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1.  Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs 
Background and objectives
Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness of oral health and oral hygiene.
Methods
The study was a cross-sectional survey of university students. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed randomly to university students in three public Jordanian universities during December, 2008. The questionnaire was designed to ask specific questions that are related to smoking in general, and to narghile smoking in specific. There were also questions about oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices.
Results
36.8% of the surveyed sample indicated they were smokers comprising 61.9% of the male students and 10.7% of the female students in the study sample. Cigarettes and narghile were the preferred smoking methods among male students (42%). On the other hand, female students preferred narghile only (53%). Parental smoking status but not their educational level was associated with the students smoking status. Smokers had also significantly poor dental attendance and poor oral hygiene habits.
Conclusion
This study confirmed the spreading narghile epidemic among young people in Jordan like the neighboring countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Alarming signs were the poor oral health awareness among students particularly smokers.
doi:10.1186/1477-7517-7-10
PMCID: PMC2893172  PMID: 20497563
2.  Predicting recurrent aphthous ulceration using genetic algorithms-optimized neural networks 
Objective
To construct and optimize a neural network that is capable of predicting the occurrence of recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) based on a set of appropriate input data.
Participants and methods
Artificial neural networks (ANN) software employing genetic algorithms to optimize the architecture neural networks was used. Input and output data of 86 participants (predisposing factors and status of the participants with regards to recurrent aphthous ulceration) were used to construct and train the neural networks. The optimized neural networks were then tested using untrained data of a further 10 participants.
Results
The optimized neural network, which produced the most accurate predictions for the presence or absence of recurrent aphthous ulceration was found to employ: gender, hematological (with or without ferritin) and mycological data of the participants, frequency of tooth brushing, and consumption of vegetables and fruits.
Conclusions
Factors appearing to be related to recurrent aphthous ulceration and appropriate for use as input data to construct ANNs that predict recurrent aphthous ulceration were found to include the following: gender, hemoglobin, serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin, red cell folate, salivary candidal colony count, frequency of tooth brushing, and the number of fruits or vegetables consumed daily.
PMCID: PMC3170012  PMID: 21918622
artifical neural networks; recurrent; aphthous ulceration; ulcer
3.  Orofacial findings in chronic granulomatous disease: report of twelve patients and review of the literature 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:37.
Background
Chronic granulomatous disease is an extremely rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome that can be associated with various oral complications. This can affect high number of patients. However, data on oral complications is sparse. Here we will review the literature and describe the orofacial findings in 12 patients.
Findings
The age range was 5-31 years. Oral findings were variable, and reflected a low level of oral hygiene. They included periodontitis, rampant caries, gingivitis, aphthous-like ulcers, and geographic tongue. One patient had white patches on the buccal mucosa similar to lichen planus. Another patient had a nodular dorsum of the tongue associated with fissured and geographic tongue. Biopsies from the latter two lesions revealed chronic non-specific mucositis. Panoramic radiographs showed extensive periodontitis in one patient and periapical lesions in another patient.
Conclusion
Patients with chronic granulomatous disease may develop oral lesions reflecting susceptibility to infections and inflammation. It is also possible that social and genetic factors may influence the development of this complication. Therefore, oral hygiene must be kept at an optimum level to prevent infections that can be difficult to manage.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-37
PMCID: PMC2841072  PMID: 20163723

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