Valid quality indicators are needed to monitor and incentivize identification and management of mental health and substance use conditions (“behavioral conditions”). Because behavioral conditions are frequently under-identified, quality indicators often evaluate the proportion of patients who screen positive for a condition who have appropriate follow-up care documented. However, these “positive-screen-based” quality indicators of follow-up for behavioral conditions could be biased by differences in the denominator due to differential screening quality (“denominator bias”) and could reward identification of fewer patients with the behavioral condition(s) of interest.
To evaluate denominator bias in the performance of Veterans Health Administration (VA) networks on a quality indicator of follow-up for alcohol misuse that used patients with positive alcohol screens as the denominator.
The performance of 21 VA networks on a positive-screen-based quality indicator of follow-up for alcohol misuse was compared to the networks' performance on a population-based quality indicator (proportion of eligible patients who had alcohol misuse identified and follow-up documented) using medical record reviews (n=219,119).
Results of the two quality indicators were inconsistent. For example, two networks performed similarly on the quality indicators (64.7%, 65.4%) even though one identified and documented follow-up for almost twice as many patients (5,411 and 2,899 per 100,000 eligible, respectively). Networks that performed better on the positive-screen-based quality indicator identified fewer patients with alcohol misuse than networks that performed better on the population-based quality indicator (mean 4.1% vs 7.4% respectively).
A positive-screen-based quality indicator of follow-up for alcohol misuse preferentially rewarded networks that identified fewer patients with alcohol misuse.
quality improvement; alcohol counseling; alcohol screening
People with substance dependence have health consequences, high healthcare utilization and frequent comorbidity but often receive poor quality care overall and for dependence. Chronic care management has been proposed as an approach to improve care and outcomes.
To determine whether chronic care management (CCM) for alcohol and other drug (AOD) dependence improves substance use outcomes compared to usual primary care.
Design, Setting, and Participants
The AHEAD study was a randomized trial in people with AOD dependence, not necessarily seeking treatment, at a Boston hospital-based primary care practice. Of the 655 eligible participants, 563 (86%) were randomized. Study participants were recruited from September 2006 to September 2008 from a free-standing residential detoxification unit (74%) and referrals from an urban teaching hospital and advertisements (26%). Participants were randomized to CCM (n=282) or no CCM (n=281).
CCM included longitudinal care coordinated with a primary care clinician, motivational enhancement therapy, relapse prevention counseling, and on-site medical, addiction and psychiatric treatment, social work assistance and referrals (including mutual help). The no CCM group received a primary care appointment, and a list of treatment resources including a phone number to arrange counseling.
Main Outcome and Measure
The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence from opioids, stimulants or heavy drinking. Biomarkers were secondary outcomes. We employed longitudinal analyses for data from 3, 6 and 12 months (last interview January 21, 2010).
Of 563 participants, 95% completed 12-month follow-up. Baseline characteristics of the study participants were similar across randomization groups, but differed significantly for race and depressive symptoms. There was no significant difference in abstinence from opioids, stimulants or heavy drinking between the CCM (44%) and control (42%) groups (adjusted odds ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–1.10; p=0.21). No significant differences were found for secondary outcomes: addiction severity, health-related quality of life or drug problems. No subgroup effects were found except among those with alcohol dependence in whom CCM was associated with fewer alcohol problems (mean 10 vs. 13, incidence rate ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.00, p=0.048).
Conclusions and Relevance
Among persons with AOD dependence, CCM compared with a primary care appointment but no CCM did not increase self-reported abstinence over 12 months. Whether more intensive or longer duration CCM is effective would require further investigation.
Primary care physicians can help drug-dependent patients mitigate adverse drug use consequences; instruments validated in primary care to measure these consequences would aid in this effort. This study evaluated the validity of the Short Inventory of Problems—Alcohol and Drugs modified for Drug Use (SIP-DU) among subjects recruited from a primary care clinic (n = 106). SIP-DU internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alphas, convergent validity by correlating the total SIP-DU score with the DAST-10, and construct validity by analyzing the factor structure. The SIP-DU demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha for overall scale .95, subscales .72–.90) comparable with other SIP versions and correlated well with the DAST-10 (r = .70). Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an unacceptable fit of previously proposed factors; exploratory factor analyses suggested a single factor of drug use consequences. The SIP-DU offers primary care clinicians a valid and practical assessment tool for drug use consequences.
We examinedthe effect ofthe quality of primary care-basedchronic disease management (CDM)for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependenceonaddiction outcomes.We assessed qualityusing 1)avisit frequencybased measure and 2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. Theself-reported measure of care - when care was at a CDM clinic - was associated with lower drug addiction severity.The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere)was associated with lower alcoholaddiction severity and abstinence.These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes.Quality measuresbased upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visitfrequency measure.
No evidence-based methods exist to identify prescription drug use disorder (PDUD) in primary care (PC) patients prescribed controlled substances. Aberrant drug-related behaviors (ADRBs) are suggested as a proxy. Our objective was to determine whether ADRBs documented in electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients prescribed opioids and benzodiazepines could serve as a proxy for identifying PDUD.
A cross-sectional study of PC patients at an urban, academic medical center.
264 English-speaking patients (ages 18–60) with chronic pain (≥3 months), receiving ≥1 opioid analgesic or benzodiazepine prescription in the past year, were recruited during outpatient PC visits.
Composite International Diagnostic Interview defined DSM-IV diagnoses of past-year PDUD and no disorder. EMRs were reviewed for 15 pre-specified ADRBs (e.g. early refill, stolen medications) in the year before and after study entry. Fisher’s exact test compared frequencies of each ADRB between participants with and without PDUD.
61 participants (23%) met DSM-IV PDUD criteria and 203 (77%) had no disorder; 85% had one or more ADRB documented. Few differences in frequencies of individual behaviors were noted between groups, with only “appearing intoxicated or high” documented more frequently among participants with PDUD (n=10, 16%) vs. no disorder (n=8, 4%), p=0.002. The only common ADRB, “emergency visit for pain,” did not discriminate between those with and without the disorder (82% PDUD vs. 78% no disorder, p=0.6).
EMR documentation of ADRBs is common among PC patients prescribed opioids or benzodiazepines, but unsystematic clinician documentation does not identify PDUDs. Evidence-based approaches are needed.
Prescription drug use disorder; diagnosis; aberrant drug-related behaviors; primary care; chronic pain
Because alcohol and drug use disorders (SUDs) can influence quality of care, we compared patients with and without SUDs on frequency of catheterization, revascularization, and in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
This study employed hospital discharge data identifying all adult AMI admissions (ICD-9-CM code 410) between April 1996 and December 2001. Patients were classified as having an SUD if they had alcohol and/or drug (not nicotine) abuse or dependence using a validated ICD-9-CM coding definition. Catheterization and revascularization data were obtained by linkage with a clinically-detailed cardiac registry. Analyses (controlling for comorbidities and disease severity) compared patients with and without SUDs for post-MI catheterization, revascularization, and in-hospital mortality.
Of 7,876 AMI unique patient admissions, 2.6% had an SUD. In adjusted analyses mortality was significantly higher among those with an SUD (odds ratio (OR) 2.02; 95%CI: 1.10–3.69), while there was a trend toward lower catheterization rates among those with an SUD (OR 0.75; 95%CI: 0.55–1.01). Among the subset of AMI admissions who underwent catheterization, the adjusted hazard ratio for one-year revascularization was 0.85 (95%CI: 0.65–1.11) with an SUD compared to without.
Alcohol and drug use disorders are associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality following AMI in adults of all ages, and may also be associated with decreased access to catheterization and revascularization. This higher mortality in the face of poorer access to procedures suggests that these individuals may be under-treated following AMI. Targeted efforts are required to explore the interplay of patient and provider factors that underlie this finding.
Patients’ unhealthy alcohol use is often undetected in primary care. Our objective was to examine whether physicians’ attitudes and their perceived self-efficacy for screening and counseling patients is associated with physicians’ counseling of patients with unhealthy alcohol use, and patients’ subsequent drinking.
This study is a prospective cohort study (nested within a randomized trial) involving 41 primary care physicians and 301 of their patients, all of whom had unhealthy alcohol use. Independent variables were physicians’ attitudes toward unhealthy substance use and self-efficacy for screening and counseling. Outcomes were patients’ reports of physicians’ counseling about unhealthy alcohol use immediately after a physician visit, and patients’ drinking six months later.
Neither physicians’ attitudes nor self-efficacy had any impact on physicians’ counseling, but greater perceived self-efficacy in screening, assessing and intervening with patients was associated with more drinking by patients six months later.
Future research needs to further explore the relationship between physicians’ attitudes towards unhealthy alcohol use, their self-efficacy for screening and counseling and patients’ drinking outcomes, given our unexpected findings.
Self-efficacy; Attitudes; Screening; Counseling; Physicians; Unhealthy alcohol use
A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19, 0.67), as did identifying as a sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46; CI = 0.29, 0.72), and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62; CI = 0.45, 0.83). Positive associations with SAT include: presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37; CI = 2.24, 5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12; CI = 1.22, 3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92; CI = 1.28, 2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40; CI = 1.60, 3.62) drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64; CI = 1.88, 3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08, 2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g. drug dependence) are associated with receipt, non-need factors (e.g. sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified.
Substance abuse; treatment; addiction; HIV/AIDS; alcohol
In primary care (PC), patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often undiagnosed. To determine variables associated with treatment, this cross-sectional study assessed 592 adult patients for PTSD. Electronic medical record (EMR) review of the prior 12 months assessed mental health (MH) diagnoses and MH treatments (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and/or ≥1 visit with a MH professional). Of 133 adults with PTSD, half (49%; 66/133) received an SSRI (18%), a visit with a MH professional (14%), or both (17%). Of those treated, 88% (58/66) had an EMR MH diagnosis, the majority (71%; 47/66) depression and (18%; 12/66) PTSD. The odds of receiving MH treatment were increased 8.2 times (95% CI 3.1 – 21.5) for patients with an EMR MH diagnosis. Nearly 50% of patients with PTSD received MH treatment, yet few had this diagnosis documented. Treatment was likely due to overlap in the management of PTSD and other mental illnesses.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder; Primary Care; Mental Health Diagnosis; Mental Health Treatment
Despite the value of 12-step meetings, few studies have examined factors associated with attendance among those living with HIV/AIDS, such as the impact of HIV disease severity and demographics.
This study examines predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need on attendance at Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings among those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems.
Secondary analysis of prospective data from the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study, a cohort of 400 adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Factors associated with AA/NA attendance were identified using the Anderson model for vulnerable populations. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with self-reported AA/NA attendance.
At study entry, subjects were 75% male, 12% met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, 43% had drug dependence and 56% reported attending one or more AA/NA meetings (past six months). In the adjusted model, female gender negatively associated with attendance, as were social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs, while presence of HCV antibody, drug dependence diagnosis, and homelessness associated with higher odds of attendance.
Non-substance abuse related barriers to AA/NA group attendance exist for those living with HIV/AIDS, including females and social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs. Positive associations of homelessness, HCV infection and current drug dependence were identified. These findings provide implications for policy makers and treatment professionals who wish to encourage attendance at 12-step meetings for those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or other substance use problems.
HIV-infection; alcohol addiction disorder; substance-related disorders; 12 step groups; HIV/AIDS
Excessive alcohol consumption is most widespread among young adults. Practice guidelines recommend screening and physician advice, which could help address this common cause of injury and premature death.
To assess the proportion of persons ages 18–39 who, in the past year, saw a physician and were asked about their drinking and advised what drinking levels pose health risk, and whether this differed by age or whether respondents exceeded low-risk drinking guidelines [daily (>4 drinks for men/>3 for women) or weekly (>14 for men/>7 for women)].
Survey of young adults selected from a national internet panel established using random digit dial telephone techniques.
Adults age 18–39 who ever drank alcohol, n = 3,409 from the internet panel and n = 612 non-panel telephone respondents.
Respondents were asked whether they saw a doctor in the past year; those who did see a doctor were asked whether a doctor asked about their drinking, advised about safe drinking levels, or counseled to reduce drinking.
Of respondents, 67% saw a physician in the past year, but only 14% of those exceeding guidelines were asked and advised about risky drinking patterns. Persons 18–25 were the most likely to exceed guidelines (68% vs. 56%, p < 0.001) but were least often asked about drinking (34% vs. 54%, p < 0.001).
Despite practice guidelines, few young adults are asked and advised by physicians about excessive alcohol consumption. Physicians should routinely ask all adults about their drinking and offer advice about levels that pose health risk, particularly to young adults.
alcoholism and addictive behavior; communication; patient education; prevention
Electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) is a promising alternative to screening and brief intervention by health-care providers, but its efficacy in the hospital outpatient setting, which serves a large proportion of the population, has not been established. The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of e-SBI in hospital outpatients with hazardous or harmful drinking.
This randomized controlled trial will be conducted in the outpatient department of a large tertiary referral hospital in Newcastle (population 540,000), Australia. Some 772 adults with appointments at a broad range of medical and surgical outpatient clinics who score 5–9 inclusive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) subscale will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to electronic alcohol screening alone (control) or to e-SBI. As randomization will be effected by computer, researchers and participants (who will be invited to participate in a study of alcohol use over time) will be blinded to group assignment. The primary analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle and compare weekly volume (grams of alcohol) and the full AUDIT score with a six-month reference period between the groups six months post randomization. Secondary outcomes, assessed six and 12 months after randomization, will include drinking frequency, typical occasion quantity, proportion who report binge drinking, proportion who report heavy drinking, and health-care utilization.
If e-SBI is efficacious in outpatient settings, it offers the prospect of systematically and sustainably reaching a large number of hazardous and harmful drinkers, many of whom do not otherwise seek or receive help.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000905864.
Alcohol; Screening; Brief intervention; Internet; Intervention; Clinical trials; Hospital outpatients
Despite the vast literature examining disparities in medical care, little is known about racial/ethnic and mental health disparities in sexual health care. The objective of this study was to assess disparities in safe sex counseling and resultant behavior among a patient population at risk of negative sexual health outcomes.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among a sample of substance dependent men and women in a metropolitan area in the United States. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic black; Hispanic; non-Hispanic white) and three indicators of mental illness (moderately severe to severe depression; any manic episodes; ≥3 psychotic symptoms) with two self-reported outcomes: receipt of safe sex counseling from a primary care physician and having practiced safer sex because of counseling.
Among 275 substance-dependent adults, approximately 71% (195/275) reported ever being counseled by their regular doctor about safe sex. Among these 195 subjects, 76% (149/195) reported practicing safer sex because of this advice. Blacks (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36,5.42) and those reporting manic episodes (AOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26,4.60) had higher odds of safe sex counseling. Neither race/ethnicity nor any indicator of mental illness was significantly associated with practicing safer sex because of counseling.
Those with past manic episodes reported more safe sex counseling, which is appropriate given that hypersexuality is a known symptom of mania. Black patients reported more safe sex counseling than white patients, despite controlling for sexual risk. One potential explanation is that counseling was conducted based on assumptions about sexual risk behaviors and patient race. There were no significant disparities in self-reported safer sex practices because of counseling, suggesting that increased counseling did not differentially affect safe sex behavior for black patients and those with manic episodes. Exploring the basis of how patient characteristics can influence counseling and resultant behavior merits further exploration to help reduce disparities in safe sex counseling and outcomes.
Counseling; Disparities; Sexual behavior; Stereotyping
Unhealthy alcohol use (the spectrum of risky use through dependence) is common in HIV-infected persons, yet it can interfere with HIV medication adherence, may lower CD4 cell count, and can cause hepatic injury. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), often measured as %CDT, can detect heavy drinking but whether it does in people with HIV is not well established.
We evaluated the operating characteristics of %CDT in HIV-infected adults using cross-sectional data from 300 HIV-infected adults with current or past alcohol problems. Past 30-day alcohol consumption was determined using the Timeline Followback, a validated structured recall questionnaire, as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of %CDT (at manufacturer's cutoff point of 2.6%) for detecting both “at-risk” (≥four drinks per occasion or >seven drinks per week for women, ≥five drinks per occasion or >14 per week for men) and “heavy” drinking (≥ four drinks per day for women, ≥ five drinks per day for men on at least seven days) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated to summarize the diagnostic ability of %CDT for distinguishing “at risk” and “heavy” levels of drinking. Exploratory analyses that stratified by gender and viral hepatitis infection were performed.
Of 300 subjects, 103 reported current consumption at “at-risk” amounts, and 47 reported “heavy” amounts. For “at-risk” drinking, sensitivity of %CDT was 28% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19%, 37%), specificity 90% (95% CI 86%, 94%); area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.59. For “heavy” drinking, sensitivity was 36% (95% CI 22%, 50%), specificity 88% (95% CI 84%, 92%); AUC was 0.60.
Sensitivity appeared lower among women and those with viral hepatitis; specificity was similar across subgroups. Among HIV-infected adults, %CDT testing yielded good specificity, but poor sensitivity for detecting “at-risk” and “heavy” alcohol consumption, limiting its clinical utility for detecting unhealthy alcohol use in this population.
carbohydrate-deficient transferrin; CDT; alcohol; HIV
Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns.
Oral health; Substance dependence; Dental care
Attitudinal barriers towards analgesic use among primary care patients with chronic pain and substance use disorders (SUDs) are not well understood. We evaluated the prevalence of moderate to significant attitudinal barriers to analgesic use among 597 primary care patients with chronic pain and current analgesic use with 3 subscales from the Barriers Questionaire II: concern about side effects, fear of addiction, and worry about reporting pain to physicians. Concern about side effects was a greater barrier for those with opioid use disorders (OUDs) and non-opioid SUDs than for those with no SUD (OR (95% CI): 2.30 (1.44–3.68), P < 0.001 and 1.64 (1.02–2.65), P = 0.041, resp.). Fear of addiction was a greater barrier for those with OUDs as compared to those with non-opioid SUDs (OR (95% CI): 2.12 (1.04–4.30), P = 0.038) and no SUD (OR (95% CI): 2.69 (1.44–5.03), P = 0.002). Conversely, participants with non-opioid SUDs reported lower levels of worry about reporting pain to physicians than those with no SUD (OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.24–0.76), P = 0.004). Participants with OUDs reported higher levels of worry about reporting pain than those with non-opioid SUDs (OR (95% CI): 1.91 (1.01–3.60), P = 0.045). Concerns about side effects and fear of addiction can be barriers to analgesic use, moreso for people with SUDs and OUDs.
This study examined the relationship between drinking that exceeds guideline-recommended limits and acute-care utilization for ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) by older Medicare beneficiaries.
This secondary data analysis utilized the 2001–2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (unweighted n=5,570 community dwelling, past-year drinkers, 65 years and older). Self-reported alcohol consumption (categorized as within-guidelines, exceeding monthly but not daily limits, or heavy episodic) and covariates were used to predict ACSC hospitalization, emergency department visit not resulting in admission, and emergency department visit that did result in admission.
Heavy episodic drinking was significantly associated with higher likelihood of an ACSC emergency department visit not resulting in admission (adjusted odds ratio 1.91, 95% CI 1.11 – 3.30; p<.05). Drinking pattern was not significant for other ACSC measures.
Results partially support the hypothesis that excessive drinking may be related to ACSC acute-care utilization among older adults, suggesting increased risk of lower-quality outpatient care.
older adults; alcohol; ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions; health care utilization; quality of care
The Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM), a self-report assessment of past-month aberrant medication-related behaviors, has been validated in specialty pain management patients. The performance characteristics of the COMM were evaluated in primary care (PC) patients with chronic pain. It was hypothesized that the COMM can identify patients with prescription drug use disorder (PDD). English-speaking adults awaiting PC visits at an urban, safety-net hospital, who had chronic pain and had received any opioid analgesic prescription in the past year were administered the COMM. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview served as the “gold-standard”, using DSM-IV criteria for PDD and other substance use disorders (SUDs). A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve demonstrated the COMM’s diagnostic test characteristics. Of the 238 participants, 27 (11%) met DSM-IV PDD criteria, while 17 (7%) had other SUDs, and 194 (82%) had no disorder. The mean COMM score was higher in those with PDD than among all others (i.e., those with other SUDs or no disorder, mean 20.4 [SD 10.8] vs. 8.4 [SD 7.5], p<0.0001). A COMM score of ≥13 had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 77% for identifying patients with PDD. The area under the ROC curve was 0.84. For chronic pain patients prescribed opioids, the development of PDD is an undesirable complication. Among PC patients with chronic pain prescribed prescription opioids, the COMM is a promising tool for identifying those with PDD.
The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the status of brief intervention in the emergency department, trauma center and inpatient hospital setting. This review is based on a symposia presented at the 2009 annual conference of the Research Society on Alcoholism (Baird et al., 2009; Field, et al., 2009; Monti et al., 2009; Saitz et al., 2009). While the general efficacy of brief alcohol interventions in these settings has been recognized, the evidence is increasingly mixed. Herein we discuss possible confounding factors; including the inconsistencies in interventions provided, differences in target population, study design and assessment procedures. Recent studies investigating potential moderators of treatment outcomes suggest that a more sophisticated approach to evaluating the effectiveness of brief interventions across varying patient populations is needed in order to further understand its effectiveness. Current dissemination efforts represent a significant advance in broadening the base of treatment for alcohol problems by providing an evidenced based intervention in health care settings and should not be curtailed. However, additional research is required to enhance treatment outcomes, refine current practice guidelines and continue to bridge the gap between science and practice. Given the current state of research, a multi-setting clinical trial is recommended to account for potential contextual differences while controlling for study design.