Colony formation was the first step towards evolution of multicellularity in many macroscopic organisms. Dictyostelid social amoebas have used this strategy for over 600 Myr to form fruiting structures of increasing complexity. To understand in which order multicellular complexity evolved, we measured 24 phenotypic characters over 99 dictyostelid species. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that the last common ancestor (LCA) of Dictyostelia probably erected small fruiting structures directly from aggregates. It secreted cAMP to coordinate fruiting body morphogenesis, and another compound to mediate aggregation. This phenotype persisted up to the LCAs of three of the four major groups of Dictyostelia. The group 4 LCA co-opted cAMP for aggregation and evolved much larger fruiting structures. However, it lost encystation, the survival strategy of solitary amoebas that is retained by many species in groups 1–3. Large structures, phototropism and a migrating intermediate ‘slug’ stage coevolved as evolutionary novelties within most groups. Overall, dictyostelids show considerable plasticity in the size and shape of multicellular structures, both within and between species. This probably reflects constraints placed by colonial life on developmental control mechanisms, which, depending on local cell density, need to direct from 10 to a million cells into forming a functional fructification.
evolution of multicellularity; morphogenetic signalling; phylogenomics; phototropism; encystation; sporulation
Root canal therapy is common practice in dentistry. During this procedure, the inflamed or necrotic dental pulp is removed and replaced with a synthetic material. However, recent research provides evidence that engineering of dental pulp and dentin is possible by using biologically driven approaches. As tissue engineering strategies hold the promise to soon supersede conventional root canal treatment, there is a need for customized scaffolds for stem cell delivery or recruitment. We hypothesize that the incorporation of dental pulp-derived stem cells with bioactive factors into such a scaffold can promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. In this study, we used a cell adhesive, enzyme-cleavable hydrogel made from self-assembling peptide nanofibers to encapsulate dental pulp stem cells. The growth factors (GFs) fibroblast growth factor basic, transforming growth factor β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were incorporated into the hydrogel via heparin binding. Release profiles were established, and the influence of GFs on cell morphology and proliferation was assessed to confirm their bioactivity after binding and subsequent release. Cell morphology and spreading in three-dimensional cultures were visualized by using cell tracker and histologic stains. Subcutaneous transplantation of the hydrogel within dentin cylinders into immunocompromised mice led to the formation of a vascularized soft connective tissue similar to dental pulp. These data support the use of this novel biomaterial as a highly promising candidate for future treatment concepts in regenerative endodontics.
Stem cells derived from the dental pulp of extracted human third molars (DPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neural cells when provided with the appropriate conditions. To advance the use of DPSCs for dentin regeneration, it is important to replicate the permissive signals that drive terminal events in odontoblast differentiation during tooth development. Such a strategy is likely to restore a dentin matrix that more resembles the tubular nature of primary dentin. Due to the limitations of culture conditions, the use of ex vivo gene therapy to drive the terminal differentiation of mineralizing cells holds considerable promise. In these studies, we asked whether the forced expression of TWIST1 in DPSCs could alter the potential of these cells to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. Since the partnership between Runx2 and Twist1 proteins is known to control the onset of osteoblast terminal differentiation, we hypothesized that these genes act to control lineage determination of DPSCs. For the first time, our results showed that Twist1 overexpression in DPSCs enhanced the expression of DSPP, a gene that marks odontoblast terminal differentiation. Furthermore, co-transfection assays showed that Twist1 stimulates Dspp promoter activity by antagonizing Runx2 function in 293FT cells. Analysis of our in vitro data, taken together, suggests that lineage specification of DPSCs can be modulated through ex vivo gene modifications.
TWIST1; RUNX2; dental stem cells; gene transfer; odontoblast; tooth development
Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned.
Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns.
A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.
Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome (ARS) patients with PITX2 point mutations exhibit a wide range of clinical features including mild craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies. Identifying new PITX2 targets and transcriptional mechanisms are important to understand the molecular basis of these anomalies. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate PITX2 binding to the FoxJ1 promoter and PITX2C transgenic mouse fibroblasts and PITX2-transfected cells have increased endogenous FoxJ1 expression. FoxJ1 is expressed at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in early tooth germs, then down-regulated from E15.5–E17.5 and re-expressed in the inner enamel epithelium, oral epithelium, tongue epithelium, sub-mandibular salivary gland and hair follicles during E18.5 and neonate day 1. FoxJ1 and Pitx2 exhibit overlapping expression patterns in the dental and oral epithelium. PITX2 activates the FoxJ1 promoter and, Lef-1 and β-catenin interact with PITX2 to synergistically regulate the FoxJ1 promoter. FoxJ1 physically interacts with the PITX2 homeodomain to synergistically regulate FoxJ1, providing a positive feedback mechanism for FoxJ1 expression. Furthermore, FoxJ1, PITX2, Lef-1 and β-catenin act in concert to activate the FoxJ1 promoter. The PITX2 T68P ARS mutant protein physically interacts with FoxJ1; however, it cannot activate the FoxJ1 promoter. These data indicate a mechanism for the activity of the ARS mutant proteins in specific cell types and provides a basis for craniofacial/ tooth anomalies observed in these patients. These data reveal novel transcriptional mechanisms of FoxJ1 and demonstrate a new role of FoxJ1 in oro-facial morphogenesis.
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) are airborne concentrations of chemicals that have been evaluated for three levels of emergency response. These are a nuisance level, and level that would affect egress from an exposure or a level that is near, but below a life threatening concentration. The ERPG is a volunteer committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association that is comprised of industrial hygienists and toxicologists. This paper describes the history of emergency response guidelines and process of the evaluation.
ERPG; AEGL; emergency response
Two decades of research showing that increasing plant diversity results in greater community productivity has been predicated on greater functional diversity allowing access to more of the total available resources. Thus, understanding phenotypic attributes that allow species to partition resources is fundamentally important to explaining diversity-productivity relationships.
Here we use data from a long-term experiment (Cedar Creek, MN) and compare the extent to which productivity is explained by seven types of community metrics of functional variation: 1) species richness, 2) variation in 10 individual traits, 3) functional group richness, 4) a distance-based measure of functional diversity, 5) a hierarchical multivariate clustering method, 6) a nonmetric multidimensional scaling approach, and 7) a phylogenetic diversity measure, summing phylogenetic branch lengths connecting community members together and may be a surrogate for ecological differences. Although most of these diversity measures provided significant explanations of variation in productivity, the presence of a nitrogen fixer and phylogenetic diversity were the two best explanatory variables. Further, a statistical model that included the presence of a nitrogen fixer, seed weight and phylogenetic diversity was a better explanation of community productivity than other models.
Evolutionary relationships among species appear to explain patterns of grassland productivity. Further, these results reveal that functional differences among species involve a complex suite of traits and that perhaps phylogenetic relationships provide a better measure of the diversity among species that contributes to productivity than individual or small groups of traits.
The mammalian target of rapamycin protein (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved kinase that regulates protein synthesis, cell cycle progression and proliferation in response to various environmental cues. As a critical downstream mediator of PI3K signaling, mTOR is important for lymphocyte development and function of mature T and B-cells. Most studies of mTOR in immune responses have relied on the use of pharmacological inhibitors, such as rapamycin. Rapamycin-FKBP12 complex exerts its immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative effect by binding outside the kinase domain of mTOR, and subsequently inhibiting downstream mTOR signaling.
To determine the requirement for mTOR kinase activity in the immune system function, we generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation (D2338) in the catalytic domain of mTOR. While homozygous mTOR kd/kd embryos died before embryonic day 6.5, heterozygous mTOR+/kd mice appeared entirely normal and are fertile. mTOR +/kd mice exhibited normal T and B cell development and unaltered proliferative responses of splenocytes to IL-2 and TCR/CD28. In addition, heterozygousity for the mTOR kinase-dead allele did not sensitize T cells to rapamycin in a CD3-mediated proliferation assay. Unexpectedly, mTOR kinase activity towards its substrate 4E-BP1 was not decreased in hearts and livers from heterozygous animals.
Altogether, our findings indicate that mTOR kinase activity is indispensable for the early development of mouse embryos. Moreover, a single wild type mTOR allele is sufficient to maintain normal postnatal growth and lymphocyte development and proliferation.
Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands.
Changes in the fibrinolytic system that occur after cardiac transplantation (CTx) and the factors which influence such changes are poorly described, yet may be ultimately important in determining the varying morphologic features of transplant related coronary artery disease (Tx CAD). Baselines demographic, as well as serial clinical information and plasma fibrinolytic levels were prospectively recorded preCTx and multiple times postCTx in 110 de novo cardiac transplant recipients. We noted a biphasic change in fibrinolytic activity over the first year of CTx with an early immediate decline in PAI-1 activity (p > 0.001) matched with stable PAP (plasmin) activity corresponding to an “enhanced” fibrinolytic state early post CTx followed by a significant increase at 6 months (p = 0.004) and 1 year (p < 0.001) in PAI-1 activity concomitant with a significant decline in PAP after 3 months (p = 0.005 at 3 months, p < 0.001 at 6 months, and p < 0.001 at 1 year) corresponding to an “impaired” fibrinolytic state late post CTx. This biphasic nature of the fibrinolytic system could account for the varying morphologic features of Tx CAD.
Cardiac Transplantation; Chronic Rejection; Fibrinolysis; Clinical Transplantation; Allograft Coronary Disease
The social amoebas (Dictyostelia) display conditional multicellularity in a wide variety of forms. Despite widespread interest in Dictyostelium discoideum as a model system, almost no molecular data exist from the rest of the group. We have constructed the first molecular phylogeny of the Dictyostelia with parallel small subunit ribosomal RNA and α-tubulin datasets, and we found that dictyostelid taxonomy requires complete revision. A mapping of characters onto the phylogeny shows that the dominant trend in dictyostelid evolution is increased size and cell-type specialization of fruiting structures, with some complex morphologies evolving several times independently. Thus, the latter may be controlled by only a few genes, making their underlying mechanisms relatively easy to unravel.
Evaluating the component features of 'scaling' planktonic size spectra, commonly observed in marine ecosystems, is crucial for understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes from which they emerge. Here, we develop a theoretical framework that describes such spectra in terms of the size distributions of individual species, and test it against actual datasets of microbial size spectra from the Atlantic Ocean. We describe characteristics of size probability distributions of component species that are sufficient to support the observational evidence and infer that, when a power law describes the community size spectrum (thus suggesting critical self-organization of microbial ecosystem structure and function), a related power law links the total number of individuals of a given species to its mean size.
Prolonged expression of a ras oncogene in primary cells accelerates the natural process of senescence. This ras-induced permanent growth arrest is bypassed in cells expressing the simian virus 40 large T antigen. Previously we showed that two regions of T antigen, a region consisting of the N-terminal 147 amino acids and a region consisting of amino acids 251 to 708 (T251-708), independently overcome ras-induced senescence. Coexpression of either T-antigen fragment and Ras results in the appearance of dense foci of transformed cells. Using a series of mutants that produce shorter T-antigen fragments, we show that the C-terminal limit of the N-terminal T-antigen fragment that cooperates with Ras lies between amino acids 83 and 121. The N-terminal limit of the C-terminal T-antigen fragment lies between amino acids 252 and 271. In addition, we present evidence that cooperation between the N-terminal fragment and Ras depends upon an intact T-antigen J domain and the ability of the T antigen to bind and inactivate the growth-suppressive effect of the tumor suppressor Rb. Introduction of specific amino acid substitutions surrounding residue 400 into T251-708 prevented the fragment from cooperating with Ras. T251-708 proteins with these same substitutions inhibited the transcriptional transactivating potential of p53 as effectively as did the wild-type protein. Thus, at least one activity contained within T251-708, other than inactivating p53 as a transcriptional transactivator, is likely to be required to bypass Ras-induced senescence.
Simian virus 40 large-T antigen transactivates the ribosomal genes which are transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol I), as well as genes that are dependent on either pol II or pol III. This report identifies regions and activities of T antigen that are required to transactivate a pol I-dependent rat ribosomal gene promoter. By using the rat ribosomal gene (rDNA) promoter linked to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, we show that at least three separable T-antigen regions are necessary to achieve wild-type levels of transactivation of rDNA in transiently transfected monkey cells. One activity depends on the region of T antigen shared with small-t antigen (T/t common region). A second activity maps to amino acids 109 to 626 and is highly sensitive to mutational inactivation. Complementation analyses suggest that at least one activity in this region is independent of and must be in cis with the activity within the T/t common region. In addition, a functional nuclear localization signal is required for maximal T-antigen-mediated transactivation of rat rDNA. The three activities work in concert to override cellular species-specific controls and transactivate the rat ribosomal gene promoter. Finally, we provide evidence that although the tumor suppressor protein Rb has been shown to repress a pol I-dependent promoter, transactivation of the rat rDNA promoter does not depend on T antigen’s ability to bind the tumor suppressor product Rb.
Interleukin (IL)-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects in inflammation. IL-1 binding to its receptor triggers a cascade of signaling events, including activation of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, as well as transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). IL-1 signaling results in cellular responses through induction of inflammatory gene products such as IL-6. One of the earliest events in IL-1 signaling is the rapid interaction of IL-1 receptor–associated kinases, IRAK and IRAK-2, with the receptor complex. The relative roles of IRAK and IRAK-2 in IL-1 signaling pathways and subsequent cellular responses have not been previously determined. To evaluate the importance of IRAK in IL-1 signaling, IRAK-deficient mouse fibroblast cells were prepared and studied. Here we report that IL-1–mediated activation of JNK, p38, and NF-κB were all reduced in embryonic fibroblasts deficient in IRAK expression. In addition, IL-6 production in response to IL-1 was also dramatically reduced in IRAK-deficient embryonic fibroblasts and in skin fibroblasts prepared from IRAK-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that IRAK plays an essential proximal role in coordinating multiple IL-1 signaling pathways for optimal induction of cellular responses.
IRAK; IL-1; JNK; p38; NF-κB
The simian virus 40 large T antigen immortalizes growing primary cells in culture. In addition, this viral oncoprotein cooperates with an activated ras protein to produce dense foci on monolayers of rat embryo fibroblasts (REF). The relationship between independent immortalization and cooperative transformation with ras has not been defined. Previously, two regions of T antigen were shown to contain immortalization activities. An N-terminal fragment consisting of amino acids 1 to 147 immortalizes rodent cells (L. Sompayrac and K. J. Danna, Virology 181:412-415, 1991). Loss-of-function analysis indicated that immortalization depended on integrity of the T-antigen segments containing amino acids 351 to 450 and 533 to 626 (T. D. Kierstead and M. J. Tevethia, J. Virol. 67:1817-1829, 1993). The experiments described here were directed toward determining whether these same T-antigen regions were sufficient for cooperation with ras. Initially, constructs that produce T antigens containing amino acids 176 to 708 (T176-708) or 1 to 147 were tested in a ras cooperation assay. Both polypeptides cooperated with ras to produce dense foci on monolayers of primary REF. These results showed that T antigen contains two separate ras cooperation activities. In order to determine the N-terminal limit of the ras cooperation activity contained within the T176-708 polypeptide, a series of constructs designed to produce fusion proteins containing T-antigen segments beginning at residues 251, 301, 337, 351, 371, 401, 451, 501, 551, 601, and 651 was generated. Each of these constructs was tested for the capacity to cooperate with ras to produce dense foci on REF monolayers. The results indicated that a polypeptide containing T-antigen amino acids 251 to 708 (T251-708) was sufficient to cooperate with ras, whereas the more extensively truncated products were not. The abilities of the N-terminally truncated T antigens to bind p53 were examined in p53-deficient cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a phenotypically wild-type mouse p53. The results showed that polypeptides containing T-antigen amino acids 251 to 708, 301 to 708, 337 to 708, or 351 to 708 retained p53-binding capacity. The introduction into the T251-708 polypeptide of deletions that either prevented p53 binding (dl434-444) or did not prevent p53 binding (dl400) abrogated ras cooperation. These results indicated that although p53 binding may be necessary for ras cooperation, an additional, as-yet-undefined activity contained within the T251-708 polypeptide is needed.
Height at the onset of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 200 newly diagnosed children, 187 non-diabetic siblings, and 169 parents. Diabetic children 5-9 years of age at diagnosis were consistently taller than the national average. Non-diabetic siblings of the same age were also tall. Diabetic children aged 14 or over at diagnosis were short, while their siblings and parents were of normal height. Diabetic children positive for islet cell antibodies were taller than those without islet cell antibodies. No association between height and HLA antigens was found. Non-diabetic siblings at high risk for the disease were closer in height to the diabetic children than were the lower risk, non-diabetic siblings. Siblings, particularly those under 10, were also significantly more obese than the general population. Deviations in growth in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus appear to be related to age at diagnosis and a factor(s) not related to parental height.
Nerve conduction tests were performed on the right ulnar nerve of factory workers exposed to elemental mercury vapour. Time integrated urine mercury indices were used to measure the degree of exposure. Workers with prolonged distal latencies had significantly higher urine mercury concentrations when compared with those with normal latencies. Significant correlations between increasing urine mercury concentrations and prolonged motor and sensory distal latencies were established. Elemental mercury can affect both motor and sensory peripheral nerve conduction and the degree of involvement may be related to time-integrated urine mercury concentrations.
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
comparative ecology; database; environmental gradient; functional diversity; global analysis; global change; interspecific variation; intraspecific variation; plant attribute; plant functional type; plant trait; vegetation model