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author:("goltz, Rainer")
1.  Dynamics of p53 and NF-κB regulation in response to DNA damage and identification of target proteins suitable for therapeutic intervention 
BMC Systems Biology  2012;6:125.
The genome is continuously attacked by a variety of agents that cause DNA damage. Recognition of DNA lesions activates the cellular DNA damage response (DDR), which comprises a network of signal transduction pathways to maintain genome integrity. In response to severe DNA damage, cells undergo apoptosis to avoid transformation into tumour cells, or alternatively, the cells enter permanent cell cycle arrest, called senescence. Most tumour cells have defects in pathways leading to DNA repair or apoptosis. In addition, apoptosis could be counteracted by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), the main anti-apoptotic transcription factor in the DDR. Despite the high clinical relevance, the interplay of the DDR pathways is poorly understood. For therapeutic purposes DNA damage signalling processes are induced to induce apoptosis in tumour cells. However, the efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy is strongly hampered by cell survival pathways in tumour cells. In this study logical modelling was performed to facilitate understanding of the complexity of the signal transduction networks in the DDR and to provide cancer treatment options.
Our comprehensive discrete logical model provided new insights into the dynamics of the DDR in human epithelial tumours. We identified new mechanisms by which the cell regulates the dynamics of the activation of the tumour suppressor p53 and NF-κB. Simulating therapeutic intervention by agents causing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) we identified candidate target proteins for sensitization of carcinomas to therapeutic intervention. Further, we enlightened the DDR in different genetic diseases, and by failure mode analysis we defined molecular defects putatively contributing to carcinogenesis.
By logic modelling we identified candidate target proteins that could be suitable for radio- and chemotherapy, and contributes to the design of more effective therapies.
PMCID: PMC3473366  PMID: 22979979
Topoisomerase inhibitors; Signal transduction; Cell cycle arrest; Apoptosis; Cancer; Logical model
2.  Logical network of genotoxic stress-induced NF-κB signal transduction predicts putative target structures for therapeutic intervention strategies 
Genotoxic stress is induced by a broad range of DNA-damaging agents and could lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. DNA damage is also therapeutically induced for cancer treatment with the aim to eliminate tumor cells. However, the effectiveness of radio- and chemotherapy is strongly hampered by tumor cell resistance. A major reason for radio- and chemotherapeutic resistances is the simultaneous activation of cell survival pathways resulting in the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Here, we present a Boolean network model of the NF-κB signal transduction induced by genotoxic stress in epithelial cells. For the representation and analysis of the model, we used the formalism of logical interaction hypergraphs. Model reconstruction was based on a careful meta-analysis of published data. By calculating minimal intervention sets, we identified p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD), receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), and protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) as putative therapeutic targets to abrogate NF-κB activation resulting in apoptosis. Targeting these structures therapeutically may potentiate the effectiveness of radio-and chemotherapy. Thus, the presented model allows a better understanding of the signal transduction in tumor cells and provides candidates as new therapeutic target structures.
PMCID: PMC3169943  PMID: 21918620
apoptosis; Boolean network; cancer therapy; DNA-damage response; NF-κB
3.  The checkpoint clamp, Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, preferentially stimulates the activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 and DNA polymerase β in long patch base excision repair 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(8):2596-2608.
Growing evidence suggests that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (the 9-1-1 complex), besides its functions in DNA damage sensing and signaling pathways, plays also a direct role in various DNA repair processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the 9-1-1 complex physically and functionally interacts with several components of the base excision repair (BER) machinery namely DNA polymerase β (Pol β), flap endonuclease 1 (Fen 1), DNA ligase I (Lig I) and the MutY homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, we found for the first time that the 9-1-1 complex interacts in vitro and in vivo with the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE 1), an early component of BER, and can stimulate its AP-endonuclease activity. Moreover, we show that the 9-1-1 complex possesses a stimulatory effect on long patch base excision repair (LP-BER) reconstituted in vitro. The enhancement of LP-BER activity is due to the specific stimulation of the two early components of the repair machinery, namely APE 1 and Pol β, suggesting a hierarchy of interactions between the 9-1-1 complex and the BER proteins acting in the repairosome. Overall, our results indicate that the 9-1-1 complex is directly involved in LP-BER, thus providing a possible link between DNA damage checkpoints and BER.
PMCID: PMC1885638  PMID: 17426133

Results 1-3 (3)