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1.  Tooth-surface-specific Effects of Xylitol 
Journal of Dental Research  2013;92(6):512-517.
The Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial was a three-year, double-blind, multi-center, randomized clinical trial that evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol vs. placebo lozenges in the prevention of dental caries in caries-active adults. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to investigate whether xylitol lozenges had a differential effect on cumulative caries increments on different tooth surfaces. Participants (ages 21-80 yrs) with at least one follow-up visit (n = 620) were examined at baseline, 12, 24, and 33 months. Negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for xylitol’s differential effect on cumulative caries increments on root and coronal surfaces and, among coronal surfaces, on smooth (buccal and lingual), occlusal, and proximal surfaces. Participants in the xylitol arm developed 40% fewer root caries lesions (0.23 D2FS/year) than those in the placebo arm (0.38 D2FS/year; IRR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.44, 0.81]; p < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between xylitol and control participants in the incidence of smooth-surface caries (p = .100), occlusal-surface caries (p = .408), or proximal-surface caries (p = .159). Among these caries-active adults, xylitol appears to have a caries-preventive effect on root surfaces (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00393055).
doi:10.1177/0022034513487211
PMCID: PMC3654758  PMID: 23589387
dental caries prevention; clinical trials; root caries; caries data analysis; sugar substitutes
2.  Organo-Selenium-containing Dental Sealant Inhibits Bacterial Biofilm 
Journal of Dental Research  2013;92(5):461-466.
Oral bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius, contribute to tooth decay and plaque formation; therefore, it is essential to develop strategies to prevent dental caries and plaque formation. We recently showed that organo-selenium compounds covalently attached to different biomaterials inhibited bacterial biofilms. Our current study investigates the efficacy of an organo-selenium dental sealant (SeLECT-DefenseTM sealant) in inhibiting S. mutans and S. salivarius biofilm formation in vitro. The organo-selenium was synthesized and covalently attached to dental sealant material via standard polymer chemistry. By colony-forming unit (CFU) assay and confocal microscopy, SeLECT-DefenseTM sealant was found to completely inhibit the development of S. mutans and S. salivarius biofilms. To assess the durability of the anti-biofilm effect, we soaked the SeLECT-DefenseTM sealant in PBS for 2 mos at 37°C and found that the biofilm-inhibitory effect was not diminished after soaking. To determine if organo-selenium inhibits bacterial growth under the sealant, we placed SeLECT-Defense sealant over a lawn of S. mutans. In contrast to a control sealant, SeLECT-DefenseTM sealant completely inhibited the growth of S. mutans. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of SeLECT-DefenseTM sealant against S. mutans and S. salivarius biofilms is very effective and durable.
doi:10.1177/0022034513482141
PMCID: PMC3627506  PMID: 23475900
organo-selenium; dental plaque; dental caries; dental sealant; SeLECT-Defense™; selenium-compounds
3.  Global Oral Health Inequalities 
Advances in Dental Research  2011;23(2):211-220.
The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science.
doi:10.1177/0022034511402016
PMCID: PMC3144035  PMID: 21490233
Dental caries; health inequalities; health disparities; implementation research; translational research

Results 1-3 (3)