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1.  A regionalised strategy for improving motor vehicle-related highway driver deaths using a weighted averages method 
Objective
The state of Florida has some of the most dangerous highways in the USA. In 2006, Florida averaged 1.65 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled (VMT) compared with the national average of 1.42. A study was undertaken to find a method of identifying counties that contributed to the most driver fatalities after a motor vehicle collision (MVC). By regionalising interventions unique to this subset of counties, the use of resources would have the greatest potential of improving statewide driver death.
Methods
The Florida Highway Safety Motor Vehicle database 2000–2006 was used to calculate driver VMT-weighted deaths by county. A total of 3 468 326 motor vehicle crashes were evaluated. Counties that had driver death rates higher than the state average were sorted by a weighted averages method. Multivariate regression was used to calculate the likelihood of death for various risk factors.
Results
VMT-weighted death rates identified 12 out of 67 counties that contributed up to 50% of overall driver fatalities. These counties were primarily clustered in central and south Florida. The strongest independent risk factors for driver death attributable to MVC in these high-risk counties were alcohol/drug use, rural roads, speed limit ≥45 mph, adverse weather conditions, divided highways, vehicle type, vehicle defects and roadway location.
Conclusions
Using the weighted averages method, a small subset of counties contributing to the majority of statewide driver fatalities was identified. Regionalised interventions on specific risk factors in these counties may have the greatest impact on reducing driver-related MVC fatalities.
doi:10.1136/ip.2010.030759
PMCID: PMC4304665  PMID: 21685144
2.  Association between the Number of Injuries Sustained and 12-Month Disability Outcomes: Evidence from the Injury-VIBES Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e113467.
Objective
To determine associations between the number of injuries sustained and three measures of disability 12-months post-injury for hospitalised patients.
Methods
Data from 27,840 adult (18+ years) participants, hospitalised for injury, were extracted for analysis from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates (Injury-VIBES) Study. Modified Poisson and linear regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks and mean differences, respectively, for a range of outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, GOS-E; EQ-5D and 12-item Short Form health survey physical and mental component summary scores, PCS-12 and MCS-12) according to the number of injuries sustained, adjusted for age, sex and contributing study.
Findings
More than half (54%) of patients had an injury to more than one ICD-10 body region and 62% had sustained more than one Global Burden of Disease injury type. The adjusted relative risk of a poor functional recovery (GOS-E<7) and of reporting problems on each of the items of the EQ-5D increased by 5–10% for each additional injury type, or body region, injured. Adjusted mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores worsened with each additional injury type, or body region, injured by 1.3–1.5 points and 0.5 points, respectively.
Conclusions
Consistent and strong relationships exist between the number of injury types and body regions injured and 12-month functional and health status outcomes. Existing composite measures of anatomical injury severity such as the NISS or ISS, which use up to three diagnoses only, may be insufficient for characterising or accounting for multiple injuries in disability studies. Future studies should consider the impact of multiple injuries to avoid under-estimation of injury burden.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113467
PMCID: PMC4263479  PMID: 25501651
3.  Emergency department-reported head injuries from skiing and snowboarding among children and adolescents, 1996-2010 
Objectives
To evaluate the incidence of snow-sports-related head injuries among children and adolescents reported to emergency departments (EDs), and to examine the trend from 1996 to 2010 in ED visits for snow-sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) among children and adolescents.
Methods
A retrospective, population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for patients (aged ≤17 years) treated in EDs in the USA from 1996 to 2010, for TBIs associated with snow sports (defined as skiing or snowboarding). National estimates of snow sports participation were obtained from the National Ski Area Association and utilised to calculate incidence rates. Analyses were conducted separately for children (aged 4–12 years) and adolescents (aged 13–17 years).
Results
An estimated number of 78 538 (95% CI 66 350 to 90 727) snow sports-related head injuries among children and adolescents were treated in EDs during the 14-year study period. Among these, 77.2% were TBIs (intracranial injury, concussion or fracture). The annual average incidence rate of TBI was 2.24 per 10 000 resort visits for children compared with 3.13 per 10 000 visits for adolescents. The incidence of TBI increased from 1996 to 2010 among adolescents (p<0.003).
Conclusions
Given the increasing incidence of TBI among adolescents and the increased recognition of the importance of concussions, greater awareness efforts may be needed to ensure safety, especially helmet use, as youth engage in snow sports.
doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040727
PMCID: PMC3835801  PMID: 23513009
4.  Acute Care Clinical Indicators Associated with Discharge Outcomes in Children with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
Critical care medicine  2014;42(10):2258-2266.
Objective
The relationship between acute care clinical indicators in the first severe Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) Guidelines and outcomes have not been examined. We aimed to develop a set of acute care guideline-influenced clinical indicators of adherence and tested the relationship between these indicators during the first 72 hours after hospital admission and discharge outcomes.
Design
Retrospective multicenter cohort study
Setting
Five regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers.
Patients
Children under 17 years with severe TBI (admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score ≤ 8, ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800.0-801.9, 803.0-804.9, 850.0-854.1, 959.01, 950.1-950.3, 995.55, maximum head abbreviated injury severity score ≥ 3) who received tracheal intubation for at-least 48 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU) between 2007 -2011 were examined.
Interventions
None
Measurements and Main Results
Total percent adherence to the clinical indicators across all treatment locations (pre-hospital [PH], emergency department [ED], operating room [OR], and intensive care unit [ICU]) during the first 72 hours after admission to study center were determined. Main outcomes were discharge survival and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score.
Total adherence rate across all locations and all centers ranged from 68-78%. Clinical indicators of adherence were associated with survival (aHR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.91, 0.96). Three indicators were associated with survival: absence of PH hypoxia (aHR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08, 0.46), early ICU start of nutrition (aHR 0.06; 95% CI 0.01, 0.26), and ICU PaCO2 >30 mm Hg in the absence of radiographic or clinical signs of cerebral herniation (aHR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06, 0.8). Clinical indicators of adherence were associated with favorable GOS among survivors, (aHR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98, 0.99). Three indicators were associated with favorable discharge GOS: all OR CPP >40 mm Hg (aRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.55, 0.75), all ICU CPP > 40mm Hg (aRR 0.74; 95% CI 0.63, 0.87), and no surgery (any type; aRR 0.72; 95% CI 0.53, 0.97).
Conclusions
Acute care clinical indicators of adherence to the Pediatric Guidelines were associated with significantly higher discharge survival and improved discharge GOS. Some indicators were protective, regardless of treatment location, suggesting the need for an interdisciplinary approach to the care of children with severe TBI.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000507
PMCID: PMC4167478  PMID: 25083982
pediatrics; trauma; brain injury; indicators; outcomes; injury
5.  Persistent Pain in Adolescents Following Traumatic Brain Injury 
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of pediatric disability. Although persistent pain has been recognized as a significant postinjury complication, there is a paucity of data concerning the postinjury pain experience of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of persistent pain in adolescents after TBI, identify risk factors for pain, and evaluate the impact of pain on adolescent health-related quality of life. Participants included 144 adolescents with mild to severe TBI who were followed over 36 months after injury. At 3-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month assessments, measures of pain intensity, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and health-related quality of life were completed by adolescents. Findings demonstrated that 24.3% of adolescents reported persistent pain (defined as usual pain intensity ≥3/10) at all assessment points after TBI. Female sex (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–6.63) and higher levels of depressive symptoms at 3 months after injury (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.43) were predictors of persistent pain at 36 months. Furthermore, mixed linear models indicated that early pain experience at 3 months following TBI was associated with a significantly poorer long-term health-related quality of life.
Perspective
This is the first study to examine the prevalence of persistent pain over long-term follow-up in adolescents after TBI and its impact on health-related quality of life. These findings indicate that adolescents with TBI may benefit from timely evaluation and intervention to minimize the development and impact of pain.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2013.05.007
PMCID: PMC4003883  PMID: 23911979
Traumatic brain injury; adolescents; pain; longitudinal study; health-related quality of life
6.  A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 
Lim, Stephen S | Vos, Theo | Flaxman, Abraham D | Danaei, Goodarz | Shibuya, Kenji | Adair-Rohani, Heather | Amann, Markus | Anderson, H Ross | Andrews, Kathryn G | Aryee, Martin | Atkinson, Charles | Bacchus, Loraine J | Bahalim, Adil N | Balakrishnan, Kalpana | Balmes, John | Barker-Collo, Suzanne | Baxter, Amanda | Bell, Michelle L | Blore, Jed D | Blyth, Fiona | Bonner, Carissa | Borges, Guilherme | Bourne, Rupert | Boussinesq, Michel | Brauer, Michael | Brooks, Peter | Bruce, Nigel G | Brunekreef, Bert | Bryan-Hancock, Claire | Bucello, Chiara | Buchbinder, Rachelle | Bull, Fiona | Burnett, Richard T | Byers, Tim E | Calabria, Bianca | Carapetis, Jonathan | Carnahan, Emily | Chafe, Zoe | Charlson, Fiona | Chen, Honglei | Chen, Jian Shen | Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann | Child, Jennifer Christine | Cohen, Aaron | Colson, K Ellicott | Cowie, Benjamin C | Darby, Sarah | Darling, Susan | Davis, Adrian | Degenhardt, Louisa | Dentener, Frank | Des Jarlais, Don C | Devries, Karen | Dherani, Mukesh | Ding, Eric L | Dorsey, E Ray | Driscoll, Tim | Edmond, Karen | Ali, Suad Eltahir | Engell, Rebecca E | Erwin, Patricia J | Fahimi, Saman | Falder, Gail | Farzadfar, Farshad | Ferrari, Alize | Finucane, Mariel M | Flaxman, Seth | Fowkes, Francis Gerry R | Freedman, Greg | Freeman, Michael K | Gakidou, Emmanuela | Ghosh, Santu | Giovannucci, Edward | Gmel, Gerhard | Graham, Kathryn | Grainger, Rebecca | Grant, Bridget | Gunnell, David | Gutierrez, Hialy R | Hall, Wayne | Hoek, Hans W | Hogan, Anthony | Hosgood, H Dean | Hoy, Damian | Hu, Howard | Hubbell, Bryan J | Hutchings, Sally J | Ibeanusi, Sydney E | Jacklyn, Gemma L | Jasrasaria, Rashmi | Jonas, Jost B | Kan, Haidong | Kanis, John A | Kassebaum, Nicholas | Kawakami, Norito | Khang, Young-Ho | Khatibzadeh, Shahab | Khoo, Jon-Paul | Kok, Cindy | Laden, Francine | Lalloo, Ratilal | Lan, Qing | Lathlean, Tim | Leasher, Janet L | Leigh, James | Li, Yang | Lin, John Kent | Lipshultz, Steven E | London, Stephanie | Lozano, Rafael | Lu, Yuan | Mak, Joelle | Malekzadeh, Reza | Mallinger, Leslie | Marcenes, Wagner | March, Lyn | Marks, Robin | Martin, Randall | McGale, Paul | McGrath, John | Mehta, Sumi | Mensah, George A | Merriman, Tony R | Micha, Renata | Michaud, Catherine | Mishra, Vinod | Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd | Mokdad, Ali A | Morawska, Lidia | Mozaff arian, Dariush | Murphy, Tasha | Naghavi, Mohsen | Neal, Bruce | Nelson, Paul K | Nolla, Joan Miquel | Norman, Rosana | Olives, Casey | Omer, Saad B | Orchard, Jessica | Osborne, Richard | Ostro, Bart | Page, Andrew | Pandey, Kiran D | Parry, Charles D H | Passmore, Erin | Patra, Jayadeep | Pearce, Neil | Pelizzari, Pamela M | Petzold, Max | Phillips, Michael R | Pope, Dan | Pope III, C Arden | Powles, John | Rao, Mayuree | Razavi, Homie | Rehfuess, Eva A | Rehm, Jürgen T | Ritz, Beate | Rivara, Frederick P | Roberts, Thomas | Robinson, Carolyn | Rodriguez-Portales, Jose A | Romieu, Isabelle | Room, Robin | Rosenfeld, Lisa C | Roy, Ananya | Rushton, Lesley | Salomon, Joshua A | Sampson, Uchechukwu | Sanchez-Riera, Lidia | Sanman, Ella | Sapkota, Amir | Seedat, Soraya | Shi, Peilin | Shield, Kevin | Shivakoti, Rupak | Singh, Gitanjali M | Sleet, David A | Smith, Emma | Smith, Kirk R | Stapelberg, Nicolas J C | Steenland, Kyle | Stöckl, Heidi | Stovner, Lars Jacob | Straif, Kurt | Straney, Lahn | Thurston, George D | Tran, Jimmy H | Van Dingenen, Rita | van Donkelaar, Aaron | Veerman, J Lennert | Vijayakumar, Lakshmi | Weintraub, Robert | Weissman, Myrna M | White, Richard A | Whiteford, Harvey | Wiersma, Steven T | Wilkinson, James D | Williams, Hywel C | Williams, Warwick | Wilson, Nicholas | Woolf, Anthony D | Yip, Paul | Zielinski, Jan M | Lopez, Alan D | Murray, Christopher J L | Ezzati, Majid
Lancet  2012;380(9859):2224-2260.
Summary
Background
Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time.
Methods
We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. We estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specific deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden.
Findings
In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2–7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5–7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0–5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8–9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6–8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4–6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2–10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water we and sanitation accounting for 0·9% (0·4–1·6) of global DALYs in 2010. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa childhood underweight, HAP, and non-exclusive and discontinued breastfeeding were the leading risks in 2010, while HAP was the leading risk in south Asia. The leading risk factor in Eastern Europe, most of Latin America, and southern sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 was alcohol use; in most of Asia, North Africa and Middle East, and central Europe it was high blood pressure. Despite declines, tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke remained the leading risk in high-income north America and western Europe. High body-mass index has increased globally and it is the leading risk in Australasia and southern Latin America, and also ranks high in other high-income regions, North Africa and Middle East, and Oceania.
Interpretation
Worldwide, the contribution of different risk factors to disease burden has changed substantially, with a shift away from risks for communicable diseases in children towards those for non-communicable diseases in adults. These changes are related to the ageing population, decreased mortality among children younger than 5 years, changes in cause-of-death composition, and changes in risk factor exposures. New evidence has led to changes in the magnitude of key risks including unimproved water and sanitation, vitamin A and zinc deficiencies, and ambient particulate matter pollution. The extent to which the epidemiological shift has occurred and what the leading risks currently are varies greatly across regions. In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risks are still those associated with poverty and those that affect children.
Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8
PMCID: PMC4156511  PMID: 23245609
7.  Variation in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes in the United States 
Objective
To ascertain the degree of variation, by state of hospitalization, in outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a pediatric population.
Design
A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients admitted to a hospital with a TBI.
Setting
Hospitals from states in the United States that voluntarily participate in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.
Participants
Pediatric (age ≤19y) patients hospitalized for TBI (N =71,476) in the United States during 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010.
Interventions
None.
Main Outcome Measures
Primary outcome was proportion of patients discharged to rehabilitation after an acute care hospitalization among alive discharges. The secondary outcome was inpatient mortality.
Results
The relative risk of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation varied by as much as 3-fold among the states, and the relative risk of inpatient mortality varied by as much as nearly 2-fold. In the United States, approximately 1981 patients could be discharged to inpatient rehabilitation care if the observed variation in outcomes was eliminated.
Conclusions
There was significant variation between states in both rehabilitation discharge and inpatient mortality after adjusting for variables known to affect each outcome. Future efforts should be focused on identifying the cause of this state-to-state variation, its relationship to patient outcome, and standardizing treatment across the United States.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.02.020
PMCID: PMC4146619  PMID: 24631594
Healthcare disparities; Patient outcome assessment; Rehabilitation; Traumatic brain injury
8.  National Variability in Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and Craniotomy for Children With Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
Neurosurgery  2013;73(5):746-752.
BACKGROUND
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of mortality and disability in children. Intracranial pressure monitoring (ICPM) and craniotomy/craniectomy (CRANI) may affect outcomes. Sources of variability in the use of these interventions remain incompletely understood.
OBJECTIVE
To analyze sources of variability in the use of ICPM and CRANI.
METHODS
Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with moderate/severe pediatric TBI with the use of data submitted to the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Databank.
RESULTS
We analyzed data from 7140 children at 156 US hospitals during 7 continuous years. Of the children, 27.4% had ICPM, whereas 11.7% had a CRANI. Infants had lower rates of ICPM and CRANI than older children. A lower rate of ICPM was observed among children hospitalized at combined pediatric/adult trauma centers than among children treated at adult-only trauma centers (relative risk = 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.97). For ICPM and CRANI, 18.5% and 11.6%, respectively, of residual model variance was explained by between-hospital variation in care delivery, but almost no correlation was observed between within-hospital tendency toward performing these procedures.
CONCLUSION
Infants received less ICPM than older children, and children hospitalized at pediatric trauma centers received less ICPM than children at adult-only trauma centers. In addition, significant between-hospital variability existed in the delivery of ICPM and CRANI to children with moderate-severe TBI.
doi:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000097
PMCID: PMC4127400  PMID: 23863766
Decompressive craniectomy; Intracranial pressure monitoring
9.  Marijuana-Using Drivers, Alcohol-Using drivers and Their Passengers: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Underage College Students 
JAMA pediatrics  2014;168(7):618-624.
Importance
Driving after marijuana use increases the risk of a motor vehicle crash. Understanding this behavior among young drivers and how it may differ from alcohol-related driving behaviors could inform prevention efforts.
Objective
To describe prevalence, sex differences, and risk factors associated with underage college students’ driving after using marijuana, driving after drinking alcohol, or riding with a driver using these substances.
Design, Setting, Participants
Cross-sectional telephone survey of a random sample of 315 first-year college students (aged 18-20 years) from 2 large public universities, who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. At recruitment, 52.8% of eligible individuals consented to participate; retention was 93.2% one year later when data for this report was collected.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Self-reported past-28-day driving after marijuana use, riding with a marijuana-using driver, driving after alcohol use, and riding with an alcohol-using driver.
Results
In the prior month, 20.3% of students had used marijuana. Among marijuana-using students, 43.9% of males and 8.7% of females drove after using marijuana (p<0.001) and 51.2% of male and 34.8% of female students rode as a passenger with a marijuana-using driver (p=0.21). Most students (65.1%) drank alcohol, and among this group 12.0% of male students and 2.7% of female students drove after drinking (p=0.01), with 20.7% and 11.5% (p=0.07), respectively, reporting riding with a drinking driver. Controlling for demographics and substance use behaviors, driving after substance use was associated with at least a 2-fold increase in risk of being a passenger with another user; the reverse was also true. A 1% increase in the reported percentage of friends using marijuana was associated with a 2% increased risk of riding with a marijuana using driver (95% CI=1.01-1.03). Among students using any substances, past 28-day use of only marijuana was associated with a 6.24-fold increased risk of driving after substance use compared to using only alcohol (95% CI=1.89-21.7).
Conclusions and Relevance
Driving and riding after marijuana use is common among underage, marijuana-using college students. This is concerning given recent legislation that may increase marijuana availability.
doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5300
PMCID: PMC4090688  PMID: 24820649
10.  Triage of Children with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury to Trauma Centers 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2013;30(13):1129-1136.
Abstract
Outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to pre-treatment factors including age, injury severity, and mechanism of injury, and may be positively affected by treatment at trauma centers relative to non-trauma centers. This study estimated the proportion of children with moderate to severe TBI who receive care at trauma centers, and examined factors associated with receipt of care at adult (ATC), pediatric (PTC), and adult/pediatric trauma centers (APTC), compared with care at non-trauma centers (NTC) using a nationally representative database. The Kids' Inpatient Database was used to identify hospitalizations for moderate to severe pediatric TBI. Pediatric inpatients ages 0 to 17 years with at least one diagnosis of TBI and a maximum head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of ≥3 were studied. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine factors predictive of the level and type of facility where care was received. A total of 16.7% of patients were hospitalized at NTC, 44.2% at Level I or II ATC, 17.9% at Level I or II PTC, and 21.2% at Level I or II APTC. Multiple regression analyses showed receipt of care at a trauma center was associated with age and polytrauma. We concluded that almost 84% of children with moderate to severe TBI currently receive care at a Level I or Level II trauma center. Children with trauma to multiple body regions in addition to more severe TBI are more likely to receive care a trauma center relative to a NTC.
doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2716
PMCID: PMC3700462  PMID: 23343131
brain injury; pediatrics; trauma; trauma center
11.  The burden of traumatic brain injury among adolescent and young adult workers in Washington State 
Journal of safety research  2013;45:133-139.
Objective
This study describes injury characteristics and costs of work-related traumatic brain injury (WRTBI) among 16–24 year olds in Washington State between 1998 and 2008.
Methods
WRTBIs were identified in the Washington Trauma Registry (WTR) and linked to workers’ compensation (WC) claims data. Medical and time-loss compensation costs were compared between workers with isolated TBI and TBI with other trauma.
Results
Of 273 WRTBI cases identified, most (61.5%) were TBI with other trauma. One-third of WRTBI did not link to a WC claim. Medical costs averaged $88,307 (median $16,426) for isolated TBI cases, compared to $73,669 (median $41,167) for TBI with other trauma.
Conclusions
Results highlight the financial impact of WRTBI among young workers. Multiple data sources provided a more comprehensive picture than a single data source alone. This linked-data approach holds great potential for future traumatic occupational injury research.
doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2012.11.001
PMCID: PMC3659310  PMID: 23710080
Occupational health; Head injuries; Youth; Work-related injuries; Costs of work-related TBI; Workers’ compensation data
12.  Disparities in Disability After Traumatic Brain Injury Among Hispanic Children and Adolescents 
Pediatrics  2013;131(6):e1850-e1856.
OBJECTIVE:
To compare the extent of disability in multiple areas of functioning after mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) children.
METHODS:
This was a prospective cohort study of children aged <18 years treated for a TBI between March 1, 2007, and September 30, 2008. Hispanic (n = 74) and NHW (n = 457) children were included in the study. Outcome measures were disability in health-related quality of life, adaptive skills, and participation in activities 3, 12, 24, and 36 months after injury compared with preinjury functioning. We compared change in outcome scores between Hispanic and NHW children at each follow-up time. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, severity and intent of injury, insurance, family function at baseline, parental education, and income.
RESULTS:
The health-related quality of life for all children was lower at all follow-up times compared with baseline. Although NHW children showed some improvement during the first 3 years after injury, Hispanic children remained significantly impaired. Significant differences were also observed in the domains of communication and self-care abilities after TBI. Differences between groups in scores for participation in activities were also present but were only significant 3 months after injury.
CONCLUSIONS:
Hispanic children with TBI report larger and long-term reductions in their quality of life, participation in activities, communication, and self-care abilities compared with NHW children. The reasons for these differences need to be better understood and interventions implemented to improve the outcomes of these children.
doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3354
PMCID: PMC3666112  PMID: 23650302
disability; disparities; Hispanic children; traumatic brain injury
13.  Perioperative Analgesic Treatment in Latino and non-Latino Pediatric Patients 
Purpose
Adult studies suggest pain treatment is influenced by patient’s race/ethnicity. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the patient’s race/ethnicity on pain treatment in children.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study comparing perioperative analgesic administration for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) surgery in Latino and Caucasian patients younger than 18 years of age.
Results
Ninety-four (94) patients were included (47 Latino, 47 Caucasian), mean age 8.44 yrs (SD 3.45), 43% female. Administration of non-opioid analgesics and intraoperative opioids was similar in both groups. Early post-operative administration of opioid analgesics was significantly different between groups. Latino subjects received 30% less opioid analgesics than Caucasians; median amount in morphine equivalents was 0.05 (0–0.14) vs. 0.07 (0–0.90) mg/kg for Latino and Caucasian patients respectively (p=.02).
Conclusion
This study suggests that perioperative pain treatment in children is correlated with the patient’s ethnicity. The cause of this difference is unknown and prospective studies are necessary to elucidate the reasons.
doi:10.1353/hpu.0.0236
PMCID: PMC4011632  PMID: 20173265
Ethnicity; Latino; pediatric; pain
14.  Ethnoracial Variations in Acute PTSD Symptoms Among Hospitalized Survivors of Traumatic Injury 
Journal of traumatic stress  2010;23(3):384-392.
Ethnoracial minority status contributes to an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma exposure, beyond other risk factors. A population-based sampling frame was used to examine the associations between ethnoracial groups and early PTSD symptoms while adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic characteristics. Acutely injured trauma center inpatients (N = 623) were screened with the PTSD Checklist. American Indian and African American patients reported the highest levels of posttraumatic stress and preinjury cumulative trauma burden. African American heritage was independently associated with an increased risk of higher acute PTSD symptom levels. Disparities in trauma history, PTSD symptoms, and event related factors emphasize the need for acute care services to incorporate culturally competent approaches for treating these diverse populations.
doi:10.1002/jts.20534
PMCID: PMC3947745  PMID: 20564368
15.  Modifying Media Content for Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Pediatrics  2013;131(3):431-438.
BACKGROUND:
Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch.
METHODS:
We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months.
RESULTS:
At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06–1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34–1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: −0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60–11.37]).
CONCLUSIONS:
An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior.
doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1493
PMCID: PMC3581844  PMID: 23420911
aggression; TV; preschool; prosocial; behavior
16.  A Randomized Stepped Care Intervention Trial Targeting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Surgically Hospitalized Injury Survivors 
Annals of surgery  2013;257(3):390-399.
Objective
To test the effectiveness of a stepped care intervention model targeting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after injury.
Background
Few investigations have evaluated interventions for injured patients with PTSD and related impairments that can be feasibly implemented in trauma surgical settings.
Methods
The investigation was a pragmatic effectiveness trial in which 207 acutely injured hospitalized trauma survivors were screened for high PTSD symptom levels and then randomized to a stepped combined, care management, psychopharmacology, and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy intervention (n = 104) or usual care control (n = 103) conditions. The symptoms of PTSD and functional limitations were reassessed at one-, three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-months after the index injury admission.
Results
Regression analyses demonstrated that over the course of the year after injury, intervention patients had significantly reduced PTSD symptoms when compared to controls (group by time effect, CAPS, F(2, 185) = 5.50, P < 0.01; PCL-C, F(4, 185) = 5.45, P < 0.001). Clinically and statistically significant PTSD treatment effects were observed at the six-, nine-, and twelve-month post-injury assessments. Over the course of the year after injury, intervention patients also demonstrated significant improvements in physical function (MOS SF-36 PCS main effect, F(1, 172) = 9.87, P < 0.01).
Conclusion
Stepped care interventions can reduce PTSD symptoms and improve functioning over the course of the year after surgical injury hospitalization. Orchestrated investigative and policy efforts could systematically introduce and evaluate screening and intervention procedures for PTSD at United States trauma centers. (Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00270959)
doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31826bc313
PMCID: PMC3582367  PMID: 23222034
17.  Disseminating Organizational Screening and Brief Intervention Services (DO-SBIS) for Alcohol at Trauma Centers Study Design 
General hospital psychiatry  2012;35(2):174-180.
Objective
In 2005 the American College of Surgeons passed a mandate requiring that Level I trauma centers have a mechanism to identify patients who are problem drinkers and have the capacity to provide an intervention for patients who screen positive. The aim of the Disseminating Organizational Screening and Brief Intervention Services (DO-SBIS) cluster randomized trial is to test a multilevel intervention targeting the implementation of high quality alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) services at trauma centers.
Method
Twenty sites selected from all US Level I trauma centers were randomized to participate in the trial. Intervention site providers receive a combination of workshop training in evidence-based motivational interviewing (MI) interventions and organizational development activities prior to conducting trauma center-based alcohol SBI with blood alcohol positive injured patients. Control sites implement care as usual. Provider MI skills, patient alcohol consumption, and organizational acceptance of SBI implementation outcomes are assessed.
Results
The investigation has successfully recruited provider, patient, and trauma center staff samples into the study and outcomes are being followed longitudinally.
Conclusion
When completed, the DO-SBIS trial will inform future American College of Surgeons’ policy targeting the sustained integration of high quality alcohol SBI at trauma centers nationwide.
doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.11.012
PMCID: PMC3594343  PMID: 23273831
Acute care medical trauma centers; Injury; Alcohol; Screening and brief intervention; American College of Surgeons
18.  Substance Use and PTSD Symptoms in Trauma Center Patients Receiving Mandated Alcohol SBI 
In an effort to integrate substance abuse treatment at trauma centers, the American College of Surgeons has mandated alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI). Few investigations have assessed trauma center inpatients for comorbidities that may impact the effectiveness of SBI that exclusively focuses on alcohol. Randomly selected SBI eligible acute care medical inpatients (N=878) were evaluated for alcohol, illegal drugs, and symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using electronic medical record, toxicology, and self-report assessments; 79% of all patients had one or more alcohol, illegal drug, or PTSD symptom comorbidity. Over 70% of patients receiving alcohol SBI (n=166) demonstrated one or more illegal drug or PTSD symptom comorbidity. A majority of trauma center inpatients have comorbidities that may impact the effectiveness of mandated alcohol SBI. Investigations that realistically capture, account for, and intervene upon these common comorbid presentations are required to inform the iterative development of College policy targeting integrated substance abuse treatment at trauma centers.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2012.08.009
PMCID: PMC3528356  PMID: 22999379
19.  Bullying and School Safety 
The Journal of pediatrics  2007;152(1):10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.05.045.
Objective
To identify an association between involvement in bullying and problems in school.
Study design
This was a cross-sectional study of 5391 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 in an urban public school district. The main outcome measure was involvement in bullying. Secondary outcomes included attendance, grade point average, psychosocial distress, and perceived acceptability of carrying guns to school.
Results
Of the 5391 children surveyed, 26% were involved in bullying either as victim, bully, or both (bully-victim). All 3 groups were significantly more likely than bystanders to feel unsafe at school and sad most days. Victims and bully-victims were more likely to say they are “no good.” Victims were more likely to feel that they “do not belong” in their school. The odds of being a victim (vs a bystander) were 10% lower for every 1 point increase in grade point average. Bully-victims were more likely to say that it is “not wrong” to take a gun to school.
Conclusions
Associations between involvement in bullying and academic achievement, psychological distress, and the belief that it is not wrong to take a gun to school reinforce the notion that school environment is interrelated with mental health and school success.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.05.045
PMCID: PMC3839286  PMID: 18154913
20.  Correction: Harborview Burns – 1974 to 2009 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):10.1371/annotation/8dffa635-e876-48e1-958a-0016d3618d64.
doi:10.1371/annotation/8dffa635-e876-48e1-958a-0016d3618d64
PMCID: PMC3806627  PMID: 24194804
21.  Persistence of Disability 24 to 36 Months after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2012;29(15):2499-2504.
Abstract
This study examined the outcome of 0- to 17-year-old children 36 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ascertained if there was any improvement in function between 24 and 36 months. Controls were children treated in the emergency department for an arm injury. Functional outcome 36 months after injury was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the self-care and communication subscales of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment Scale-2nd edition (ABAS-II), and the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP). At 36 months after TBI, those with moderate or severe TBI continued to have PedsQL scores that were 16.1 and 17.9 points, respectively, lower than at baseline, compared to the change seen among arm injury controls. Compared to the baseline assessment, children with moderate or severe TBI had significantly poorer functioning on the ABAS-II and poorer participation in activities (CASP). There was no significant improvement in any group on any outcomes between 24 and 36 months. Post-injury interventions that decrease the impact of these deficits on function and quality of life, as well as preventive interventions that reduce the likelihood of TBI, should be developed and tested.
doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2434
PMCID: PMC3471122  PMID: 22757748
children and adolescents; disability; functional outcome; traumatic brain injury
22.  History of dating violence and the association with late adolescent health 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:821.
Background
The present investigation expands upon prior studies by examining the relationship between health in late adolescence and the experience of physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization, including dating violence types that are relevant to today’s adolescents (e.g., harassment via email and text messaging). We examined the relationship between physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 and health in late adolescence/early adulthood.
Methods
The sample comprised 585 subjects (ages 18 to 21; mean age, 19.8, SD = 1.0) recruited from The Ohio State University who completed an online survey to assess: 1) current health (depression, disordered eating, binge drinking, smoking, and frequent sexual behavior); and 2) dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (retrospectively assessed using eight questions covering physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse, including technology-related abuse involving stalking/harassment via text messaging and email). Multivariable models compared health indicators in never-exposed subjects to those exposed to physical/sexual or non-physical dating violence only. The multivariable models were adjusted for age and other non-dating abuse victimization (bullying; punched, kicked, choked by a parent/guardian; touched in a sexual place, forced to touch someone sexually).
Results
In adjusted analyses, compared to non-exposed females, females with physical/sexual dating violence victimization were at increased risk of smoking (prevalence ratio = 3.95); depressive symptoms (down/hopeless, PR = 2.00; lost interest, PR = 1.79); eating disorders (using diet aids, PR = 1.98; fasting, PR = 4.71; vomiting to lose weight, PR = 4.33); and frequent sexual behavior (5+ intercourse and oral sex partners, PR = 2.49, PR = 2.02; having anal sex, PR = 2.82). Compared to non-exposed females, females with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3.61), depressive symptoms (down/hopeless, PR = 1.41; lost interest, PR = 1.36), eating disorders (fasting, PR = 3.37; vomiting, PR = 2.66), having 5+ intercourse partners (PR = 2.20), and having anal sex (PR = 2.18). For males, no health differences were observed for those experiencing physical/sexual dating violence compared to those who did not. Compared to non-exposed males, males with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3.91) and disordered eating (fasting, using diet aids, vomiting, PR = 2.93).
Conclusions
For females, more pronounced adverse health was observed for those exposed to physical/sexual versus non-physical dating violence. For both females and males, non-physical dating violence victimization contributed to poor health.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-821
PMCID: PMC3847300  PMID: 24015863
Adolescents; Adolescent sexual behavior; Dating violence; Depression; Eating disorders
23.  Variation in adherence to new quality of care indicators for the acute rehabilitation of children with traumatic brain injury 
Objective
To determine variations in care provided by nine inpatient rehabilitation units for children with TBI using newly developed quality indicators.
Design
Retrospective cohort study
Setting
Study conducted in 9 inpatient rehabilitation units.
Participants
174 children 0–17 years admitted for the inpatient rehabilitation of moderate to severe TBI.
Interventions
Not applicable
Main Outcome Measures
Adherence to 119 newly developed quality of care indicators in seven different domains: general care, family-centered care, cognitive-communication, motor, neuropsychological, school and community integration.
Results
There was substantial variation both within and between institutions in the percent of patients receiving recommended care in the seven domains. The lowest scores were found for the school domain. Only five institutions scored above 50% for all quality indicators and only one institution scored above 70% overall. Greater adherence to quality indicators was found for facilities with a higher proportion of therapists with pediatric training and for facilities that only admitted children. Patient volume was not associated with adherence to quality indicators.
Conclusions
The results indicate a tremendous variability and opportunity for improvement in the care children with TBI.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.02.031
PMCID: PMC3408840  PMID: 22446294
Traumatic brain injury; children and adolescents; inpatient rehabilitation; quality of care
24.  Assessment of the Status of Prehospital Care in 13 Low- and Middle-Income Countries 
Prehospital Emergency Care  2012;16(3):381-389.
Objectives
Injury and other medical emergencies are becoming increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many to most of the deaths from these conditions occur outside of hospitals, necessitating the development of prehospital care. Prehospital capabilities are inadequately developed to meet the growing needs for emergency care in most LMICs. In order to better plan for development of prehospital care globally, this study sought to better understand the current status of prehospital care in a wide range of LMICs.
Methods
A survey was conducted of emergency medical services (EMS) leaders and other key informants in 13 LMICs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Questions addressed methods of transport to hospital, training and certification of EMS providers, organization and funding of EMS systems, public access to prehospital care, and barriers to EMS development.
Results
Prehospital care capabilities varied significantly, but in general, were less developed in low-income countries and in rural areas, where utilization of formal emergency medical services was often very low. Commercial drivers, volunteers, and other bystanders provided a large proportion of prehospital transport and occasionally also provide first aid in many locations. Although taxes and mandatory motor vehicle insurance provided supplemental funds to EMS in 85% of the countries, the most frequently cited barriers to further development of prehospital care was inadequate funding (36% of barriers cited). The next most commonly sited barriers were lack of leadership within the system (18%) and lack of legislation setting standards (18%).
Conclusions
Expansion of prehospital care to currently under- or un-served areas, especially in low-income countries and in rural areas, could make use of the already existing networks of first responders, such as commercial drivers and lay persons. Efforts to increase their effectiveness, such as more widespread first aid training, and better encompassing their efforts within formal EMS, are warranted. In terms of existing formal EMS, there is a need for increased and more regular funding, integration and coordination among existing services, and improved organization and leadership, as could be accomplished by making EMS administration and leadership a more desirable career path.
doi:10.3109/10903127.2012.664245
PMCID: PMC3360803  PMID: 22490009
developing country; emergency; emergency medical services; global; injury; low income country; low or middle income country; middle income country; prehospital care; trauma
25.  Utilization and Costs of Health Care after Geriatric Traumatic Brain Injury 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2012;29(10):1864-1871.
Abstract
Despite the growing number of older adults experiencing traumatic brain injury (TBI), little information exists regarding their utilization and cost of health care services. Identifying patterns in the type of care received and determining their costs is an important first step toward understanding the return on investment and potential areas for improvement. We performed a health care utilization and cost analysis using the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT) dataset. Subjects were persons 55–84 years of age with TBI treated in 69 U.S. hospitals located in 14 states (n=414, weighted n=1038). Health outcomes, health care utilization, and 1-year costs of care following TBI in 2005 U.S. dollars were estimated from hospital bills, patient surveys, medical records, and Medicare claims data. The subjects were further analyzed in three subgroups (55–64, 65–74, and 75–84 years of age). Unadjusted cost models were built, followed by a second set of models adjusting for demographic and pre-injury health status. Those in the oldest category (75–84 years) had significantly higher numbers of re-hospitalizations, home health care visits, and hours per week of unpaid care, and significantly lower numbers of physician and mental health professional visits than younger age groups (age 55–64 and 65–74 years). Significant age-related differences were seen in all health outcomes tested at 12 months post-injury except for incidence of depressive symptoms. One-year total treatment costs did not differ significantly across age categories for brain-injured older adults in either the unadjusted or adjusted models. The unadjusted total mean 1-year cost of care was $77,872 in persons aged 55–64 years, $76,903 in persons aged 65–74 years, and $72,733 in persons aged 75–84 years. There were significant differences in cost drivers among the age groups. In the unadjusted model index hospitalization costs and inpatient rehabilitation costs were significantly lower in the oldest age category, while outpatient care costs and nursing home stays were lower in the younger age categories. In the adjusted model, in addition to these cost drivers, re-hospitalization costs were significantly higher among those 75–84 years of age, and receipt of informal care from friends and family was significantly different, being lowest among those aged 65–74 years, and highest among those aged 75–84 years. Identifying variations in care that these patients are receiving and determining the costs versus benefits is an important next step in understanding potential areas for improvement.
doi:10.1089/neu.2011.2284
PMCID: PMC3390979  PMID: 22435729
head injury; health services; informal care outcome

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