PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:79.
Background
There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants.
Methods
Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics outpatient clinic or hospitalized at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan, were included in this study. Culture swabs were collected from oral and rectal sites and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All Candida isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system, and further investigated for specific virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility MIC using E-test. Genotyping of C. albicans isolates was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis method.
Results
A total of 61/492 (12.4%) infants were colonized with Candida species by either their oral/rectal sites or both. Rectal colonization was significantly more detected than oral colonization (64.6% verses 35.4%), particularly among hospitalized infants aged more than one month. The pattern and rates of colonization were as follows: C. albicans was the commonest species isolated from both sites and accounted for 67.1% of all isolates, followed by C.kefyr (11.4%), each C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (8.9%) and C. parapsilosis (3.8%).
A various rates of Candida isolates proved to secrete putative virulence factors in vitro; asparatyl proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. C. albicans were associated significantly (P < 0.05) with these enzymes than other Candida species. All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, whereas 97% of Candida species isolates were susceptible to fluconazole using E-test.
The genetic similarity of 53 C. albicans isolates as demonstrated by dendrogram revealed the presence of 29 genotypes, and of these one genotype accounted for 22% of the isolates.
Conclusion
This study presents important epidemiological features of Candida colonization of Jordanian infants.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-79
PMCID: PMC3182898  PMID: 21902841
Candida colonization; virulence; genotypes; antifungal susceptibility
2.  Human Rhinovirus C Associated with Wheezing in Hospitalized Children in the Middle East 
Background
Few studies have investigated the disease burden and genetic diversity of human rhinoviruses (HRV) in developing countries.
Objectives
To assess the burden of HRV in Amman, Jordan and to characterize clinical differences between HRV groups.
Study Design
We prospectively studied children <5 years old hospitalized with respiratory symptoms and/or fever in Amman, Jordan. Viruses were identified by real-time RT-PCR. VP4/VP2 gene sequencing was performed on HRV-positive specimens.
Results
Of 728 enrolled children, 266 (37%) tested positive for picornaviruses, 240 of which were HRV. Of the HRV-positive samples, 62 (26%) were of the recently identified group HRVC, 131 (55%) were HRVA, and 7 (3%) were HRVB. The HRVC strains clustered into at least 19 distinct genotypes. Compared with HRVA-infected children, children with HRVC were more likely to require supplemental oxygen (63% vs. 42%, p=0.007) and, when co-infections were excluded, were more likely to have wheezing (100% vs. 82%, p=0.016).
Conclusions
There is a significant burden of HRV-associated hospitalizations in young children in Jordan. Infection with the recently identified group HRVC is associated with wheezing and more severe illness.
doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2009.06.007
PMCID: PMC2759319  PMID: 19581125
rhinovirus; HRVC; wheezing; hospitalized; children
3.  Antibiotic prescribing practices by dentists: a review 
Antibiotics are prescribed by dentists for treatment as well as prevention of infection. Indications for the use of systemic antibiotics in dentistry are limited, since most dental and periodontal diseases are best managed by operative intervention and oral hygiene measures. However, the literature provides evidence of inadequate prescribing practices by dentists, due to a number of factors ranging from inadequate knowledge to social factors. Here we review studies that investigated the pattern of antibiotic use by dentists worldwide. The main defects in the knowledge of antibiotic prescribing are outlined. The main conclusion is that, unfortunately, the prescribing practices of dentists are inadequate and this is manifested by over-prescribing. Recommendations to improve antibiotic prescribing practices are presented in an attempt to curb the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance and other side effects of antibiotic abuse.
PMCID: PMC2909496  PMID: 20668712
over-prescribing; antimicrobial resistance; recommended practice; penicillin
4.  Predicting recurrent aphthous ulceration using genetic algorithms-optimized neural networks 
Objective
To construct and optimize a neural network that is capable of predicting the occurrence of recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) based on a set of appropriate input data.
Participants and methods
Artificial neural networks (ANN) software employing genetic algorithms to optimize the architecture neural networks was used. Input and output data of 86 participants (predisposing factors and status of the participants with regards to recurrent aphthous ulceration) were used to construct and train the neural networks. The optimized neural networks were then tested using untrained data of a further 10 participants.
Results
The optimized neural network, which produced the most accurate predictions for the presence or absence of recurrent aphthous ulceration was found to employ: gender, hematological (with or without ferritin) and mycological data of the participants, frequency of tooth brushing, and consumption of vegetables and fruits.
Conclusions
Factors appearing to be related to recurrent aphthous ulceration and appropriate for use as input data to construct ANNs that predict recurrent aphthous ulceration were found to include the following: gender, hemoglobin, serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin, red cell folate, salivary candidal colony count, frequency of tooth brushing, and the number of fruits or vegetables consumed daily.
PMCID: PMC3170012  PMID: 21918622
artifical neural networks; recurrent; aphthous ulceration; ulcer
5.  Burden of respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized infants and young children in Amman, Jordan 
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) play a major role in hospitalizations in the Middle East, but the specific viral causes are unknown. We conducted prospective viral surveillance in children <5 y of age admitted with ARI and/or fever at 2 dissimilar hospitals in Amman, Jordan during peak respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season. We collected prospective clinical and demographic data and obtained nose/throat swabs for testing for RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We obtained clinical and laboratory data for 728/743 (98%) subjects enrolled. The children’s median age was 4.3 months, 58.4% were males, 87% were breastfed, 4% attended day care, 67% were exposed to smokers, 7% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 0.7% died (n = 5). Out of 728 subjects, 467 (64%) tested positive by RT-PCR for RSV. Comparing RSV-positive with RSV-negative subjects, the RSV-positive subjects had lower median age (3.6 vs 6.4 months, p < 0.001) and fewer males (55% vs 64%, p = 0.02). RSV-positive children had higher rates of oxygen use (72% vs 42%, p < 0.001), a longer hospital stay (5 vs 4 days, p = 0.001), and higher hospital charges (US$538 vs US$431, p < 0.001) than RSV-negative children. In young hospitalized Jordanian infants, the medical and financial burden of RSV was found to be high. Effective preventive measures, such as an RSV vaccine, would have a significant beneficial impact.
doi:10.3109/00365540903496544
PMCID: PMC2854220  PMID: 20100116
6.  Prevalence of putative virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis isolates from patients with dental Diseases 
BMC Oral Health  2008;8:17.
Background
This study investigated the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis, its putative virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility in individuals with and without dental diseases. A total of 159 oral rinse specimens were collected from patients (n = 109) suffering from dental diseases and healthy controls (n = 50).
Results
E. faecalis was detected using only culture in 8/109 (7.3%) of the patients with various types of dental diseases, whereas no E. faecalis was found in the healthy controls weather using both culture and PCR. Phenotype characterizations of the 8 E. faecalis isolates indicated that 25% of the isolates produced haemolysin and 37.5% produced gelatinase. Most important virulence genes; collagen binding protein (ace) and endocarditis antigen (efaA) were present in all 8 E. faecalis isolates, while haemolysin activator gene (cylA) was detected only in 25% of isolates, and all isolates were negative for esp gene. All E. faecalis isolates were 100% susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin, and to less extent to erythromycin (62.5%).
Conclusion
This study shows that all E. faecalis isolates were recovered only from patients with dental diseases especially necrotic pulps, and all isolates carried both collagen binding protein and endocarditis antigen genes and highly susceptible to frequently used antimicrobial drugs in Jordan.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-8-17
PMCID: PMC2424041  PMID: 18513445

Results 1-6 (6)