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1.  Overview of the Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance Program 
Advances in Dental Research  2011;23(1):28-33.
The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, the largest HIV clinical trial organization in the world, and it is funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The alliance’s main objective is to investigate the oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving—in particular, the effects of potent antiretrovirals on the development of oral mucosal lesions and associated fungal and viral pathogens. Furthermore, oral fluids are being explored for their potential monitoring and diagnostic role with respect to HIV disease and coinfections. This article presents an overview of the alliance, its scientific agenda, and an outline of the novel interventional and noninterventional clinical studies ongoing and developing within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group infrastructure in the United States and internationally.
PMCID: PMC3144044  PMID: 21441477
HIV/AIDS; OHARA; infectious diseases; AIDS Clinical Trials Group; oral cavity
2.  Sleep Apnea Symptoms and Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder 
Journal of Dental Research  2013;92(7 Suppl):S70-S77.
The authors tested the hypothesis that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) signs/symptoms are associated with the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), using the OPPERA prospective cohort study of adults aged 18 to 44 years at enrollment (n = 2,604) and the OPPERA case-control study of chronic TMD (n = 1,716). In both the OPPERA cohort and case-control studies, TMD was examiner determined according to established research diagnostic criteria. People were considered to have high likelihood of OSA if they reported a history of sleep apnea or ≥ 2 hallmarks of OSA: loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, witnessed apnea, and hypertension. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence limits (CL) for first-onset TMD. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CL for chronic TMD. In the cohort, 248 individuals developed first-onset TMD during the median 2.8-year follow-up. High likelihood of OSA was associated with greater incidence of first-onset TMD (adjusted HR = 1.73; 95% CL, 1.14, 2.62). In the case-control study, high likelihood of OSA was associated with higher odds of chronic TMD (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CL, 2.03, 6.52). Both studies supported a significant association of OSA symptoms and TMD, with prospective cohort evidence finding that OSA symptoms preceded first-onset TMD.
PMCID: PMC3706181  PMID: 23690360
chronic pain; epidemiology; cohort studies; case-control studies; sleep-disordered breathing; autonomic effect
3.  Spatial attention to thermal pain stimuli in subjects with visual spatial hemi-neglect: Extinction, mislocalization and misidentification of stimulus modality 
Pain  2010;152(3):498-506.
One approach to the study of disordered spatial attention is to carry out tests of extinction, in which stimuli are detected on the left when they are presented on the left alone, but not when both sides are stimulated simultaneously in a dual simultaneous stimulation (DSS) protocol. Extinction has been documented for multiple sensory modalities, but not for thermal pain stimuli, to our knowledge. We now test the hypothesis that subjects with visual spatial neglect (hemi-neglect) will have alterations in thermal pain sensation which are related to abnormal spatial attention. The results demonstrate that thermal pain extinction of hot and cold pain stimuli occurs in a proportion of subjects with hemi-neglect. In the subjects with visual spatial hemi-neglect but without thermal pain extinction, the sensation of the thermal pain stimulus on the affected (left) side was not extinguished but was often localized to the unaffected (right) side, and the submodality of the stimulus (cold or hot) was often misidentified. Ratios indicating the magnitude of extinction, mislocalization and misidentification were significantly larger on the left side of subjects with visual spatial neglect than in healthy controls or in controls with stroke but without hemineglect. The proportion of subjects with thermal pain extinction, mislocalization, or misidentification was significantly higher in subjects with hemi-neglect than those in either control group. These results demonstrate that disordered attention exerts a powerful effect upon the perception of both the location and the quality of thermal pain stimuli.
PMCID: PMC3403741  PMID: 21111534
Neglect; Attention; Human; Thermal pain; Mislocalization; Misidentification
4.  Altered pain and thermal sensation in subjects with isolated parietal and insular cortical lesions 
European journal of pain (London, England)  2009;14(5):535.e1-535.11.
Studies of sensory function following cortical lesions have often included lesions which multiple cortical, white matter, and thalamic structures. We now test the hypothesis that lesions anatomically constrained to particular insular and parietal structures and their subjacent white matter are associated with different patterns of sensory loss. Sensory loss was measured by quantitative sensory testing (QST), and evaluated statistically with respect to normal values.
All seven subjects with insular and/or parietal lesions demonstrated thermal hypoesthesia, although the etiology of the lesions was heterogeneous. Cold and heat hypoalgesia were only found in the subject with the most extensive parietal and insular lesion, which occurred in utero. Cold allodynia occurred clinically and by thresholds in two subjects with isolated ischemic lesions of the posterior insular/ retroinsular cortex, and by thresholds in two subjects with a lesion of parietal cortex with little or no insular involvement. Central pain occurred in the two subjects with clinical allodynia secondary to isolated lesions of the posterior insular/retroinsular cortex, which spared the anterior and posterior parietal cortex. These results suggest that nonpainful cold and heat sensations are jointly mediated by parietal and insular cortical structures so that lesions anywhere in this system may diminish sensitivity. In contrast, thermal pain is more robust requiring larger cortical lesions of these same structures to produce hypoalgesia. In addition, cold allodynia can result from restricted lesions that also produce thermal hypoesthesia, but not from all such lesions.
PMCID: PMC2872197  PMID: 19939715
Central pain; Human insula; mechanical sensation; thermal sensation; quantitative sensory testing
5.  Effect of HAART on Salivary Gland Function in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) 
Oral diseases  2008;15(1):52-60.
To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on salivary gland function in HIV positive women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
Longitudinal cohort study.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 668 HIV positive women from the WIHS cohort with an initial and at least 1 follow-up oral sub-study visit contributed 5358 visits. Salivary gland function was assessed based on a dry mouth questionnaire, whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, salivary gland enlargement or tenderness and lack of saliva on palpation of the major salivary glands.
Main Outcome Measures
Changes in unstimulated and stimulated flow rates at any given visit from that of the immediate prior visit (continuous variables). The development of self-reported dry mouth (present/absent), enlargement or tenderness of salivary glands (present/absent), and absence of secretion on palpation of the salivary glands were binary outcomes (yes/no).
Protease Inhibitor (PI) based HAART was a significant risk factor for developing decreased unstimulated (p=0.01) and stimulated (p=0.0004) salivary flow rates as well as salivary gland enlargement (p=0.006) as compared with non-PI based HAART.
PI-based HAART therapy is a significant risk factor for developing reduced salivary flow rates and salivary gland enlargement in HIV positive patients.
PMCID: PMC2644059  PMID: 19017280
HIV; antiretroviral therapy; HAART; salivary gland function; salivary gland enlargement; PI based HAART
6.  Pennsylvania's early discharge legislation: effect on maternity and infant lengths of stay and hospital charges in Philadelphia. 
Health Services Research  2001;36(6 Pt 1):1073-1083.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal length of stay (LOS) legislation on LOS and hospital charges associated with Philadelphia resident live births from 1994 through 1997. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: This was a descriptive epidemiological study involving secondary data analyses of linked birth record and hospital discharge data pertaining to all Philadelphia resident live births occurring between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1997. STUDY DESIGN: Using these linked data, trends in median and mean maternal and infant LOS and hospital charges were described for three distinct time periods: (1) a "prelegislative" period (January 1, 1994 through June 30, 1995); (2) a one-year period during which LOS legislation was introduced, debated, modified, and eventually passed by Pennsylvania lawmakers (July 1, 1995 through June 30, 1996); and (3) a "post-LOS law" period immediately following enactment of Act 85 mandating minimum LOS for mothers and their newborns (July 1, 1996 through December 31, 1997). LOS variables for both mothers and infants were calculated based on the actual number of hours elapsing between birth and discharge; hospital charges were obtained directly from information available in the Hospital Discharge Survey data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maternal median charges and LOS per delivery for vaginal births rose from 5,270 dollars to 6,333 dollars and from 35 to 47 hours following the enactment of Pennsylvania maternal minimum LOS legislation. Median infant cost and LOS per delivery mirrored these trends. CONCLUSIONS: Pennsylvania LOS legislation had a profound effect on maternal and infant discharge practices in Philadelphia. As much as $20 million may have been added to annual health care costs associated with Philadelphia resident births.
PMCID: PMC1089279  PMID: 11775668
7.  Premedication for intubation in neonates 
PMCID: PMC1721146  PMID: 11012274
8.  Glycolytic enzymes of Candida albicans are nonubiquitous immunogens during candidiasis. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(10):4263-4271.
A cDNA library was made with mRNA from Candida albicans grown under conditions favoring the hyphal form. The library was screened for sequences that encode immunogenic proteins by using pooled sera from five patients with oral candidiasis and five uninfected patients. Most of these patients were human immunodeficiency virus positive. From 40,000 cDNA clones screened, 83 positive clones were identified. Of these, 10 clones were chosen at random for further analysis. None of these 10 cDNAs were derived from a multigene family. The 5' and 3' ends of all 10 clones were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Two cDNAs were separate isolates of a sequence with strong homology to pyruvate kinase genes from other fungi (59 to 73%) and humans (60%). A third cDNA had strong sequence homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis alcohol dehydrogenase genes (68 to 73%). A fourth cDNA was homologous (81%) to an S. cerevisiae protein of unknown function. The functions of the remaining six C. albicans cDNAs are not known. A more detailed analysis of the clones encoding glycolytic enzymes revealed that sera from few patients recognized them as antigens. Therefore, although glycolytic enzymes constitute a group of C. albicans proteins that are immunogenic during oral and esophageal infections, their detection cannot be exploited as an accurate marker of infection.
PMCID: PMC281153  PMID: 8406815
9.  Sexually transmitted diseases and native Americans: trends in reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity, 1984-88. 
Public Health Reports  1989;104(6):566-572.
Native Americans experienced higher reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity than did non-Native Americans from 1984 through 1988 in 13 States with large Native American populations. Gonorrhea rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives were approximately twice the rates for non-Indians. The highest gonorrhea rate was reported among Alaska Natives, with a 5-year average of 1,470 cases per 100,000, more than five times the average non-Native rate in Alaska. The average primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis rate from 1984 through 1988 was more than two times higher among Native Americans, largely due to high syphilis morbidity in Arizona and New Mexico. In Arizona the average American Indian P&S syphilis case rate was seven times higher than the non-Indian rate. True rates for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Native Americans may be higher than those reported due to racial misclassification of Native American cases, particularly in nonreservation areas. Improved recognition and reporting of STD cases among Native Americans are needed to target STD prevention and education more effectively.
PMCID: PMC1580156  PMID: 2511589
10.  Differentiation-associated expression of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 transactivator protein in oral hairy leukoplakia. 
Journal of Virology  1991;65(6):2868-2874.
The BZLF1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a key immediate-early protein which has been shown to disrupt virus latency in EBV-infected B cells. We have generated a monoclonal antibody, BZ1, to BZLF1 which reacts in immunohistology, immunoblotting, and immunoprecipitation and which recognizes both the active, dimeric form and the inactive, monomeric form of the protein. Biopsies of oral hairy leukoplakia, an AIDS-associated lesion characterized by high-level EBV replication, were examined by immunohistochemistry using the BZ1 monoclonal antibody. A differentiation-associated pattern of BZLF1 expression was observed, BZ1 reacting with nuclei of the upper spinous layer of the lesion. This finding suggests that the BZLF1 promoter may be regulated by the degree of squamous differentiation. A comparison of in situ hybridization to EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen staining with BZ1 reactivity suggested that BZLF1 expression precedes rampant virus replication. The inability to detect EBV in the lower epithelial layers of oral hairy leukoplakia raises questions concerning the nature of EBV latency and persistence in stratified squamous epithelium.
PMCID: PMC240913  PMID: 1851858
11.  Diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection in hairy leukoplakia by using nucleic acid hybridization and noninvasive techniques. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1990;28(12):2775-2778.
The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in the epithelial cells of oral hairy leukoplakia is the confirming criterion in the diagnosis of this lesion, which occurs mainly in persons infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Because hairy leukoplakia often presages the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, it is important that suspicious lesions be accurately diagnosed. Commonly, biopsy tissue is removed for detection of EBV DNA by in situ hybridization, but biopsy is contraindicated in some patients. This study evaluated filter and cytospin in situ hybridization, two noninvasive techniques that examine epithelial cells swabbed from the surfaces of the lesions, for their sensitivity in detecting EBV DNA. As compared with tissue in situ hybridization, the filter and cytospin techniques had sensitivities of 100 and 92%, respectively. We conclude that these two noninvasive techniques can provide the clinician with an accurate alternative to biopsy whenever this human immunodeficiency virus-associated lesion is suspected.
PMCID: PMC268272  PMID: 2177752
12.  Molecular analysis of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced reversion of a chromosomally integrated mutant shuttle vector gene in mammalian cells. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1988;8(10):4185-4189.
The molecular mechanisms of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced reversion in mammalian cells were studied by using as a target a gpt gene that was integrated chromosomally as part of a shuttle vector. Murine cells containing mutant gpt genes with single base changes were mutagenized with ethyl methanesulfonate, and revertant colonies were isolated. Ethyl methanesulfonate failed to increase the frequency of revertants for cell lines with mutant gpt genes carrying GC----AT transitions or AT----TA transversions, whereas it increased the frequency 50-fold to greater than 800-fold for cell lines with mutant gpt genes carrying AT----GC transitions and for one cell line with a GC----CG transversion. The gpt genes of 15 independent revertants derived from the ethyl methanesulfonate-revertible cell lines were recovered and sequenced. All revertants derived from cell lines with AT----GC transitions had mutated back to the wild-type gpt sequence via GC----AT transitions at their original sites of mutation. Five of six revertants derived from the cell line carrying a gpt gene with a GC----CG transversion had mutated via GC----AT transition at the site of the original mutation or at the adjacent base in the same triplet; these changes generated non-wild-type DNA sequences that code for non-wild-type amino acids that are apparently compatible with xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. The sixth revertant had mutated via CG----GC transversion back to the wild-type sequence. The results of this study define certain amino acid substitutions in the xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase polypeptide that are compatible with enzyme activity. These results also establish mutagen-induced reversion analysis as a sensitive and specific assay for mutagenesis in mammalian cells.
PMCID: PMC365488  PMID: 3185546
13.  Genetic effects of chromosomal rearrangements in Chinese hamster ovary cells: expression and chromosomal assignment of TK, GALK, ACP1, ADA, and ITPA loci. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1983;3(11):1967-1974.
Polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with mouse Cl1D cells produced interspecific somatic cell hybrids which slowly segregated CHO chromosomes. Cytogenetic and isozyme analysis of HAT- and bromodeoxyuridine-selected hybrid subclones and of members of a hybrid clone panel retaining different combinations of CHO chromosomes enabled provisional assignments of the following enzyme loci to CHO chromosomes: TK, GALK, and ACP1 to chromosome 7; TK and GALK to chromosome Z13; ACP1, ADA, and ITPA to chromosome Z8; and ADA and ITPA to chromosome Z9. These genetic markers reflect the origin of each of these Z group chromosomes and indicate the functional activity of alleles located on rearranged chromosomes. Identification of diploid electrophoretic shift mutations for ADA and ITPA was consistent with those observations. Assignment of the functional TK locus in TK+/- CHO-AT3-2 cells indicated that gene deletion may be responsible for TK hemizygosity in this subline.
PMCID: PMC370064  PMID: 6656761
14.  Delayed androgen treatment prolongs survival in murine lupus. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1979;63(5):902-911.
Female NZB/NZW F1 mice were treated as adults with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone powder packed into subcutaneous implants. Two treatment protocols were followed: (a) 3-mo-old mice received 6 mg of androgen, and (b) 6-mo-old mice were castrated and given 12 mg of androgen. Sham females received empty implants. Mice were followed monthly for surival, for antibodies to DNA and polyadenylic acid, and for renal histopathology. The percent survival at 11 mo was 74% for mice treated at 3 mo, compared to 11% for the sham controls, and 100% for mice treated at 6 mo, compared to 20% for their sham controls. Androgen-treated mice had less immune complex glomerulonephritis as determined by immunofluorescent and electron microscopy. Surprisingly, treated mice had no significant sustained reduction in antibodies to DNA although they had reduced antibodies to polyadenylic acid. These results suggest that androgens can still prolong survival and reduce immune complex deposition even when treatment is delayed to an age when disease is relatively established. After delayed androgen treatment, mice survive despite the presence of high levels of IgG antibodies to DNA.
PMCID: PMC372031  PMID: 447833

Results 1-14 (14)