Cholera toxin (CT) consists of a catalytic A1 subunit, an A2 linker, and a homopentameric cell-binding B subunit. The intact holotoxin moves by vesicle carriers from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where CTA1 is released from the rest of the toxin. The dissociated CTA1 subunit then shifts to an unfolded conformation, which triggers its export to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). We hypothesized that the unfolding of dissociated CTA1 would prevent its non-productive reassociation with CTA2/CTB5. To test this prediction, we monitored the real-time reassociation of CTA1 with CTA2/CTB5 by surface plasmon resonance. Folded but not disordered CTA1 could interact with CTA2/CTB5 to form a stable, functional holotoxin. Our data, thus, identified another role for the intrinsic instability of the isolated CTA1 polypeptide in host-toxin interactions: in addition to activating the ERAD translocation mechanism, the spontaneous unfolding of free CTA1 at 37 °C prevents the non-productive reassembly of a CT holotoxin in the ER.
cholera toxin; endoplasmic reticulum; protein disulfide isomerase; surface plasmon resonance; toxin assembly; toxin instability
Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model.
Driver mutations in early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) are poorly characterized. Here the authors show that Zeb2 overexpression is often found in ETP-ALL, can recapitulate the disease in transgenic mice and confers survival advantage by upregulating IL-7 signalling.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here, we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely novel insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and multiple genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that play important roles in immunity, providing support for the hypothesized link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
NUP98 is among the most promiscuously translocated genes in hematological diseases. Among the 28 known fusion partners, there are two categories: homeobox genes and non-homeobox genes. The homeobox fusion partners are well-studied in animal models, resulting in HoxA cluster overexpression and hematological disease. The non- homeobox fusion partners are less well studied. We created transgenic animal models for three NUP98 fusion genes (one homeobox, two non- homeobox), and show that in this system, the NUP98-homeobox fusion promotes self-renewal and aberrant gene expression to a significantly greater extent. We conclude that homeobox partners create more potent NUP98 fusion oncogenes than do non-homeobox partners.
NUP98; homeobox; HOX; leukemia; translocation
Genetic markers at the GRM7 gene have shown allelic association with bipolar disorder (BP) in several case–control samples including our own sample. In this report, we present results of resequencing the GRM7 gene in 32 bipolar samples and 32 random controls selected from 553 bipolar cases and 547 control samples (UCL1). Novel and potential etiological base pair changes discovered by resequencing were genotyped in the entire UCL case–control sample. We also report on the association between GRM7 and BP in a second sample of 593 patients and 642 controls (UCL2). The three most significantly associated SNPs in the original UCL1 BP GWAS sample were genotyped in the UCL2 sample, of which none were associated. After combining the genotype data for the two samples only two (rs1508724 and rs6769814) of the original three SNP markers remained significantly associated with BP. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in three cases which were absent in control subjects. A 3′-UTR SNP rs56173829 was found to be significantly associated with BP in the whole UCL sample (P = 0.035; OR = 0.482), the rare allele being less common in cases compared to controls. Bioinformatic analyses predicted a change in the centroid secondary structure of RNA and alterations in the miRNA binding sites for the mutated base of rs56173829. We also validated two deletions and a duplication within GRM7 using quantitative-PCR which provides further support for the pre-existing evidence that copy number variants at GRM7 may have a role in the etiology of BP. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
genetic; case–control; allelic association study; 3′-UTR; CNV
Genetic markers in the genes encoding ankyrin 3 (ANK3) and the α-calcium channel subunit (CACNA1C) are associated with bipolar disorder (BP). The associated variants in the CACNA1C gene are mainly within intron 3 of the gene. ANK3 BP-associated variants are in two distinct clusters at the ends of the gene, indicating disease allele heterogeneity.
In order to screen both coding and non-coding regions to identify potential aetiological variants, we used whole-genome sequencing in 99 BP cases. Variants with markedly different allele frequencies in the BP samples and the 1,000 genomes project European data were genotyped in 1,510 BP cases and 1,095 controls.
We found that the CACNA1C intron 3 variant, rs79398153, potentially affecting an ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)-defined region, showed an association with BP (p = 0.015). We also found the ANK3 BP-associated variant rs139972937, responsible for an asparagine to serine change (p = 0.042). However, a previous study had not found support for an association between rs139972937 and BP. The variants at ANK3 and CACNA1C previously known to be associated with BP were not in linkage disequilibrium with either of the two variants that we identified and these are therefore independent of the previous haplotypes implicated by genome-wide association.
Sequencing in additional BP samples is needed to find the molecular pathology that explains the previous association findings. If changes similar to those we have found can be shown to have an effect on the expression and function of ANK3 and CACNA1C, they might help to explain the so-called ‘missing heritability’ of BP.
allelic association study; ankyrin 3; bipolar disorder; DNA sequencing; genetic; L-type calcium channel
To generate a cytopathic effect, the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT) must be separated from the rest of the toxin. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is thought to mediate CT disassembly by acting as a redox-driven chaperone that actively unfolds the CTA1 subunit. Here, we show that PDI itself unfolds upon contact with CTA1. The substrate-induced unfolding of PDI provides a novel molecular mechanism for holotoxin disassembly: we postulate the expanded hydrodynamic radius of unfolded PDI acts as a wedge to dislodge reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. The oxidoreductase activity of PDI was not required for CT disassembly, but CTA1 displacement did not occur when PDI was locked in a folded conformation or when its substrate-induced unfolding was blocked due to the loss of chaperone function. Two other oxidoreductases (ERp57 and ERp72) did not unfold in the presence of CTA1 and did not displace reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. Our data establish a new functional property of PDI that may be linked to its role as a chaperone that prevents protein aggregation.
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein with related but independent oxidoreductase and chaperone activities. The molecular mechanism of PDI chaperone function remains unidentified. Here, we report that PDI unfolds upon contact with the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT). This unfolding event dislodges CTA1 from the rest of the multimeric toxin, which is a prerequisite for the ER-to-cytosol export of CTA1 and toxin activity against the host cell. The substrate-induced unfolding of PDI is linked to its chaperone activity. Our work has established a new property of PDI that is required for CT disassembly and provides a possible structural basis for the broader role of PDI as a chaperone that prevents protein aggregation.
In the Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET), patients were randomised either to be made subject to a community treatment order (CTO) or to be managed with Section 17 leave and discharge. No differences in outcome between the two groups were observed. Here it is argued that the patients studied were not those who might have benefited from a CTO and that the psychiatrists involved were unlikely to have used the provisions of a CTO assertively. Consideration of the lengths of time for which both Section 17 leave and CTOs were used supports the notion that CTOs were not used appropriately for a group of patients who might have benefited from them. Hence the results of this study should not be taken to provide any evidence as to the effectiveness or otherwise of CTOs.
Conventional methods to analyze genome-wide association studies and whole exome or whole genome sequencing studies would be prone to overlook variants which might exert a recessive effect on risk of disease, either as homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. It is plausible that such effects may be common even in outbred populations. An approach is described which is based on identifying a set of variants in a gene as being potentially of interest and then testing whether there is an excess of cases who are either homozygotes or complex heterozygotes for these variants. Methods based on departure from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium are more powerful than those which compare cases to controls. However, linkage disequilibrium between variants can be difficult to deal with if phase is unknown. A simple approach for discarding variants apparently in strong linkage disequilibrium with others is proposed. The procedure is simple and quick to apply so can be used in the context of whole genome or exome sequencing studies and is implemented in the SCOREASSOC program.
association; sequence; DNA
Previously described methods for the combined analysis of common and rare variants have disadvantages such as requiring an arbitrary classification of variants or permutation testing to assess statistical significance. Here we propose a novel method which implements a weighting scheme based on allele frequencies observed in both cases and controls. Because the test is unbiased, scores can be analyzed with a standard t-test. To test its validity we applied it to data for common, rare, and very rare variants simulated under the null hypothesis. To test its power we applied it to simulated data in which association was present, including data using the observed allele frequencies of common and rare variants in NOD2 previously reported in cases of Crohn’s disease and controls. The method produced results that conformed well to those expected under the null hypothesis. It demonstrated more power to detect association when rare and common variants were analyzed jointly, the power further increasing when rare variants were assigned higher weights. 20,000 analyses of a gene containing 62 variants could be performed in 80 minutes on a laptop. This approach shows promise for the analysis of data currently emerging from genome wide sequencing studies.
common; rare; variant; sequence; genome; exome
Alcoholism and affective disorders are both strongly comorbid and heritable. We have investigated the genetic comorbidity between bipolar affective disorder and alcoholism.
A genome-wide allelic association study of 506 patients from the University College London (UCL) bipolar disorder case control sample and 510 ancestrally-matched supernormal controls. 143 of the bipolar subjects fulfilled the research diagnostic criteria (RDC) diagnosis of alcoholism. 372,193 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. Genes previously shown to be associated with alcoholism and addiction phenotypes were then tested for association in the bipolar alcoholic sample using gene wise permutation tests of all SNPs genotyped within a 50kb region flanking each gene.
Several CNS genes showed significant (p<0.05) gene wise evidence of association with bipolar alcoholism. The genes implicated which replicated previously identified associations with alcoholism were: cadherin 11 (CDH11), collagen type XI alpha 2 (COL11A2), neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2), exportin7 (XP07) and semaphorin associated protein 5A (SEMA5A). The SNPs most strongly implicated in bipolar alcoholism, but which did not meet conventional genome-wide significance criteria were the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), carboxypeptidase O (CPO), cerebellin 2 (CBLN2), and the cadherin 12 (CDH12) genes.
We have confirmed the role of some genes previously shown to be associated with alcoholism in the comorbid bipolar alcoholism subgroup. In this subgroup bipolar disorder may lower the threshold for the phenotypic expression of these alcoholism susceptibility genes. We also show that some genes may independently increase susceptibility to affective disorder and alcoholism.
Bipolar; alcoholism; genome wide association; comorbid; gene wise
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Darbepoetin, a long-acting erythropoietin derivative, attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improves short-term (3 days) cardiac function, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We investigated potential mechanisms by which darbepoetin exerts cardioprotection following myocardial infarction in mice and the significance of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR)–common β-chain (c-β-chain) heteroreceptor.
Mice underwent 60 min coronary occlusion followed by treatment with vehicle or a single dose of darbepoetin. Effects on gene expression, apoptosis and neutrophil accumulation in infarcted left ventricle were assessed 24 h later. Cardiac function, effects on vascularization and fibrosis were assessed 28 days later. The significance of EPOR–c-β-chain heteroreceptor was examined 28 days after infarction using mice deficient in c-β-chain.
Twenty-four hours after darbepoetin, mRNAs encoding haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), iNOS and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were markedly elevated only in infarcted regions, and the frequency of apoptotic cells attenuated. Inflammation was also attenuated with reductions in neutrophil numbers. Darbepoetin also elevated mRNAs encoding angiogenic factors: placental growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-1β. Twenty-eight days after treatment, CD31+ vessels in the infarct zone doubled and fibrosis reduced. Cardiac haemodynamics were improved. Darbepoetin also improved cardiac haemodynamics in c-β-chain-deficient mice, increased HO-1 and iNOS expression and vessel numbers and attenuated fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Darbepoetin stimulates expression of haeme oxygenase, iNOS, BNP and angiogenic factors specifically in infarcted left ventricle that attenuates inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis; elevate vessel numbers; and improve cardiac function. The EPOR–c-β-chain heteroreceptor is not essential for these effects.
darbepoetin; myocardial infarction; function and repair; haeme oxygenase-1; iNOS; inflammation; angiogenic factors; erythropoietin–common β-chain heteroreceptor
Standard cost-effectiveness calculations as used by the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence compare the net benefit of an intervention with the financial costs to the health service. Debates about public health interventions also focus on these factors. The subjective experience of the patient, including financial costs and also transient pain, distress, and indignity, is routinely ignored. I carried out an Internet survey which showed that members of the public assign a high financial cost to routine medical interventions such as taking a tablet regularly or attending a clinic for an injection. It is wrong to ignore such costs when attempting to obtain an overall evaluation of the benefit of medical interventions.
screening; prevention; financial cost; medical interventions
Monocytopoiesis involves the stepwise differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) of common myeloid precursors (CMPs) to monocytes. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TAL1/SCL plays a critical role in other hematopoietic lineages, and while it had been reported to be expressed by BM-derived macrophages, its role in monocytopoiesis had not been elucidated. Using cell explant models of monocyte/macrophage (MM) differentiation, one originating with CMPs and the other from more committed precursors, we characterized the phenotypic and molecular consequences of inactivation of Tal1 expression ex vivo. While Tal1 knockout had minimal effects on cell survival and slightly accelerated terminal differentiation, it profoundly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased entry into and traversal of the G1 and S phases. In conjunction, steady-state levels of p16(Ink4a) mRNA were increased and those of Gata2 mRNA decreased. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the association of Tal1 and E47, one of its E protein DNA-binding partners, with an E box-GATA sequence element in intron 4 of the Gata2 gene and with three E boxes upstream of p16(Ink4a). Finally, wild-type Tal1, but not a DNA binding-defective mutant, rescued the proliferative defect in Tal1-null MM precursors. These results document the importance of this transcription factor in cell cycle progression and proliferation during monocytopoiesis and the requirement for direct DNA binding in these processes.
Scl and Lyl1 encode two related basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors implicated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Previous studies have shown that Scl is essential for embryonic and adult erythropoiesis whilst Lyl1 is important for B-cell development. Single knockout mice have not revealed an essential function for Scl or Lyl1 in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To determine if maintenance of HSCs in single-knockout mice is due to functional redundancy, we generated Lyl1;Scl-conditional double knockout mice. Here, we report a striking genetic interaction between the two genes, with a clear dose-dependence for the presence of Scl or Lyl1 alleles for HSC function. Bone marrow repopulation assays and analyses demonstrated rapid loss of hematopoietic progenitors due to apoptosis. The function of HSCs could be rescued by a single allele of Lyl1 but not Scl. These results show that expression of at least one of these factors is essential for maintenance of adult HSC function.
Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Scl; Lyl1; Apoptosis; Knockout
Mutations in 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2) cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic complications associated with AGPAT2 deficiency, Agpat2 null mice were generated. Agpat2−/− mice develop severe lipodystrophy affecting both white and brown adipose tissue, severe insulin resistance, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis. The expression of lipogenic genes and rates of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis were increased ~4-fold in Agpat2−/− mouse livers. The mRNA and protein levels of monoacylglycerol acyltransferase isoform 1 were markedly increased in the livers of Agpat2−/− mice suggesting that the alternative monoacylglycerol pathway for triglyceride biosynthesis is activated in the absence of AGPAT2. Feeding a fat-free diet reduced liver triglycerides by ~50% in Agpat2−/− mice. These observations suggest that both dietary fat and hepatic triglyceride biosynthesis via a novel monoacylglycerol pathway may contribute to hepatic steatosis in Agpat2−/− mice.
AGPAT; LPAAT; MGAT; phosphatidic acid phosphatases; acyltransferase; phospholipids; lipodystrophy; hepatic steatosis
A team-based approach to minimally invasive esophagectomy can be used that will meet or exceed reported benchmarks.
Minimally invasive surgery has been applied in several ways to esophagectomy. Newer techniques have improved patient outcomes while maintaining oncological principles; however, mortality still exists. Most series have reported mortality rates ranging from 2% to 25%. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of minimally invasive esophagectomies (MIE) in a non-university tertiary care center.
MIE in the form of a combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic technique was performed cooperatively by 2 surgeons. Records of patients who underwent MIE between September 2005 and August 2008 were retrospectively reviewed.
Thirty-four patients underwent MIE over a 3-year period. There was a male predominance. Mean age at presentation was 62.6 years. Comorbidities were documented in 79% of the patients. Most patients (68%) presented with dysphagia. Two patients had end-stage achalasia, 1 had corrosive esophageal stricture, and 31 had esophageal malignancies. No mortalities were reported. No anastomotic leaks were observed. Eighteen (58%) patients with malignancy received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Six (33%) patients had a pathological response (CR) on final histopathology. The mean operating time was 294 minutes. The mean blood loss was 302 mL.
Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed with results that meet and exceed reported benchmarks. A team-based approach greatly impacts the outcome of the surgery. This surgical technique must be standardized to achieve this outcome.
Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Anastomotic leak; Outcomes
Previous linkage and association studies have implicated the D-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA)/G30 locus or neighbouring region of chromosome 13q33.2 in the genetic susceptibility to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) gene located at 12q24.11 have also been found to show allelic association with schizophrenia.
We used the case control method to test for genetic association with variants at these loci in a sample of 431 patients with schizophrenia, 303 patients with bipolar disorder and 442 ancestrally matched supernormal controls all selected from the UK population.
Ten SNPs spanning the DAOA locus were genotyped in these samples. In addition three SNPs were genotyped at the DAO locus in the schizophrenia sample. Allelic association was detected between the marker rs3918342 (M23), 3' to the DAOA gene and both schizophrenia (χ2 = 5.824 p = 0.016) and bipolar disorder (χ2 = 4.293 p = 0.038). A trend towards association with schizophrenia was observed for two other DAOA markers rs3916967 (M14, χ2 = 3.675 p = 0.055) and rs1421292 (M24; χ2 = 3.499 p = 0.062). A test of association between a three marker haplotype comprising of the SNPs rs778293 (M22), rs3918342 (M23) and rs1421292 (M24) and schizophrenia gave a global empirical significance of p = 0.015. No evidence was found to confirm the association of genetic markers at the DAO gene with schizophrenia.
Our results provide some support for a role for DAOA in susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
To identify susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder, we tested 1.8 million variants in 4,387 cases and 6,209 controls and identified a region of strong association (rs10994336, P = 9.1 × 10-9) in ANK3 (ankyrin G). We also found further support for the previously reported CACNA1C (alpha 1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel; combined P = 7.0 × 10-8, rs1006737). Our results suggest that ion channelopathies may be involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.
Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) are commonly thought of as indicating genotyping errors, population stratification or some other artefact. However they could also arise through important biological mechanisms. In particular, genetic variants having a recessive effect on the successful fertilisation and/or development of an embryo might be manifest through such deviations in an unselected sample of "control" subjects.
We investigated genotypes from 463842 autosomal markers from 1504 British subjects. We identified regions in which several neighbouring markers exhibited deviation from HWE in the same direction by considering "heterozygosity scores" in windows of 10 markers. The heterozygosity score for each marker was defined as -log(p) or log(p) according to whether the marker demonstrated increased heterozygosity or homozygosity. In each window the marker with the highest absolute score was ignored and the positive and negative scores were summed for the other nine markers. Windows were selected on the basis of this sum exceeding a given threshold, for which we used values of 50 or 15.
For the threshold of 50, we identified 7 regions with increased heterozygosity and for the threshold of 15 we identified 22 regions with increased heterozygosity, 23 with increased homozygosity and 2 containing both kinds of window. The most impressive of these results came from a group of 6 markers at 17q21, each of which showed increased heterozygosity significant at p < 10-190.
The human genome contains regions which deviate markedly from HWE and these might harbour genes influencing embryonic survival.
There is evidence of linkage to a schizophrenia susceptibility locus on chromosome 8p21-22 found by several family linkage studies.
To fine map and identify a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia on chromosome 8p22 and to investigate the effect of this genetic susceptibility on an endophenotype of abnormal brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging.
Fine mapping and identification of a chromosome 8p22 susceptibility gene was carried out by finding linkage disequilibrium between genetic markers and schizophrenia in multiply affected families, a case-control sample, and a trio sample. Variation in brain morphology associated with pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) alleles was examined using voxel-based morphometry and statistical parametric mapping with magnetic resonance imaging.
Setting and Patients:
A family sample of 13 large families multiply affected with schizophrenia, 2 schizophrenia case-control samples from the United Kingdom and Scotland, and a sample of schizophrenic trios from the United States containing parents and 1 affected child with schizophrenia.
Main Outcome Measures:
Tests of transmission disequilibrium between PCM1 locus polymorphisms and schizophrenia using a family sample and tests of allelic association in case-control and trio samples. Voxel-based morphometry using statistical parametric mapping.
The family and trio samples both showed significant transmission disequilibrium between marker D85261 in the PCM1 gene locus and schizophrenia. The case-control sample from the United Kingdom also found significant allelic association between PCM1 gene markers and schizophrenia. Voxel-based morphometry of cases who had inherited a PCM1 genetic susceptibility showed a significant relative reduction in the volume of orbitofrontal cortex gray matter in comparison with patients with non–PCM1–associated schizophrenia, who, by contrast, showed gray matter volume reduction in the temporal pole, hippocampus, and inferior temporal cortex.
The PCM1 gene is implicated in susceptibility to schizophrenia and is associated with orbitofrontal gray matter volumetric deficits.
It is expected that different markers may show different patterns of association with different pathogenic variants within a given gene. It would be helpful to combine the evidence implicating association at the level of the whole gene rather than just for individual markers or haplotypes. Doing this is complicated by the fact that different markers do not represent independent sources of information.
We propose combining the p values from all single locus and/or multilocus analyses of different markers according to the formula of Fisher, X = ∑(−2ln(pi)), and then assessing the empirical significance of this statistic using permutation testing. We present an example application to 19 markers around the HTRA2 gene in a case-control study of Parkinson’s disease.
Applying our approach shows that, although some individual tests produce low p values, overall association at the level of the gene is not supported.
Approaches such as this should be more widely used in assimilating the overall evidence supporting involvement of a gene in a particular disease. Information can be combined from biallelic and multiallelic markers and from single markers along with multimarker analyses. Single genes can be tested or results from groups of genes involved in the same pathway could be combined in order to test biologically relevant hypotheses. The approach has been implemented in a computer program called COMBASSOC which is made available for downloading.
Fisher; significance; genetic marker
Previous studies have reported frequent stretches of homozygosity in human subjects but have failed to clarify whether these are due to cytogenetic abnormalities or to autozygosity.
Trios which had been typed for closely spaced SNPs spanning the genome were studied. Stretches of extended homozygosity were identified in the child members, as were occasions on which the child had been genotyped as not inheriting one parental allele. The number of times such transmission errors occurred within regions of extended homozygosity was compared with the chance expectation.
Transmission errors occurred more rarely in regions of extended homozygosity than would be expected by chance.
Regions of extended homozygosity are not generally due to cytogenetic abnormalities such as uniparental isodisomy. They reflect the Mendelian inheritance of haplotypes from a common ancestor. This may have implications for mapping disease genes.