Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. Both methylarginines are substrates of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2). It was the aim of the present study to simultaneously investigate the functional relevance and relative contributions of common AGXT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to plasma and urinary concentrations of methylarginines as well as β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB), a prototypic substrate of AGXT2. In a cohort of 400 healthy volunteers ADMA, SDMA and BAIB concentrations were determined in plasma and urine using HPLC-MS/MS and were related to the coding AGXT2 SNPs rs37369 (p.Val140Ile) and rs16899974 (p.Val498Leu). Volunteers heterozygous or homozygous for the AGXT2 SNP rs37369 had higher SDMA plasma concentrations by 5% and 20% (p = 0.002) as well as higher BAIB concentrations by 54% and 146%, respectively, in plasma and 237% and 1661%, respectively, in urine (both p<0.001). ADMA concentrations were not affected by both SNPs. A haplotype analysis revealed that the second investigated AGXT2 SNP rs16899974, which was not significantly linked to the other AGXT2 SNP, further aggravates the effect of rs37369 with respect to BAIB concentrations in plasma and urine. To investigate the impact of the amino acid exchange p.Val140Ile, we established human embryonic kidney cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant (p.Val140Ile) AGXT2 protein and assessed enzyme activity using BAIB and stable-isotope labeled [2H6]-SDMA as substrate. In vitro, the amino acid exchange of the mutant protein resulted in a significantly lower enzyme activity compared to wild-type AGXT2 (p<0.05). In silico modeling of the SNPs indicated reduced enzyme stability and substrate binding. In conclusion, SNPs of AGXT2 affect plasma as well as urinary BAIB and SDMA concentrations linking methylarginine metabolism to the common genetic trait of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitously distributed pathogen that causes severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and newborn infants infected in utero. The viral envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is an attractive molecule for active vaccination and passive immunoprophylaxis and therapy. Using human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we have recently identified antigenic region 4 (AD-4) on gB as an important target for neutralizing antibodies. AD-4 is formed by a discontinuous sequence comprising amino acids 121 to 132 and 344 to 438 of gB of HCMV strain AD169. To map epitopes for human antibodies on this protein domain, we used a three-dimensional (3D) model of HCMV gB to identify surface-exposed amino acids on AD-4 and selected juxtaposed residues for alanine scans. A tyrosine (Y) at position 364 and a lysine (K) at position 379 (the YK epitope), which are immediate neighbors on the AD-4 surface, were found to be essential for binding of the human MAbs. Recognition of AD-4 by sera from HCMV-infected individuals also was largely dependent on these two residues, indicating a general importance for the antibody response against AD-4. A panel of AD-4 recombinant viruses harboring mutations at the crucial antibody binding sites was generated. The viruses showed significantly reduced susceptibility to neutralization by AD-4-specific MAbs or polyclonal AD-4-specific antibodies, indicating that the YK epitope is dominant for the AD-4-specific neutralizing antibody response during infection. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular identification of a functional discontinuous epitope on HCMV gB. Induction of antibodies specific for this epitope may be a desirable goal following vaccination with gB.
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins.
human cytomegalovirus; protein kinase pUL97; cyclins T1, B1 and A; protein-protein interaction; substrate phosphorylation; interaction-mediated regulation
Amyloid- (A) oligomers play a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease due to their neurotoxic aggregation properties. Fibrillar A oligomerization can lead to protofilaments and protofilament pairs via oligomer elongation and oligomer association, respectively. Small fibrillar oligomers adopt the protofilament topology, whereas fibrils contain at least protofilament pairs. To date, the underlying growth mechanism from oligomers to the mature fibril still remains to be elucidated. Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent on single layer-like protofilaments and fibril-like protofilament pairs of different size ranging from the tetramer to the 48-mer. We found that the initial U-shaped topology per monomer is maintained over time in all oligomers. The observed deviations of protofilaments from the starting structure increase significantly with size due to the twisting of the in-register parallel -sheets. This twist causes long protofilaments to be unstable and leads to a breakage. Protofilament pairs, which are stabilized by a hydrophobic interface, exhibit more fibril-like properties such as the overall structure and the twist angle. Thus, they can act as stable conformational templates for further fibril growth. Key properties like the twist angle, shape complementarity, and energetics show a size-dependent behavior so that small oligomers favor the protofilament topology, whereas large oligomers favor the protofilament pair topology. The region for this conformational transition is at the size of approximately twelve A monomers. From that, we propose the following growth mechanism from A oligomers to fibrils: (1) elongation of short protofilaments; (2) breakage of large protofilaments; (3) formation of short protofilament pairs; and (4) elongation of protofilament pairs.
The Rosetta Molecular Modeling suite is a command-line-only collection of applications that enable high-resolution modeling and design of proteins and other molecules. Although extremely useful, Rosetta can be difficult to learn for scientists with little computational or programming experience. To that end, we have created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for Rosetta, called the PyRosetta Toolkit, for creating and running protocols in Rosetta for common molecular modeling and protein design tasks and for analyzing the results of Rosetta calculations. The program is highly extensible so that developers can add new protocols and analysis tools to the PyRosetta Toolkit GUI.
Intrinsically disordered regions in eukaryotic proteomes contain key signaling and regulatory modules and mediate interactions with many proteins. Many viral proteomes encode disordered proteins and modulate host factors through the use of short linear motifs (SLiMs) embedded within disordered regions. However, the degree of viral protein disorder across different viruses is not well understood, so we set out to establish the constraints acting on viruses, in terms of their use of disordered protein regions. We surveyed predicted disorder across 2,278 available viral genomes in 41 families, and correlated the extent of disorder with genome size and other factors. Protein disorder varies strikingly between viral families (from 2.9% to 23.1% of residues), and also within families. However, this substantial variation did not follow the established trend among their hosts, with increasing disorder seen across eubacterial, archaebacterial, protists, and multicellular eukaryotes. For example, among large mammalian viruses, poxviruses and herpesviruses showed markedly differing disorder (5.6% and 17.9%, respectively). Viral families with smaller genome sizes have more disorder within each of five main viral types (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA+, dsRNA, retroviruses), except for negative single-stranded RNA viruses, where disorder increased with genome size. However, surveying over all viruses, which compares tiny and enormous viruses over a much bigger range of genome sizes, there is no strong association of genome size with protein disorder. We conclude that there is extensive variation in the disorder content of viral proteomes. While a proportion of this may relate to base composition, to extent of gene overlap, and to genome size within viral types, there remain important additional family and virus-specific effects. Differing disorder strategies are likely to impact on how different viruses modulate host factors, and on how rapidly viruses can evolve novel instances of SLiMs subverting host functions, such as innate and acquired immunity.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with devastating effects. Currently, therapeutic options are limited to symptomatic treatment. For more than a decade, research focused on immunotherapy for the causal treatment of AD. However, clinical trials with active immunization using Aβ encountered severe complications, for example meningoencephalitis. Consequently, attention focused on passive immunization using antibodies. As an alternative to large immunoglobulins (IgGs), Aβ binding single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) were used for diagnostic and therapeutic research approaches. scFvs can be expressed in E. coli and may provide improved pharmacokinetic properties like increased blood-brain barrier permeability or reduced side-effects in vivo. In this study, we constructed an scFv from an Aβ binding IgG, designated IC16, which binds the N-terminal region of Aβ (Aβ(1-8)). scFv-IC16 was expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized with respect to its interaction with different Aβ species and its influence on Aβ fibril formation. We were able to show that scFv-IC16 strongly influenced the aggregation behavior of Aβ and could be applied as an Aβ detection probe for plaque staining in the brains of transgenic AD model mice. The results indicate potential for therapy and diagnosis of AD.
The molecular events responsible for obstruction of aqueous humor outflow and the loss of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma, one of the main causes of blindness worldwide, remain poorly understood. We identified a synonymous variant, c.765C>T (Thr255Thr), in ankyrin repeats and suppressor of cytokine signaling box-containing protein 10 (ASB10) in a large family with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) mapping to the GLC1F locus. This variant affects an exon splice enhancer site and alters mRNA splicing in lymphoblasts of affected family members. Systematic sequence analysis in two POAG patient groups (195 US and 977 German) and their respective controls (85 and 376) lead to the identification of 26 amino acid changes in 70 patients (70 of 1172; 6.0%) compared with 9 in 13 controls (13 of 461; 2.8%; P = 0.008). Molecular modeling suggests that these missense variants change ASB10 net charge or destabilize ankyrin repeats. ASB10 mRNA and protein were found to be strongly expressed in trabecular meshwork, retinal ganglion cells and ciliary body. Silencing of ASB10 transcripts in perfused anterior segment organ culture reduced outflow facility by ∼50% compared with control-infected anterior segments (P = 0.02). In conclusion, genetic and molecular analyses provide evidence for ASB10 as a glaucoma-causing gene.
A strategy for antiviral drug discovery is the elucidation and imitation of viral interference mechanisms. HIV-1 patients benefit from a coinfection with GB Virus C (GBV-C), since HIV-positive individuals with long-term GBV-C viraemia show better survival rates than HIV-1 patients without persisting GBV-C. A direct influence of GBV-C on HIV-1 replication has been shown in coinfection experiments. GBV-C is a human non-pathogenic member of the flaviviridae family that can replicate in T and B cells. Therefore, GBV-C shares partly the same ecological niche with HIV-1. In earlier work we have demonstrated that recombinant glycoprotein E2 of GBV-C and peptides derived from the E2 N-terminus interfere with HIV entry. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism. Performing a virus-cell fusion assay and temperature-arrested HIV-infection kinetics, we provide evidence that the HIV-inhibitory E2 peptides interfere with late HIV-1 entry steps after the engagement of gp120 with CD4 receptor and coreceptor. Binding and competition experiments revealed that the N-terminal E2 peptides bind to the disulfide loop region of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41. In conjunction with computational analyses, we identified sequence similarities between the N-termini of GBV-C E2 and the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. This similarity appears to enable the GBV-C E2 N-terminus to interact with the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop, a crucial domain involved in the gp120-gp41 interface. Furthermore, the results of the present study provide initial proof of concept that peptides targeted to the gp41 disulfide loop are able to inhibit HIV fusion and should inspire the development of this new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.
Nucleotides are involved in several cellular processes, ranging from the transmission of genetic information, to energy transfer and storage. Both sequence and structure based methods have been developed to predict the location of nucleotide-binding sites in proteins. Here we propose a novel methodology that leverages the observation that nucleotide-binding sites have a modular structure. Nucleotides are composed of identifiable fragments, i.e. the phosphate, the nucleobase and the carbohydrate moieties. These fragments are bound by specific structural motifs that recur in proteins of different fold. Moreover these motifs behave as modules and are found in different combinations across fold space. Our method predicts binding sites for each nucleotide fragment by comparing a query protein with a database of templates extracted from proteins of known structure. Whenever a similarity is found the fragment bound by the template is transferred on the query protein, thus identifying a putative binding site. Predictions falling inside the surface of the protein are discarded, and the remaining ones are scored using clustering and conservation. The method is able to rank as first a correct prediction in the 48%, 48% and 68% of the analyzed proteins for the nucleobase, carbohydrate and phosphate respectively, while considering the first five predictions the performances change to 71%, 65% and 86% respectively. Furthermore we attempted to reconstruct the full structure of the binding site, starting from the predicted positions of the fragments. We calculated that in the 59% of the analyzed proteins the method ranks as first a reconstructed binding site or a part of it. Finally we tested the reliability of our method in a real world case in which it has to predict nucleotide-binding sites in unbound proteins. We analyzed proteins whose structure has been solved with and without the nucleotide and observed only little variations in the method performance.
During the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome, the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44 plays a key role, as by binding both DNA and the polymerase catalytic subunit it confers processivity to the holoenzyme. However, several lines of evidence suggest that UL44 might have additional roles during virus life cycle. To shed light on this, we searched for cellular partners of UL44 by yeast two-hybrid screenings. Intriguingly, we discovered the interaction of UL44 with Ubc9, an enzyme involved in the covalent conjugation of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier) to cellular and viral proteins. We found that UL44 can be extensively sumoylated not only in a cell-free system and in transfected cells, but also in HCMV-infected cells, in which about 50% of the protein resulted to be modified at late times post-infection, when viral genome replication is accomplished. Mass spectrometry studies revealed that UL44 possesses multiple SUMO target sites, located throughout the protein. Remarkably, we observed that binding of UL44 to DNA greatly stimulates its sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we showed that overexpression of SUMO alters the intranuclear distribution of UL44 in HCMV-infected cells, and enhances both virus production and DNA replication, arguing for an important role for sumoylation in HCMV life cycle and UL44 function(s). These data report for the first time the sumoylation of a viral processivity factor and show that there is a functional interplay between the HCMV UL44 protein and the cellular sumoylation system.
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in the cell cycle and are important anti-cancer drug targets. The natural product fascaplysin inhibits CDK4 with surprising selectivity (IC50 = 0.4 µM) compared to the close homolog CDK2 (IC50 = 500 µM). Free energy calculations of the positively charged fascaplysin and an uncharged iso-electronic derivative in the CDK2 and CDK4 inhibitor complexes indicate that the positive charge of fascaplysin is crucial for selectivity. This finding will guide further improvements in the design of fascaplysin-based selective inhibitors for CDK4.
The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of basement membranes and essential for tissue formation and function in all animals. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule are composed of one chain each and their tips mediate the formation of a polymeric network. The structural basis for laminin polymerisation is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the short-arm tips of the mouse laminin β1 and γ1 chains, which are grossly similar to the previously determined structure of the corresponding α5 chain region. The short-arm tips consist of a laminin N-terminal (LN) domain that is attached like the head of a flower to a rod-like stem formed by tandem laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains. The LN domain is a β-sandwich with elaborate loop regions that differ between chains. The γ1 LN domain uniquely contains a calcium binding site. The LE domains have little regular structure and are stabilised by cysteines that are disulphide-linked 1–3, 2–4, 5–6 and 7–8 in all chains. The LN surface is not conserved across the α, β and γ chains, but within each chain subfamily there is a striking concentration of conserved residues on one face of the β-sandwich, while the opposite face invariably is shielded by glycans. We propose that the extensive conserved patches on the β and γ LN domains mediate the binding of these two chains to each other, and that the α chain LN domain subsequently binds to the composite β-γ surface. Mutations in the laminin β2 LN domain causing Pierson syndrome are likely to impair the folding of the β2 chain or its ability to form network interactions.
The matrix protein VP40 coordinates numerous functions in the viral life cycle of the Ebola virus. These range from the regulation of viral transcription to morphogenesis, packaging and budding of mature virions. Similar to the matrix proteins of other nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, VP40 proceeds through intermediate states of assembly (e.g. octamers) but it remains unclear how these intermediates are coordinated with the various stages of the life cycle. In this study, we investigate the molecular basis of synchronization as governed by VP40. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to follow induced structural and conformational changes in VP40. Together with computational modeling, we demonstrate that both extreme N and C terminal tail regions stabilize the monomeric state through a direct association. The tails appear to function as a latch, released upon a specific molecular trigger such as RNA ligation. We propose that triggered release of the tails permits the coordination of late-stage events in the viral life cycle, at the inner membrane of the host cell. Specifically, N-tail release exposes the L-domain motifs PTAP/PPEY to the transport and budding complexes, whereas triggered C-tail release could improve association with the site of budding.
The entire substrate translocation pathway in the human GABA transporter (GAT-1) was explored for the endogenous substrate GABA and the anti-convulsive drug tiagabine. Following a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach, in which a harmonic restraining potential is applied to the ligand, dissociation and re-association of ligands were simulated revealing events leading to substrate (GABA) translocation and inhibitor (tiagabine) mechanism of action. We succeeded in turning the transporter from the outward facing occluded to the open-to-out conformation, and also to reorient the transporter to the open-to-in conformation. The simulations are validated by literature data and provide a substrate pathway fingerprint in terms of which, how, and in which sequence specific residues are interacted with. They reveal the essential functional roles of specific residues, e.g. the role of charged residues in the extracellular vestibule including two lysines (K76 (TM1) and K448 (TM10)) and a TM6-triad (D281, E283, and D287) in attracting and relocating substrates towards the secondary/interim substrate-binding site (S2). Likewise, E101 is highlighted as essential for the relocation of the substrate from the primary substrate-binding site (S1) towards the cytoplasm.
Aβ oligomers play a key role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Research into structure−function relationships of Aβ oligomers has been hampered by the lack of large amounts of homogeneous and stable material. Using computational chemistry, we designed conservative cysteine substitutions in Aβ aiming at accelerating and stabilizing assembly of Aβ dimers by an intermolecular disulfide bond without changing its folding. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that mutants AβS8C and AβM35C exhibited structural properties similar to those of Aβ wildtype dimers. Full length, mutant APP was stably expressed in transfected cell lines to study assembly of Aβ oligomers in the physiological, secretory pathway and to avoid artifacts resulting from simultaneous in vitro oxidation and aggregation. Biochemical and neurophysiological analysis of supernatants indicated that AβS8C generated an exclusive, homogeneous, and neurotoxic dimer, whereas AβM35C assembled into dimers, tetramers, and higher oligomers. Thus, molecular engineering enabled generation of bioactive, homogeneous, and correctly processed Aβ dimers in vivo.
Alzheimer’s disease; computational chemistry; Aβ oligomers; dimers; molecular engineering; neurotoxicity
SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains.
To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to c–Src Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F). This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains.
While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners.
Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a genetically determined ion-channel disorder, which may cause malignant tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Thus far, mutations in five different genes encoding potassium and calcium channel subunits have been reported. We present, for the first time, a novel loss-of-function mutation coding for an L-type calcium channel subunit.
Methods and results
The electrocardiogram of the affected member of a single family revealed a QT interval of 317 ms (QTc 329 ms) with tall, narrow, and symmetrical T-waves. Invasive electrophysiological testing showed short ventricular refractory periods and increased vulnerability to induce ventricular fibrillation. DNA screening of the patient identified no mutation in previously known SQTS genes; however, a new variant at a heterozygous state was identified in the CACNA2D1 gene (nucleotide c.2264G > C; amino acid p.Ser755Thr), coding for the Cavα2δ-1 subunit of the L-type calcium channel. The pathogenic role of the p.Ser755Thr variant of the CACNA2D1 gene was analysed by using co-expression of the two other L-type calcium channel subunits, Cav1.2α1 and Cavβ2b, in HEK-293 cells. Barium currents (IBa) were recorded in these cells under voltage-clamp conditions using the whole-cell configuration. Co-expression of the p.Ser755Thr Cavα2δ-1 subunit strongly reduced the IBa by more than 70% when compared with the co-expression of the wild-type (WT) variant. Protein expression of the three subunits was verified by performing western blots of total lysates and cell membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells. The p.Ser755Thr variant of the Cavα2δ-1 subunit was expressed at a similar level compared with the WT subunit in both fractions. Since the mutant Cavα2δ-1 subunit did not modify the expression of the pore-forming subunit of the L-type calcium channel, Cav1.2α1, it suggests that single channel biophysical properties of the L-type channel are altered by this variant.
In the present study, we report the first pathogenic mutation in the CACNA2D1 gene in humans, which causes a new variant of SQTS. It remains to be determined whether mutations in this gene lead to other manifestations of the J-wave syndrome.
Arrhythmia; Short QT syndrome; Novel gene mutation; Sudden cardiac death
Drug resistance of Streptococcus suis strains is a worldwide problem for both humans and pigs. Previous studies have noted that penicillin-binding protein (PBPs) mutation is one important cause of β-lactam antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used the molecular dynamics (MD) method to study the interaction differences between cefuroxime (CES) and PBP2x within two newly sequenced Streptococcus suis: drug-sensitive strain A7, and drug-resistant strain R61. The MM-PBSA results proved that the drug bound much more tightly to PBP2x in A7 (PBP2x-A7) than to PBP2x in R61 (PBP2x-R61). This is consistent with the evidently different resistances of the two strains to cefuroxime. Hydrogen bond analysis indicated that PBP2x-A7 preferred to bind to cefuroxime rather than to PBP2x-R61. Three stable hydrogen bonds were formed by the drug and PBP2x-A7, while only one unstable bond existed between the drug and PBP2x-R61. Further, we found that the Gln569, Tyr594, and Gly596 residues were the key mutant residues contributing directly to the different binding by pair wise energy decomposition comparison. By investigating the binding mode of the drug, we found that mutant residues Ala320, Gln553, and Thr595 indirectly affected the final phenomenon by topological conformation alteration. Above all, our results revealed some details about the specific interaction between the two PBP2x proteins and the drug cefuroxime. To some degree, this explained the drug resistance mechanism of Streptococcus suis and as a result could be helpful for further drug design or improvement.
Constitutive STAT signaling provides growth promoting signals in many forms of malignancy. We performed molecular modeling and molecular dynamics studies of the interaction between the regulatory Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of STAT3 and 6 with phosphorylated peptides of the herpesviral oncoprotein Tip, which facilitates Src kinase mediated STAT-activation and T cell proliferation. The studies give insight into the ligand binding specificity of the STAT SH2 domains and provide the first model for the differential activation of STAT3 or STAT6 by two distinct regions of the viral Tip protein. The biological relevance of the modeled interactions was then confirmed by activation studies using corresponding recombinant oncoproteins, and finally by respective recombinant viruses. The functional data give experimental validation of the molecular dynamics study, and provide evidence for the involvement of STAT6 in the herpesvirus induced T cell proliferation.
Human microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) can oxidize not only low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds such as ethanol, but also many endogenous fatty acids. The crystal structure of CYP2E1 in complex with indazole reveals that the active site is deeply buried into the protein center. Thus, the unbinding pathways and associated unbinding mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations combined with steered molecular dynamics and potential of mean force calculations were performed to identify the possible unbinding pathways in CYP2E1. The results show that channel 2c and 2a are most likely the unbinding channels of CYP2E1. The former channel is located between helices G and I and the B-C loop, and the latter resides between the region formed by the F-G loop, the B-C loop and the β1 sheet. Phe298 and Phe478 act as the gate keeper during indazole unbinding along channel 2c and 2a, respectively. Previous site-directed mutagenesis experiments also supported these findings.
The first step of HIV-1 infection involves interaction between the viral glycoprotein gp120 and the human cellular receptor CD4. Inhibition of the gp120-CD4 interaction represents an attractive strategy to block HIV-1 infection. In an attempt to explore the known lack of affinity of murine CD4 to gp120, we have investigated peptides presenting the putative gp120-binding site of murine CD4 (mCD4). Molecular modeling indicates that mCD4 protein cannot bind gp120 due to steric clashes, while the larger conformational flexibility of mCD4 peptides allows an interaction. This finding is confirmed by experimental binding assays, which also evidenced specificity of the peptide-gp120 interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the mCD4-peptide stably interacts with gp120 via an intermolecular β-sheet, while an important salt-bridge formed by a C-terminal lysine is lost. Fixation of the C-terminus by introducing a disulfide bridge between the N- and C-termini of the peptide significantly enhanced the affinity to gp120.