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1.  Isolation of milligram quantities of a group of histidine-rich polypeptides from human parotid saliva. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;44(3):688-694.
Freshly collected parotid saliva collected from human donors were shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to continuously secrete a group of low-molecular-weight cationic polypeptides. Up to 14 bands could be identified by Coomassie blue staining, and all bands migrated more rapidly than purified human leukemic lysozyme in cationic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These peptides could be isolated as a group relatively free of other salivary components and recovered in high yields from concentrated parotid saliva by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. In sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, the histidine-rich polypeptide bands appeared as just two bands migrating at the tracking dye and ahead of insulin chain B. Amino acid analysis of the mixture revealed an average content of at least 48% cationic residues, of which half were histidine. When stained bands were eluted from electrophoretic gels, hydrolyzed, and subjected to amino acid analyses, they were found to be enriched in histidine. There was also a correlation of the electrophoretic mobility with the content of basic amino acids. Sephadex G-25 chromatography is a convenient, simple method for preparing milligram quantities of the histidine-rich polypeptides for chemical and biochemical studies.
PMCID: PMC263670  PMID: 6724692
2.  Scientific Frontiers 
Advances in Dental Research  2011;23(4):360-368.
Saliva, a biofluid historically well-studied biochemically and physiologically, has entered the post-genomic ‘omics’ era, where its proteomic, genomic, and microbiome constituents have been comprehensively deciphered. The translational path of these salivary constituents has begun toward a variety of personalized individual medical applications, including early detection of cancer. Salivary diagnostics is a late-comer, but it is catching up where dedicated resources, like the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB), now have taken center stage in the dissemination of the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers and other translational and clinical utilities.
PMCID: PMC3172997  PMID: 21917746
salivary biochemistry and physiology; proteome; biomarkers; early detection; genomics; microbiome
3.  Human Parathyroid Hormone Is Secreted Primarily into the Bloodstream After Rat Parotid Gland Gene Transfer 
Human Gene Therapy  2010;22(1):84-92.
Hypoparathyroidism is a hormone deficiency syndrome that leads to low blood calcium levels and for which current replacement therapy is inadequate. Gene transfer to salivary glands leads to safe and abundant secretion of therapeutic protein into either saliva or the bloodstream. We previously reported the successful transduction of rat submandibular glands with an adenoviral vector encoding human parathyroid hormone (Ad.hPTH), but unfortunately most of the hPTH was secreted into saliva. Because submandibular and parotid glands are morphologically and functionally different, we hypothesized that hPTH sorting might be different in parotid glands. After 2 days, the pattern of hPTH secretion from transduced parotid glands of intact rats was reversed from that of transduced submandibular glands, that is, most transgenic hPTH was detected in serum (5 × 1010 viral particles per gland; the saliva-to-serum ratio of total hPTH secreted was 0.04). Vector copies were localized to the targeted parotid glands, with none detected in liver or spleen. Ad.hPTH next was administered to parotid glands of parathyroidectomized rats. Two days after delivery no hPTH was detectable in saliva, but high levels were found in serum, leading to normalization of serum calcium and a significant increase in the urinary phosphorus-to-creatinine ratio. This study demonstrates for the first time differential sorting of transgenic hPTH between submandibular and parotid glands, suggesting that hPTH may be a valuable model protein for understanding the molecular basis of transgenic secretory protein sorting in these exocrine glands. We also show the clinical potential of salivary gland hPTH gene therapy for patients with hypoparathyroidism.
Physiologically sufficient levels of calcium in the blood are important for a range of vital functions and hypocalcemia can lead to seizures, tetany, or heart failure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is central to maintaining adequate blood calcium concentration. In this study, Adriaansen et al. demonstrate that delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human PTH to the parotid gland of hypocalcemic rats leads to a normalization of serum calcium levels.
PMCID: PMC3025188  PMID: 20977345
4.  Experience with experimental biological treatment and local gene therapy in Sjögren's syndrome: implications for exocrine pathogenesis and treatment 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2006;65(11):1406-1413.
Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, mainly affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands, and resulting in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown, and only palliative treatment is currently available. Data obtained from experimental animal and human studies using biological agents or gene therapeutics can offer insight into the disease process of Sjögren's syndrome. This article reviews the current literature on these approaches and assesses the lessons learnt about the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1798364  PMID: 16880196
5.  Distinct recognition of antibodies to centromere proteins in primary Sjögren's syndrome compared with limited scleroderma 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2006;65(8):1028-1032.
Anticentromere antibodies are characteristically observed in scleroderma but have recently been reported in other autoimmune rheumatic disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome. It is not known whether distinct centromere proteins (CENP) are targeted in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and scleroderma.
To determine whether antibodies to CENP‐B and CENP‐C are present in these two disorders.
Sera from 45 patients with pSS and 33 with limited scleroderma were studied. All patients met classification criteria for pSS and scleroderma, respectively. Sera were used to immunoprecipitate in vitro translated CENP‐B and CENP‐C. The proportions recognising CENP‐B or CENP‐C were compared.
10 of 45 patients (22%) with pSS and 18 of 33 (55%) with scleroderma had antibodies recognising CENPs (p = 0.004). Seven of 10 (70%) CENP positive patients with pSS recognised CENP‐C alone, compared with one of 18 (6%) CENP positive patients with scleroderma (odds ratio (OR) = 40 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.5 to 450) (p = 0.003). In contrast, the majority (15 of 18 (83%)) of CENP positive scleroderma sera recognised both CENP‐B and CENP‐C, compared with none of 10 pSS sera (OR = 93 (95% CI, 4.4 to 1979) (p = 0.0001).
The pattern of CENP recognition differs markedly in pSS and limited scleroderma. While patients with pSS predominantly recognise CENP‐C alone, dual recognition of CENP‐B and CENP‐C is most frequent in scleroderma. These findings suggest that obtaining antibodies to specific centromere antigens is useful diagnostically, and imply that distinct mechanisms underlie the unique patterns of centromere autoreactivity in pSS and scleroderma.
PMCID: PMC1798261  PMID: 16414973
anticentromere antibody; Sjögren's syndrome; scleroderma; immunoprecipitation
6.  Effect of human vasoactive intestinal peptide gene transfer in a murine model of Sjögren's syndrome 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2005;65(2):195-200.
Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy mainly affecting lachrymal and salivary glands, results in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown; currently, only palliative treatment is available.
To determine whether gene transfer of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), based on its immunomodulatory properties, might be useful in the management of SS.
A recombinant serotype 2 adeno‐associated virus encoding the human VIP transgene (rAAV2hVIP) was constructed and its efficacy tested in the female non‐obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for SS after retrograde instillation in submandibular glands (SMGs). 1010 particles/gland of rAAV2hVIP or rAAV2LacZ (encoding β‐galactosidase; control vector) were administered at 8 weeks of age (before sialadenitis onset). Salivary flow rates were determined before vector delivery and at time of death (16 weeks). After death, saliva, serum, and SMGs were harvested. Salivary output, inflammatory infiltrates (focus scores), VIP protein expression, cytokine profile, and serum anti‐VIP antibodies were analysed.
rAAV2hVIP significantly improved the salivary flow, increased SMG and serum expression of VIP, and reduced SMG cytokines interleukin (IL) 2, IL10, IL12 (p70), and tumour necrosis factor α, and serum RANTES, compared with the control vector. No difference in focus scores or apoptotic rates was found; neutralising antibodies were not detected.
Local delivery of rAAV2hVIP can have disease modifying and immunosuppressive effects in SMGs of the NOD mouse model of SS. The new strategy of employing VIP prophylactically may be useful for both understanding and managing the salivary component of SS.
PMCID: PMC1798026  PMID: 15975969
vasoactive intestinal peptide; Sjögren's syndrome; gene transfer; adeno‐associated virus; autoimmune disease
7.  Differential Sorting of Human Parathyroid Hormone After Transduction of Mouse and Rat Salivary Glands 
Human Gene Therapy  2008;19(10):1021-1028.
Gene transfer to salivary glands leads to abundant secretion of transgenic protein into either saliva or the bloodstream. This indicates significant clinical potential, depending on the route of sorting. The aim of this study was to probe the sorting characteristics of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) in two animal models for salivary gland gene transfer. PTH is a key hormone regulating calcium levels in the blood. A recombinant serotype 5 adenoviral vector carrying the hPTH cDNA was administered to the submandibular glands of mice and rats. Two days after delivery, high levels of hPTH were found in the serum of mice, leading to elevated serum calcium levels. Only low amounts of hPTH were found in the saliva. Two days after vector infusion into rats, a massive secretion of hPTH was measured in saliva, with little secretion into serum. Confocal microscopy showed hPTH in the glands, localized basolaterally in mice and apically in rats. Submandibular gland transduction was effective and the produced hPTH was biologically active in vivo. Whereas hPTH sorted toward the basolateral side in mice, in rats hPTH was secreted mainly at the apical side. These results indicate that the interaction between hPTH and the cell sorting machinery is different between mouse and rat salivary glands. Detailed studies in these two species should result in a better understanding of cellular control of transgenic secretory protein sorting in this tissue.
PMCID: PMC2705888  PMID: 18694295
8.  99mTc-pertechnetate uptake in parotid acinar cells by the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport system. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1987;79(5):1310-1313.
99mTc-Pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) has widespread clinical use in the diagnosis and evaluation of dysfunctions in many different tissues. However, despite the broad clinical application of this radionuclide, very little is known about the mechanism by which 99mTcO4- enters a cell. We report evidence here that 99mTcO4- shares the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport system localized to the basolateral membrane of rat parotid acinar cells. 99mTcO4- uptake by these cells was quite rapid (t1/2 approximately 30 s), was completely inhibited by the loop diuretics furosemide and bumetanide, and was markedly dependent on the presence of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the extracellular medium. Relative to uptake measured in the presence of physiological extracellular salt concentrations (Hanks' salts), 99mTcO4- uptake was inhibited 80% by sodium replacement and 50% by potassium replacement. When Cl- was replaced with the physiologically inert anion gluconate a threefold stimulation in 99mTcO4- uptake resulted. These observations provide strong evidence that 99mTcO4- can substitute for Cl- as a substrate for the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter and indicate that 99mTcO4- uptake by salivary glands (e.g., as seen with salivary scintiscans), and possibly by a variety of other tissues, reflects the functional activity of this co-transport mechanism.
PMCID: PMC424370  PMID: 3033020
9.  Specific and nonspecific immune factors in dental plaque fluid and saliva from young and old populations. 
Infection and Immunity  1981;31(3):998-1002.
Separate samples of supragingival dental plaque overtly free of blood were centrifuged to obtain the free fluid phase (plaque fluid). Bound protein was eluted from the plaque bacteria and matrix by washing the plaque with a low-pH buffer. The plaque fluid, low pH eluate, and whole saliva were assayed for immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the third component of complement, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase. Concentrations of total protein and albumin were also determined. Antibody reactive with specific plaque bacteria was detected by indirect immunofluorescent microscopy. Specific and nonspecific immune proteins were present in plaque fluid from adult subjects at significantly greater concentrations than in their saliva, which suggests that these proteins are concentrated in dental plaque. The results indicate that both saliva and gingival exudate contribute to the immunological proteins found in the free fluid phase of dental plaque. The observation that immunoglobulin A antibody reactive with plaque bacteria could be detected in plaque fluid suggests that a wide variety of immunological reactions may occur in the dental plaque. These potential interactions between host, plaque bacteria, and their products could serve to influence the plaque flora and its ability to induce disease.
PMCID: PMC351417  PMID: 7228411

Results 1-9 (9)