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1.  Introduction 
doi:10.1177/0022034511398869
PMCID: PMC3144041  PMID: 21441469
2.  Oral examination: a screening tool for HIV infection? 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  1998;74(5):345-348.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the predictive values for HIV infection of diagnosis of oral manifestations of the infection. METHOD: Prevalence of oral manifestations was compared in cross sectional blinded clinical examinations of homosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Data were extrapolated to populations in England and Wales based on estimates of the prevalence of HIV infection. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 572 HIV infected and non-infected men (312 and 260 respectively). Positive predictive values for erythematous candidiasis, hairy leucoplakia and pseudomembranous candidiasis were greater than 0.96 at the genitourinary medicine clinic and are estimated to be greater than 0.72 among homosexual men in London. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical diagnoses of mucosal lesions alone are poor predictors of HIV infection but are useful when used in conjunction with a social history to establish if there are risk factors for infection. 



PMCID: PMC1758150  PMID: 10195030
3.  Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgA1, and IgA2 antibodies to Candida albicans in whole and parotid saliva in human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(3):892-896.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are predisposed to recurrent oral candidiasis, and, although it has been assumed that this is because of deficient mucosal immune responses, this has not been properly established. The present study aimed to compare the concentrations and secretion rates of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA subclass antibodies to Candida albicans in whole and parotid saliva samples from HIV-infected patients, AIDS patients, and control subjects. Levels of IgA antibody to Candida species in whole saliva were higher in the HIV group than in the controls and were highest in the AIDS group (P < 0.05). In parotid saliva, the mean antibody levels were significantly greater in HIV-positive patients than in controls (P < 0.05) but fell to lower levels in the AIDS group. The secretion rates of Candida antibodies in parotid saliva were reduced in AIDS patients compared with HIV patients. The specific activities of the IgA antibodies and both subclasses were significantly higher in the HIV and AIDS patients than in the controls in both whole and parotid saliva (P < 0.05). Antibody levels were significantly correlated with the numbers of Candida organisms isolated from saliva (P < 0.05). These results suggest clear differences in salivary antibody profiles among HIV-infected. AIDS, and control subjects and are indicative of a response to antigenic challenge by infecting Candida species. No obvious defect in the mucosal immune response in the HIV or AIDS groups that might account for the increased prevalence of candidiasis was apparent.
PMCID: PMC186199  PMID: 8112860

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