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Advances in Cognitive Psychology (1)
BMC Neuroscience (1)
The Journal of Neuroscience (1)
Schuck, Nicolas W. (2)
Burgess, Neil (1)
Cohen, Jonathan D. (1)
Eppinger, Ben (1)
Frensch, Peter A. (1)
Gaschler, Robert (1)
Nystrom, Leigh E. (1)
Schuck, Nicolas W (1)
Year of Publication
Reduced Striatal Responses to Reward Prediction Errors in Older Compared with Younger Adults
Nystrom, Leigh E.
Cohen, Jonathan D.
The Journal of Neuroscience
We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological mechanisms of learning, we applied a combination of computational modeling and fMRI. Behavioral results showed age-related impairments in learning from reward but not in learning from monetary losses. Consistent with these results, we observed age-related reductions in BOLD activity during learning from reward in the ventromedial PFC. Furthermore, the model-based fMRI analysis revealed a reduced responsivity of the ventral striatum to reward prediction errors during learning in older than younger adults. This age-related reduction in striatal sensitivity to reward prediction errors may result from a decline in phasic dopaminergic learning signals in the elderly.
Implicit learning of what comes when and where within a sequence: The time-course of acquiring serial position-item and item-item associations to represent serial order
Frensch, Peter A.
Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Much research has been conducted aimed at the representations and mechanisms that enable learning of sequential structures. A central debate concerns the question whether item-item associations (i.e., in the sequence A-B-C-D, B comes after A) or associations of item and serial list position (i.e., B is the second item in the list) are used to represent serial order. Previously, we showed that in a variant of the implicit serial reaction time task, the sequence representation contains associations between serial position and item information (Schuck, Gaschler, Keisler, & Frensch, 2011). Here, we applied models and research methods from working memory research to implicit serial learning to replicate and extend our findings. The experiment involved three sessions of sequence learning. Results support the view that participants acquire knowledge about order structure (item-item associations) and about ordinal structure (serial position-item associations). Analyses suggest that only the simultaneous use of the two types of knowledge acquisition can explain learning-related performance increases. Additionally, our results indicate that serial list position information plays a role very early in learning and that inter-item associations increasingly control behavior in later stages.
implicit sequence learning; serial order; SRT; chaining; race model
Oscillatory interference in parietal cortex: a mechanism to represent order in working memory
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