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1.  Clinical measurement of the height of the interproximal contact area in maxillary anterior teeth 
To clinically quantify the apicoincisal height of interproximal areas directly in patients’ mouths.
Thirty participants (11 females and 9 males, mean age=26±1.5 years) were recruited into this study. Measurement of interproximal contact areas was carried out directly in patients’ mouths using digital caliper (TERENSA, USA) with measuring accuracy of 0.01 mm. The interproximal contact areas that were measured are: central incisor to central incisor, central incisor to lateral incisor, lateral incisor to canine, and canine to first premolar on both sides of the jaw. Statistical significance was based on probability values less than 0.05 (p<0.05).
The largest contact point was the one present between central incisors and it ranged from 2.9 to 6.5 mm. On the other hand, the contact point between canine and first premolar was the smallest on both sides of the arch and ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 mm. The dimensions of the contact points declined as we move from anterior area backwards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there were significant differences between the measurements of interproximal points of each tooth (P<0.05).
the apicogingival dimension of the contact point decreased as we moved from anterior to posterior teeth. The contact area between the central incisors was largest and the one between canine and premolar was the smallest. This study is the first to report direct intra-oral clinical measurement of contact points. Clinical evaluation of contact point dimensions using digital caliber is a viable, quick and accurate method to use.
PMCID: PMC3921062  PMID: 24533026
Contact point; Interproximal contact; anterior teeth; dental aesthetics
2.  Anxiety due to Dental Treatment and Procedures among University Students and Its Correlation with Their Gender and Field of Study 
Aim of Study. To investigate dental anxiety levels among university students and its relation with their specialty and gender. Materials and Methods. 850 undergraduate university students were recruited into the study. The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure the levels of their dental anxiety. 700 questionnaires were returned, 390 females and 310 males (response rate of 0.92% among females, 0.73% among males). The MDAS score ranged from 5 to 25. Patients were considered to suffer from high dental anxiety if they scored 13 to 20 points. Statistical analysis significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results. Seven hundred students participated in this study including 13% of medical students, 10% of dental students, 58% of arts students, and 18% of computer science students. Medical and dental students were less anxious than arts and computer science students (P < 0.05). Local anesthesia injection was the most fearful dental procedure (P < 0.05). Females were more anxious than males (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Male students were less anxious than female students. Students from medical background faculties were less anxious than students from nonmedical faculties. Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a higher level of dental anxiety among nonmedical students in Saudi Arabia.
PMCID: PMC3612457  PMID: 23573092
3.  Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs 
Background and objectives
Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness of oral health and oral hygiene.
The study was a cross-sectional survey of university students. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed randomly to university students in three public Jordanian universities during December, 2008. The questionnaire was designed to ask specific questions that are related to smoking in general, and to narghile smoking in specific. There were also questions about oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices.
36.8% of the surveyed sample indicated they were smokers comprising 61.9% of the male students and 10.7% of the female students in the study sample. Cigarettes and narghile were the preferred smoking methods among male students (42%). On the other hand, female students preferred narghile only (53%). Parental smoking status but not their educational level was associated with the students smoking status. Smokers had also significantly poor dental attendance and poor oral hygiene habits.
This study confirmed the spreading narghile epidemic among young people in Jordan like the neighboring countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Alarming signs were the poor oral health awareness among students particularly smokers.
PMCID: PMC2893172  PMID: 20497563
4.  Predicting recurrent aphthous ulceration using genetic algorithms-optimized neural networks 
To construct and optimize a neural network that is capable of predicting the occurrence of recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) based on a set of appropriate input data.
Participants and methods
Artificial neural networks (ANN) software employing genetic algorithms to optimize the architecture neural networks was used. Input and output data of 86 participants (predisposing factors and status of the participants with regards to recurrent aphthous ulceration) were used to construct and train the neural networks. The optimized neural networks were then tested using untrained data of a further 10 participants.
The optimized neural network, which produced the most accurate predictions for the presence or absence of recurrent aphthous ulceration was found to employ: gender, hematological (with or without ferritin) and mycological data of the participants, frequency of tooth brushing, and consumption of vegetables and fruits.
Factors appearing to be related to recurrent aphthous ulceration and appropriate for use as input data to construct ANNs that predict recurrent aphthous ulceration were found to include the following: gender, hemoglobin, serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin, red cell folate, salivary candidal colony count, frequency of tooth brushing, and the number of fruits or vegetables consumed daily.
PMCID: PMC3170012  PMID: 21918622
artifical neural networks; recurrent; aphthous ulceration; ulcer

Results 1-4 (4)