; developing country
Thrombosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes. Platelet reactivity is crucial to thrombus formation, particularly in arterial vessels and in thrombotic complications causing myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke, but diabetic patients often respond poorly to current antiplatelet medication. In this study, we used a nonhuman primate model of Type 1 diabetes to measure early downstream signalling events following engagement of the major platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein (GP)VI. Diabetic monkeys were given enough insulin to maintain their blood glucose levels either at ~8 mM (well-controlled diabetes) or ~15 mM (poorly controlled diabetes). Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure platelet reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium mobilisation, receptor surface expression, and immature platelet fraction. We observed exacerbated intracellular ROS and calcium flux associated with engagement of GPVI in monkeys with poorly controlled diabetes. GPVI surface levels did not differ between healthy monkeys or the two diabetic groups. Treatment of platelets with the specific Syk inhibitor BAY61-3606 inhibited GPVI-dependent ROS and, importantly, reduced ROS generation in the poorly controlled diabetes group to that observed in healthy monkeys. These data indicate that glycaemic control is important in reducing GPVI-dependent platelet hyperreactivity and point to a potential antithrombotic therapeutic benefit of Syk inhibition in hyperglycaemic diabetes.
The bones and connective tissues of the murine jaws and skull are partly derived from cephalic neural crest cells (CNCCs). Here, we report that mice deficient of protogenin (Prtg) protein, an immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor expressed in the developing nervous system, have impairments of the palatine and skull. Data from lineage tracing experiments, expression patterns of neural crest cell (NCC) marker genes and detection of apoptotic cells indicate that the malformation of bones in Prtg-deficient mice is due to increased apoptosis of rostral CNCCs (R-CNCCs). Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that Prtg interacts with Radil, a protein previously shown to affect the migration and survival of NCCs in zebrafish with unknown mechanism. Overexpression of Prtg induces translocation of Radil from cytoplasm to cell membrane in cultured AD293 cells. In addition, overexpression of Prtg and Radil activates α5β1-integrins to high-affinity conformational forms, which is further enhanced by the addition of Prtg ligand ERdj3 into cultured cells. Blockage of Radil by RNA interference abolishes the effect of ERdj3 and Prtg on the α5β1-integrin, suggesting that Radil acts downstream of Prtg. Prtg-deficient R-CNCCs display fewer activated α5β1-integrins in embryos, and these cells show reduced migratory ability in in vitro transwell assay. These results suggest that the inside-out activation of the α5β1-integrin mediated by ERdj3/Prtg/Radil signaling is crucial for proper functions of R-CNCCs, and the deficiency of this pathway causes premature apoptosis of a subset of R-CNCCs and malformation of craniofacial structures.
Radil; branchial arches; bone formation; integrin
The effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the reproductive system is highly debated but has been associated with meiotic abnormalities. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the mechanisms involved. In order to explore the underlying mechanisms of BPA-induced meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 0, 2, 20 or 200 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. 17β-Estradiol (E2) was administered at 10 μg/kg bw/day as the estrogenic positive control. Treatments with 200 μg/kg bw/day of BPA and E2 significantly decreased sperm counts and inhibited spermiation, characterized by an increase in stage VII and decrease in stage VIII in the seminiferous epithelium. This was concomitant with a disruption in the progression of meiosis I and the persistence of meiotic DNA strand breaks in pachytene spermatocytes,and the ataxia–telangiectasia-mutated and checkpoint kinase 2 signal pathway was also activated; Eventually, germ cell apoptosis was triggered as evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay and western blot for caspase 3. Using the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780, we determined that ER signaling mediated BPA-induced meiotic disruption and reproductive impairment. Our results suggest that ER signaling-mediated meiotic disruption may be a major contributor to the molecular events leading to BPA-related male reproductive disorders. These rodent data support the growing association between BPA exposure and the rapid increase in the incidence of male reproductive disorders.
bisphenol A; meiocyte spreading; meiosis; spermatogenesis; stage of seminiferous epithelium
Prohibitin, which can inhibit oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we investigate the effects of altering prohibitin levels in affected tissues in the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mouse model with intestinal fibrosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of IL-10 on prohibitin and the role of prohibitin in intestinal fibrosis of murine colitis. After the mice were treated with IL-10, prohibitin expression and localization were evaluated in IL-10KO and wild-type (WT, 129/SvEv) mice. The colon tissue was then investigated and the potential pathogenic molecular mechanisms were further studied. Fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays revealed a significant upregulation of prohibitin with IL-10 treatment. Furthermore, IL-10 decreases inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β1 in the IL-10KO model of Crohn's disease and demonstrates a promising trend in decreasing tissue fibrosis. In conclusion, we hypothesize that IL-10 treatment is associated with increased prohibitin and would decrease inflammation and fibrosis in an animal model of Crohn's disease. Interestingly, prohibitin may be a potential target for intestinal fibrosis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated cell signaling is critical for mammary epithelial cell growth and survival; however, targeting EGFR has shown no or only minimal therapeutic benefit in patients with breast cancer. Here, we report a novel regulatory mechanism of EGFR signaling that may explain the low response rates. We found that breast tumor kinase (Brk)/protein-tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase highly expressed in most human breast tumors, interacted with EGFR and sustained ligand-induced EGFR signaling. We demonstrate that Brk inhibits ligand-induced EGFR degradation through uncoupling activated EGFR from Cbl-mediated EGFR ubiquitination. In addition, upon activation by EGFR, Brk directly phosphorylated Y845 in the EGFR kinase domain, thereby further potentiating EGFR kinase activity. Experimental elevation of Brk conferred resistance of breast cancer cells to cetuximab (an EGFR-blocking antibody)-induced inhibition of cell signaling and proliferation, whereas knockdown of Brk sensitized the cells to cetuximab by inducing apoptosis. Our findings reveal a previously unknown role of Brk in EGFR-targeted therapy.
EGFR; Brk; Cbl; Src; breast cancer
Mitochondria are critical targets in the hepatotoxicity of cadmium (Cd). Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics have been increasingly implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of Cd on mitochondrial dynamics during hepatotoxicity. In the L02 liver cell lines, 12 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure induced excessive mitochondrial fragmentation as early as 3 h post-treatment with Cd, which preceded the mitochondrial dysfunction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss and ATP reduction. Concurrent to mitochondrial fragmentation, CdCl2 treatment increased the protein levels of dynamin-related protein (Drp1) and promoted the recruitment of Drp1 into mitochondria. Strikingly, mitochondrial fragmentation also occurred in the liver tissue of rats exposed to CdCl2, accompanied by enhanced recruitment of Drp1 into mitochondria. Moreover, in L02 cells, Drp1 silencing could effectively reverse Cd-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the increased expression and mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1 were tightly related to the disturbance of calcium homeostasis, which could be prevented by both chelating [Ca2+]i and inhibiting [Ca2+]m uptake. Overall, our study indicated that Cd induced Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation by disturbing calcium homeostasis to promote hepatotoxicity. Manipulation of Drp1 may be the potential avenue for developing novel strategies to protect against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.
cadmium; hepatotoxicity; mitochondrial fragmentation; mitochondrial dysfunction; dynamin-related protein (Drp1)
Fat occupies a significant portion of bone cavity however its function is largely unknown. Marrow fat expands during aging and in conditions which affect energy metabolism, indicating that fat in bone is under similar regulatory mechanisms as other fat depots. On the other hand, its location may determine specific functions in the maintenance of the environment for bone remodeling and hematopoiesis. We have demonstrated that marrow fat has a distinctive phenotype, which resembles both, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively). Marrow adipocytes express gene markers of brown adipocytes at levels characteristic for the BAT, including transcription factor Prdm16, and regulators of thermogenesis such as deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and PGC1α. The levels of expression of BAT-specific gene markers are decreased in bone of 24 mo old C57BL/6 and in diabetic yellow agouti Avy/a mice implicating functional changes of marrow fat occurring with aging and diabetes. Administration of antidiabetic TZD rosiglitazone, which sensitizes cells to insulin and increases adipocyte metabolic functions, significantly increased both, BAT (UCP1, PGC1α, Dio2, β3AR, Prdm16, and FoxC2) and WAT (adiponectin and leptin) gene expression in marrow of normoglycemic C57BL/6 mice, but failed to increase the expression of BAT, but not WAT, gene markers in diabetic mice. In conclusion, the metabolic phenotype of marrow fat combines both BAT and WAT characteristics. Decrease in BAT-like characteristics with aging and diabetes may contribute to the negative changes in the marrow environment supporting bone remodeling and hematopoiesis.
bone; marrow fat; brown fat; white fat; adipogenesis; osteoblastogenesis
The aphids Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphidiae) are serious pests on grain crops and usually coexist on late period of wheat growth in China. Bioassays showed that R. padi was more susceptible than S. avenae to pirimicarb that is used for wheat aphid control, and the determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 18.104.22.168) sensitivity showed that the sensitivity of AChE to pirimicarb was significantly higher in R. padi than in S. avenae (Lu and Gao 2009). AChE is the target enzyme of the carbamates, including pirimicarb, hence, to understand the mechanism responsible for the tolerance difference to carbamate insecticides of S. avenae and R. padi, we purified AChE from both aphid species using procainamide affinity column and characterized the AChE. The purification factor and yield from S. avenae (234.7-fold and 92.9%) were far higher than that from R. padi 17.3-fold and 13.9%. The results of substrate and inhibitor specificities of purified enzyme from both S. avenae and R. padi indicated that the purified enzyme was a typical AChE. The crude AChE extract from S. avenae was 5.4-, 4.3- and 8.1-fold less sensitive to inhibition by pirimicarb, methomyl and thiodicarb, respectively, than that from R. padi, whereas for the purified AChE, S. avenae was only 1.6-, 1.3- and 1.7-fold less sensitive to inhibition by pirimicarb, methomyl and thiodicarb, respectively, than R. padi. This suggests that eserine and BW284C51 may bind with other proteins, such as carboxylesterase, in the crude extract to reduce their inhibition against AChE. These results are useful for planning the chemical control of aphids on wheat.
enzyme purification; wheat aphids; acetylcholinesterase sensitivity; inhibitors
The monitoring time interval (MTI) is the expected time in years necessary to identify a change between two measures that exceeds the measurement error. Our purpose was to determine MTI values for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in normal healthy children according to age, sex, and skeletal site.
2014 children were enrolled in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and had DXA scans of the lumbar spine, total hip, non-dominant forearm, and whole body. Measurements were obtained annually for seven visits from 2002 to 2010. Annualized rates of change were calculated by age and sex for all bone regions. A subgroup of 155 children ages 6 to 16 years (85 boys) had duplicate scans for calculation of scan precision. The bone mineral density (BMD) regions of interest included spine, total body less head (TBLH), total hip, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius. Bone mineral content (BMC) was also evaluated for spine and TBLH. Percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and MTI were calculated for each measure as a function of age and sex.
MTI values were substantially less than 1 year for TBLH and spine BMD and BMC for boys ≤ 17 years and girls ≤ 15 years. Hip and 1/3 radius MTIs were generally 1 year in the same group. MTI values as low as 3 months were found during the peak growth years. However, MTI values in late adolescence for all regions were substantially longer and became nonsensical as each region neared the age for peak bone density.
All 4 DXA measurement sites had reasonable (< 1 year) MTI values for boys ≤ 17 years and girls ≤ 15 years. MTI was neither useful nor stable in late adolescence and young adulthood. Alternative criteria to determine scan intervals must be used in this age range.
Clinical/Pediatrics < GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT; Bone densitometry < QUANTITATION; STATISTICAL METHODS
Microalgae are extensively researched as potential feedstocks for biofuel production. Energy-rich compounds in microalgae, such as lipids, require efficient characterization techniques to investigate the metabolic pathways and the environmental factors influencing their accumulation. The model green alga Coccomyxa accumulates significant amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under nitrogen depletion (N-depletion). To monitor the growth of TAGs (lipid) in microalgal cells, a study of microalgal cells (Coccomyxa sp. C169) using both spontaneous Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy were carried out. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy was conducted to analyze the components in the algal cells, while CARS was carried out to monitor the distribution of lipid droplets in the cells. Raman signals of carotenoid are greater in control microalgae compared to N-depleted cells. Raman signals of lipid droplets appear after N-depletion and its distribution can be clearly observed in the CARS microscopy. Both spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and CARS microscopy were found to be suitable analysis tools for microalgae.
(300.6365) Spectroscopy; (300.6230) Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; (300.6450) Spectroscopy, Raman
Coexistence of polarization and resistance-switching characteristics in single compounds has been long inspired scientific and technological interests. Here, we report the non-volatile resistance change in noncentrosymmetric compounds investigated by using defect nanotechnology and contact engineering. Using a noncentrosymmetric material of ZnO as example, we first transformed ZnO into high resistance state. Then ZnO electrical polarization was probed and its domains polarized 180° along the -axis with long-lasting memory effect (>25 hours). Based on our experimental observations, we have developed a vacancy-mediated pseudoferroelectricity model. Our first-principle calculations propose that vacancy defects initiate a spontaneous inverted domains nucleation at grain boundaries, and then they grow in the presence of an electrical field. The propagation of inverted domains follows the scanning tip motion under applied electrical field, leading to the growth of polarized domains over large areas.
Stem cells derived from the dental pulp of extracted human third molars (DPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neural cells when provided with the appropriate conditions. To advance the use of DPSCs for dentin regeneration, it is important to replicate the permissive signals that drive terminal events in odontoblast differentiation during tooth development. Such a strategy is likely to restore a dentin matrix that more resembles the tubular nature of primary dentin. Due to the limitations of culture conditions, the use of ex vivo gene therapy to drive the terminal differentiation of mineralizing cells holds considerable promise. In these studies, we asked whether the forced expression of TWIST1 in DPSCs could alter the potential of these cells to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. Since the partnership between Runx2 and Twist1 proteins is known to control the onset of osteoblast terminal differentiation, we hypothesized that these genes act to control lineage determination of DPSCs. For the first time, our results showed that Twist1 overexpression in DPSCs enhanced the expression of DSPP, a gene that marks odontoblast terminal differentiation. Furthermore, co-transfection assays showed that Twist1 stimulates Dspp promoter activity by antagonizing Runx2 function in 293FT cells. Analysis of our in vitro data, taken together, suggests that lineage specification of DPSCs can be modulated through ex vivo gene modifications.
TWIST1; RUNX2; dental stem cells; gene transfer; odontoblast; tooth development
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), an acidic protein that is essential to the mineralization of bone and dentin, exists as proteolytically processed fragments in the mineralized tissues. In this study, we characterized the tooth and jaw phenotypes in transgenic mice containing no wild-type DMP1, but expressing a mutant DMP1 in which Asp213, a residue at one cleavage site, was replaced by Ala213 (named “Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg” mice). The teeth and mandible of Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice were compared with those of wild-type, Dmp1-knockout (Dmp1-KO), and Dmp1-KO mice expressing the normal Dmp1 transgene. The results showed that D213A-DMP1 was not cleaved in dentin, and the expression of D213A-DMP1 failed to rescue the defects in the dentin, cementum, and alveolar bones in the Dmp1-KO mice. These findings indicate that the proteolytic processing of DMP1 is essential to the formation and mineralization of dentin, cementum, and jaw bones.
dentinogenesis; dentin matrix protein 1; proteolytic processing; alveolar bone; cementum