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1.  Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa 
Global Health: Science and Practice  2016;4(Suppl 2):S140-S152.
Competency-based training in postpartum family planning and postpartum IUD (PPIUD) service delivery of antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers from 5 francophone African countries generated an enthusiastic response from the providers and led to government and donor support for expansion of the approach. More than 2,000 women chose and received the PPIUD between 2014 and 2015. This model of South–South cooperation, when coupled with demand promotion, supportive supervision, and reliable collection of service outcome data, can help to expand PPIUD services in other regions as well.
Competency-based training in postpartum family planning and postpartum IUD (PPIUD) service delivery of antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers from 5 francophone African countries generated an enthusiastic response from the providers and led to government and donor support for expansion of the approach. More than 2,000 women chose and received the PPIUD between 2014 and 2015. This model of South–South cooperation, when coupled with demand promotion, supportive supervision, and reliable collection of service outcome data, can help to expand PPIUD services in other regions as well.
A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative’s model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South–South collaboration has been central to the initiative’s accomplishments: Guinea’s clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training programs to additional sites. Inspired after learning about the initiative at a regional meeting, Togo has outperformed the original countries involved in the initiative by training more providers than the other countries. Challenges to scale-up include a lack of formal channels for reporting PPFP and PPIUD service delivery outcomes, inconsistent coordination of services across the reproductive health continuum of care, and slow uptake in some countries. Continued success will rely on careful recordkeeping, regular monitoring and feedback, and strategic data use to advocate scale-up.
PMCID: PMC4990157  PMID: 27540120
2.  Alcohol metabolizing genes and alcohol phenotypes in an Israeli household sample 
Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research  2013;37(11):10.1111/acer.12176.
ADH1B and ADH1C variants have been robustly associated with alcohol phenotypes in East Asian populations but less so in non-Asian populations where prevalence of the most protective ADH1B allele is low (generally <5%). Further, the joint effects of ADH1B and ADH1C on alcohol phenotypes have been unclear. Therefore, we tested the independent and joint effects of ADH1B and ADH1C on alcohol phenotypes in an Israeli sample, with higher prevalence of the most protective ADH1B allele than other non-Asian populations.
A structured interview assessed lifetime drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adult Israeli household residents. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped: ADH1B (rs1229984, rs1229982, rs1159918) and ADH1C (rs698). Regression analysis examined the association between alcohol phenotypes and each SNP (absence vs. presence of the protective allele) as well as rs698/rs1229984 diplotypes (also indicating absence or presence of protective alleles) in lifetime drinkers (N=1,129).
Lack of the ADH1B rs1229984 protective allele was significantly associated with consumption- and AUD-related phenotypes (OR=1.77 for AUD; OR=1.83 for risk drinking), while lack of the ADH1C rs698 protective allele was significantly associated with AUD-related phenotypes (OR=2.32 for AUD). Diplotype analysis indicated that jointly, ADH1B and ADH1C significantly influenced AUD-related phenotypes. For example, among those without protective alleles for ADH1B or ADH1C, OR for AUD was 1.87 as compared to those without the protective allele for ADH1B only and 3.16 as compared to those with protective alleles at both ADH1B and ADH1C.
This study adds support for the relationship of ADH1B and ADH1C to alcohol phenotypes in non-Asians. Further, these findings help clarify the mixed results from previous studies by showing that ADH1B and ADH1C jointly effect AUDs, but not consumption. Studies of the association of alcohol phenotypes and either ADH1B or ADH1C alone may employ an oversimplified model, masking relevant information.
PMCID: PMC3812252  PMID: 23895337
ADH1B; ADH1C; Alcohol use disorders; Alcohol consumption; Israel
3.  Reducing heavy drinking in HIV primary care: a randomized trial of brief intervention, with and without technological enhancement 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2013;108(7):1230-1240.
In HIV-infected individuals, heavy drinking compromises survival. In HIV primary care, the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce drinking is unknown, alcohol-dependent patients may need greater intervention and resources are limited. Using interactive voice response (IVR) technology, HealthCall was designed to enhance MI via daily patient self-monitoring calls to an automated telephone system with personalized feedback. We tested the efficacy of MI-only and MI+HealthCall for drinking reduction among HIV primary care patients.
Parallel random assignment to control (n = 88), MI-only (n = 82) or MI+HealthCall (n = 88). Counselors provided advice/education (control) or MI (MI-only or MI+HealthCall) at baseline. At 30 and 60 days (end-of-treatment), counselors briefly discussed drinking with patients, using HealthCall graphs with MI+HealthCall patients.
Large urban HIV primary care clinic.
Patients consuming ≥4 drinks at least once in prior 30 days.
Using time-line follow-back, primary outcome was number of drinks per drinking day, last 30 days.
End-of-treatment number of drinks per drinking day (NumDD) means were 4.75, 3.94 and 3.58 in control, MI-only and MI+HealthCall, respectively (overall model χ2, d.f. = 9.11,2, P = 0.01). For contrasts of NumDD, P = 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.07 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.24 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. Secondary analysis indicated no intervention effects on NumDD among non-alcohol-dependent patients. However, for contrasts of NumDD among alcohol-dependent patients, P < 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.09 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.03 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. By 12-month follow-up, although NumDD remained lower among alcohol-dependent patients in MI+HealthCall than others, effects were no longer significant.
For alcohol-dependent HIV patients, enhancing MI with HealthCall may offer additional benefit, without extensive additional staff involvement.
PMCID: PMC3755729  PMID: 23432593
Alcohol dependence; brief intervention; drinking; HIV; interactive voice response; IVR; motivational interviewing; primary care; randomized trial; technology
4.  Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in the USA: Specificity of effects and the impact of gender 
Personality and mental health  2013;8(1):30-41.
Childhood maltreatment increases the risk for adult personality disorders (PDs), but several PDs or maltreatment types co-occur. Specificity of maltreatment–personality associations is poorly understood. Using a representative US population sample, we identified specific associations between maltreatment types (sexual, physical and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and PDs after controlling for basic demographics, parental psychopathology, co-occurring maltreatment types and comorbid PD. We then examined interactions of gender and maltreatment in predicting PDs. Each maltreatment type significantly predicted three–four PDs. Borderline and schizotypal PDs were most strongly predicted by sexual abuse, antisocial by physical abuse and avoidant and schizoid by emotional neglect. Specific vulnerabilities differ by gender; maltreated boys may respond with attention seeking and girls with social withdrawal. Findings highlight the importance of evaluating all forms of maltreatment even when they co-occur and can inform development of interventions to prevent personality pathology in at-risk children.
PMCID: PMC3927226  PMID: 24532553
5.  District health managers’ perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania 
Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level.
This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions.
Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints.
Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that is based on common understandings of the role and purpose of supervision. This is particularly important in a context where the majority of staff are mid-level cadres for whom regulation and guidelines may not be as formalised or well-developed as for traditional cadres, such as registered nurses and medical doctors. Supervision needs to be adequately resourced and supported in order to improve performance and retention at the district level.
PMCID: PMC3849462  PMID: 24007354
Supervision; Mid-level cadres; Malawi; Tanzania; District health management; Supervision paradigm; Measuring performance
6.  Assessing Addiction: Concepts and Instruments 
Efficient, organized assessment of substance use disorders is essential for clinical research, treatment planning, and referral to adjunctive services. In this article, we discuss the basic concepts of formalized assessment for substance abuse and addiction, as established by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and describe six widely used structured assessment instruments. Our aim is to help researchers and clinical programs identify the instruments that best suit their particular situations and purposes.
PMCID: PMC2797097  PMID: 18292706

Results 1-6 (6)