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1.  Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD) 
Advances in Dental Research  2011;23(1):79-83.
Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD.
PMCID: PMC3144046  PMID: 21441486
Virus; salivary gland; HIV; DILS
2.  Associations between the human MHC and sustained virologic response in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection 
Genes and immunity  2008;9(4):328-333.
The human major histocompatability complex (MHC) genes encode the human leukocyte antigens, which are important in antigen presentation and regulation of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. Response to therapies in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly variable (30–80%) and lower response rates have been reported among African Americans (AA; ~30%) compared to Caucasian Americans (CA; ~50%) infected with genotype-1 viruses. We evaluated whether MHC gene variants were associated with response to therapy and racial differences in AA and CA sustained virologic response (SVR) rates. We genotyped alleles at 8 MHC loci: 3 class I (A, B and C) and 5 class II (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1) loci in 373 individuals (179 AA and 194 CA) with genotype-1 HCV infections, who were treated with peginterferon-α-2a and ribavirin. We observed carriage of A*02 (RR = 1.33(1.08–1.64); P = 0.008), B *58 (RR = 1.84(1.24–2.73); P = 0.002) and DPB1*1701 (RR = 1.57(1.09–2.26); P = 0.015) to be associated with SVR after adjustment for other predictors of response. In analysis of AA and CA subgroups separately, we observed potential, though not statistically significant, differences in these MHC associations. Variation in the immunogenetic background of HCV-infected individuals might account for some observed variation in viral-specific immunity and courses of disease. In this regard, future studies examining broader patient populations are warranted.
PMCID: PMC2696808  PMID: 18418397
human major histocompatability complex; chronic hepatitis C infection; pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy; African Americans; Caucasian Americans
3.  Hepatocellular carcinoma: an emerging problem with hepatitis C. 
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is emerging as a major problem in the United States, primarily due to the development of liver cancer in patients with cirrhosis secondary to the hepatitis C virus. The diagnosis of HCC in patients with underlying cirrhosis can be achieved at an early stage if appropriate diagnostic measures are pursued by primary care physicians and gastroenterologists. African Americans are particularly vulnerable in developing HCC since their response to current therapy for chronic hepatitis C is less than optimal.
PMCID: PMC2608613  PMID: 10992680

Results 1-3 (3)