PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-7 (7)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Evaluation and identification of damaged single nucleotide polymorphisms in COL1A1 gene involved in osteoporosis 
Introduction
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are biomarkers for exploring the genetic basis of many complex human diseases. The prediction of SNPs is promising in modern genetic analysis but it is still a great challenge to identify the functional SNPs in a disease-related gene. The computational approach has overcome this challenge and an increase in the successful rate of genetic association studies and reduced cost of genotyping have been achieved. The objective of this study is to identify deleterious non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) associated with the COL1A1 gene.
Material and methods
The SNPs were retrieved from the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP). Using I-Mutant, protein stability change was calculated. The potentially functional nsSNPs and their effect on proteins were predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT respectively. FASTSNP was used for estimation of risk score.
Results
Our analysis revealed 247 SNPs as non-synonymous, out of which 5 nsSNPs were found to be least stable by I-Mutant 2.0 with a DDG value of > –1.0. Four nsSNPs, namely rs17853657, rs17857117, rs57377812 and rs1059454, showed a highly deleterious tolerance index score of 0.00 with a change in their physicochemical properties by the SIFT server. Seven nsSNPs, namely rs1059454, rs8179178, rs17853657, rs17857117, rs72656340, rs72656344 and rs72656351, were found to be probably damaging with a PSIC score difference between 2.0 and 3.5 by the PolyPhen server. Three nsSNPs, namely rs1059454, rs17853657 and rs17857117, were found to be highly polymorphic with a risk score of 3-4 with a possible effect of non-conservative change and splicing regulation by FASTSNP.
Conclusions
Three nsSNPs, namely rs1059454, rs17853657 and rs17857117, are potential functional polymorphisms that are likely to have a functional impact on the COL1A1 gene.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28598
PMCID: PMC3832808  PMID: 24273577
in silico analysis; dbSNP; SIFT; PolyPhen
2.  Screening and Evaluation of Deleterious SNPs in APOE Gene of Alzheimer's Disease 
Introduction. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is present in 30–50% of patients who develop late-onset AD. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present in APOE gene which act as the biomarkers for exploring the genetic basis of this disease. The objective of this study is to identify deleterious nsSNPs associated with APOE gene. Methods. The SNPs were retrieved from dbSNP. Using I-Mutant, protein stability change was calculated. The potentially functional nonsynonymous (ns) SNPs and their effect on protein was predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT, respectively. FASTSNP was used for functional analysis and estimation of risk score. The functional impact on the APOE protein was evaluated by using Swiss PDB viewer and NOMAD-Ref server. Results. Six nsSNPs were found to be least stable by I-Mutant 2.0 with DDG value of >−1.0. Four nsSNPs showed a highly deleterious tolerance index score of 0.00. Nine nsSNPs were found to be probably damaging with position-specific independent counts (PSICs) score of ≥2.0. Seven nsSNPs were found to be highly polymorphic with a risk score of 3-4. The total energies and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values were higher for three mutant-type structures compared to the native modeled structure. Conclusion. We concluded that three nsSNPs, namely, rs11542041, rs11542040, and rs11542034, to be potentially functional polymorphic.
doi:10.1155/2012/480609
PMCID: PMC3317072  PMID: 22530123
3.  Functional analysis and structure determination of alkaline protease from Aspergillus flavus 
Bioinformation  2012;8(4):175-180.
Proteases are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have broad applications in food, pharmaceutical, detergent, and dairy industries and serve as vital tools in determination of structure of proteins and polypeptides. Multiple application of these enzymes stimulated interest to discover them with novel properties and considerable advancement of basic research into these enzymes. A broad understanding of the active site of the enzyme and of the mechanism of its inactivation is essential for delineating its structure-function relationship. Primary structure analysis of alkaline protease showed 42% of its content to be alpha helix making it stable for three dimensional structure modeling. Homology model of alkaline protease has been constructed using the X-ray structure (3F7O) as a template and swiss model as the workspace. The model was validated by ProSA, SAVES, PROCHECK, PROSAII and RMSD. The results showed the final refined model is reliable. It has 53% amino acid sequence identity with the template, 0.24 Å as RMSD and has -7.53 as Z-score, the Ramachandran plot analysis showed that conformations for 83.4 % of amino acid residues are within the most favored regions and only 0.4% in the disallowed regions.
doi:10.6026/97320630008175
PMCID: PMC3301997  PMID: 22419836
Alkaline Proteases; Homology Model; Ramachandran plot
4.  Screening and structural evaluation of deleterious Non-Synonymous SNPs of ePHA2 gene involved in susceptibility to cataract formation 
Bioinformation  2012;8(12):562-567.
Age-related cataract is clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder affecting the ocular lens, and the leading cause of vision loss and blindness worldwide. Here we screened nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) of a novel gene, EPHA2 responsible for age related cataracts. The SNPs were retrieved from dbSNP. Using I-Mutant, protein stability change was calculated. The potentially functional nsSNPs and their effect on protein was predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT respectively. FASTSNP was used for functional analysis and estimation of risk score. The functional impact on the EPHA2 protein was evaluated by using SWISSPDB viewer and NOMAD-Ref server. Our analysis revealed 16 SNPs as nonsynonymous out of which 6 nsSNPs, namely rs11543934, rs2291806, rs1058371, rs1058370, rs79100278 and rs113882203 were found to be least stable by I-Mutant 2.0 with DDG value of > −1.0. nsSNPs, namely rs35903225, rs2291806, rs1058372, rs1058370, rs79100278 and rs113882203 showed a highly deleterious tolerance index score of 0.00 by SIFT server. Four nsSNPs namely rs11543934, rs2291806, rs1058370 and rs113882203 were found to be probably damaging with PSIC score of ≥ 2. 0 by Polyp hen server. Three nsSNPs namely, rs11543934, rs2291806 and rs1058370 were found to be highly polymorphic with a risk score of 3-4 with a possible effect of Non-conservative change and splicing regulation by FASTSNP. The total energy and RMSD value was higher for the mutant-type structure compared to the native type structure. We concluded that the nsSNP namely rs2291806 as the potential functional polymorphic that is likely to have functional impact on the EPHA2 gene.
doi:10.6026/97320630008562
PMCID: PMC3398778  PMID: 22829731
Computational analysis; single nucleotide polymorphism; EPHA2; cataract
5.  Affinity of estrogens for human progesterone receptor A and B monomers and risk of breast cancer: a comparative molecular modeling study 
Background
The human progesterone receptor (hPR) belongs to the steroid receptor family. It may be found as monomers (A and B) and or as a dimer (AB). hPR is regarded as the prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. In a cellular dimer system, AB is the dominant species in most cases. However, when a cell coexpresses all three isoforms of hPR, the complexity of the action of this receptor increases. For example, hPR A suppresses the activity of hPR B, and the ratio of hPR A to hPR B may determine the physiology of a breast tumor. Also, persistent exposure of hPRs to nonendogenous ligands is a common risk factor for breast cancer. Hence we aimed to study progesterone and some nonendogenous ligand interactions with hPRs and their molecular docking.
Methods and results
A pool of steroid derivatives, namely, progesterone, cholesterol, testosterone, testolectone, estradiol, estrone, norethindrone, exemestane, and norgestrel, was used for this in silico study. Dockings were performed on AutoDock 4.2. We found that estrogens, including estradiol and estrone, had a higher affinity for hPR A and B monomers in comparison with the dimer, hPR AB, and that of the endogenous progesterone ligand. hPR A had a higher affinity to all the docked ligands than hPR B.
Conclusion
This study suggests that the exposure of estrogens to hPR A as well as hPR B, and more particularly to hPR A alone, is a risk factor for breast cancer.
doi:10.2147/AABC.S17371
PMCID: PMC3169952  PMID: 21918635
human progesterone receptor; breast cancer; steroid derivatives; estrogens; molecular docking
6.  Analysis of casein alpha S1 & S2 proteins from different mammalian species 
Bioinformation  2010;4(9):430-435.
Nowadays, the quality of any food used for human consumption is, to a considerable extent, considered by its possible contribution to the maintenance or improvement of the consumer's health. In developed countries there is increasing interest in goat milk and its derivates, the quality of which is considered of special importance in the light of current tendencies favouring healthy eating. In particular, goat's milk is a hypoallergenic alternative to cow's milk in the human diet. In the present work, we studied the casein alpha S1 and S2 proteins of cow, goat and sheep for comparative analysis. We found that the amino acid sequence of these proteins is almost same in goat and sheep but there are several changes at different base pairs when these two sequences are compared with cow. Prediction of secondary structures (GOR) was performed for alpha s1 and s2 proteins to gain functional insights. Our in silico study revealed considerable identity in chemical properties between goat and sheep but a considerable dissimilarity in cow with goat and sheep casein proteins. Moreover, the effect amino acid change on secondary structures in the three species is discussed. There was no significant difference found between goat and sheep alpha S1 and S2 proteins, so naturally both will be having same properties. The study concludes that sheep milk is another convenient alternative for the cow milk allergic children.
PMCID: PMC2951635  PMID: 20975894
casein; alpha proteins; sequence analysis
7.  Inhibitory effect of flavonoids on mutant H-Rasp21 protein 
Bioinformation  2010;5(1):11-15.
Mutant form of H-Ras (Harvey-Ras) proteins are found in almost 10%-25% of human tumours. Mutational activation transforms it into an oncogenic form, which results in the loss of intrinsic GTPase function and therefore the protein is constitutively in the active, GTP-bound state and is continuously sending signals for cell growth and proliferation. In the present insilico study, the inhibitory effect of different flavonoid compounds on mutant H Ras protein p21 has been assessed. In addition, inhibitory effect of flavonoids is compared with 3 known anticancer drugs. Upon docking, it was found that flavonoids such as Naringenin, Daidzein, and Hesperetin showed highest affinity (most negative ΔG), while Rutin showed no affinity towards mutant H Ras. The 3 clinical anticancer agents (Erlotinib, Letrozole and Exemestane) showed binding energies in the range of −1.11 to −5.51 kcal/mol which is comparatively lower than the flavonoids indicating efficacy of flavonoids in the treatment of cancer with little or no cytotoxicity. Our study demonstrates that flavonoids (particularly Naringenin, Daidzein, and Hesperetin) are the effective drugs to inhibit function of mutant H-Ras P21 protein, which in turn arrests the process of cell growth and proliferation of the cancer cell.
PMCID: PMC3039998  PMID: 21346872
Docking; flavonoids; cancer; H-Ras; Raf; autodock

Results 1-7 (7)