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1.  Facial emotion processing and recognition among maltreated children: a systematic literature review 
Frontiers in Psychology  2014;5:1460.
Exposure to maltreatment is associated with biological, psychological, and social development impairments in children. This systematic literature review sought to determine whether an association exists between child maltreatment and facial emotion processing and recognition. The search was conducted using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and SciELO using the following keywords: “maltreatment,” “adversity,” “neglect,” “sexual abuse,” “emotional abuse,” “physical abuse,” “child*,” “early,” “infant,” “face,” “facial,” “recognition,” “expression,” “emotion*,” and “impairment.” Seventeen articles were selected and analyzed. Maltreated children tended to exhibit less accuracy in global facial tasks and showed greater reactivity, response bias, and electrophysiological activation of specific brain areas in response to faces expressing negative emotions, especially anger. We concluded that the results of this review are exploratory and non-conclusive due to the small number of studies published and the wide variety of aims and procedures. Those shortcomings notwithstanding, the results indicate definite tendencies and gaps that should be more thoroughly explored in future studies.
PMCID: PMC4269127  PMID: 25566138
child; maltreatment; facial emotion; processing; recognition; review
2.  Identification of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory risk factors for leprosy reactions during and after multidrug therapy 
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz  2013;108(7):901-908.
This cross-sectional retrospective study evaluated 440 leprosy patients; 57% (251/440) had leprosy reactions during and/or after multidrug therapy, 80.5% (202/251) of whom presented with multibacillary leprosy. At diagnosis, positive bacterial index (BI) [odds ratio (OR) = 6.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1-10.1)] or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (OR = 9.15; 95% CI: 5.4-15.5) in skin smears, anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 (anti-PGL-1) ELISA (OR = 4.77; 95% CI: 2.9-7.9), leucocytosis (OR = 9.97; 95% CI: 3.9-25.7), thrombocytopenia (OR = 5.72; 95% CI: 2.3-14.0) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.4-4.0) were potential markers for the development of reactions during treatment. After treatment, positive BI (OR = 8.47; 95% CI: 4.7-15.3) and PCR (OR = 6.46; 95% CI: 3.4-12.3) in skin smears, anti-PGL-1 ELISA (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.3-3.9), anaemia (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5), leucocytosis (OR = 4.14; 95% CI: 1.5-11.6) and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.70; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2) were risk factors for the occurrence of reactions during the study period. The identification of groups with an increased risk for developing reactions will allow for the timely development of a treatment plan to prevent nerve damage and, therefore, the appearance of the disabling sequelae associated with the stigma of leprosy.
PMCID: PMC3970646  PMID: 24271045
leprosy; epidemiology; tropical medicine; infectious diseases
3.  A Randomized Clinical Trial of Schinus terebinthifolius Mouthwash to Treat Biofilm-Induced Gingivitis 
Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a Schinus terebinthifolius (ST) mouthwash in reducing gingival inflammation levels (GI) and biofilm accumulation (BA) in children with gingivitis. Methods. This was a randomized, controlled, triple blind, and phase II clinical trial, with children aged 9–13 years (n = 27) presenting with biofilm-induced gingivitis. The sample was randomized into experimental (0.3125% ST, n = 14) and control (0.12% chlorhexidine/CHX, n = 13) groups. Products were masked as regards color, flavor and aroma. Intervention protocol consisted in supervised rinsing of 10 mL/day for 01 minute for 10 days. Gingival bleeding and simplified oral hygiene indexes were used to assess the efficacy variables, measured at baseline and after intervention by calibrated examiners. Data were statistically treated with paired t-test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). Results. It was found that both ST and CHX were able to significantly reduce GI levels after 10 days (P < 0.001) and there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). CHX was the only product able to significantly reduce BA after 10 days when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ST mouthwash showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (equivalent to CHX), but it was not able to reduce biofilm accumulation.
PMCID: PMC3703368  PMID: 23843886
4.  Exercise training prevents skeletal muscle damage in an experimental sepsis model 
Clinics  2013;68(1):107-114.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in skeletal muscle damage in sepsis. Aerobic exercise can decrease oxidative stress and enhance antioxidant defenses. Therefore, it was hypothesized that aerobic exercise training before a sepsis stimulus could attenuate skeletal muscle damage by modulating oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic physical preconditioning on the different mechanisms that are involved in sepsis-induced myopathy.
Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either the untrained or trained group. The exercise training protocol consisted of an eight-week treadmill program. After the training protocol, the animals from both groups were randomly assigned to either a sham group or a cecal ligation and perforation surgery group. Thus, the groups were as follows: sham, cecal ligation and perforation, sham trained, and cecal ligation and perforation trained. Five days after surgery, the animals were euthanized and their soleus and plantaris muscles were harvested. Fiber cross-sectional area, creatine kinase, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, carbonyl, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured.
The fiber cross-sectional area was smaller, and the creatine kinase, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and carbonyl levels were higher in both muscles in the cecal ligation and perforation group than in the sham and cecal ligation and perforation trained groups. The muscle superoxide dismutase activity was higher in the cecal ligation and perforation trained group than in the sham and cecal ligation and perforation groups. The muscle catalase activity was lower in the cecal ligation and perforation group than in the sham group.
In summary, aerobic physical preconditioning prevents atrophy, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and improves superoxide dismutase activity in the skeletal muscles of septic rats.
PMCID: PMC3552448  PMID: 23420166
CLP; Skeletal Muscle; Myopathy; Oxidative Stress; Antioxidant Enzymes; Aerobic Exercise
7.  Administration of Harmine and Imipramine Alters Creatine Kinase and Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Activities in the Rat Brain 
The present study evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities after administration of harmine (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) in rat brain. After acute treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg) and harmine in all doses, in the striatum with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10 mg/kg); harmine (15 mg/kg) decreased creatine kinase. In the chronic treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase with imipramine (20 mg/kg), harmine (5 mg/kg) in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10 mg/kg) in the striatum. In the acute treatment, the complex I increased in the prefrontal with harmine (15 mg/kg) and in the striatum with harmine (10 mg/kg); the complex II decreased with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg) in the striatum; the complex IV increased with imipramine (30 mg/kg) in the striatum. In the chronic treatment, the complex I increased with harmine (5 mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex II increased with imipramine (20 mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex IV increased with harmine (5 mg/kg) in the striatum. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that harmine and imipramine could be involved in mitochondrial function.
PMCID: PMC3182396  PMID: 21969912
8.  Acanthamoeba culbertsoni Elicits Soluble Factors That Exert Anti-Microglial Cell Activity▿  
Infection and Immunity  2010;78(9):4001-4011.
Acanthamoeba culbertsoni is an opportunistic pathogen that causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic and often fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A hallmark of GAE is the formation of granulomas around the amoebae. These cellular aggregates consist of microglia, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, which produce a myriad of proinflammatory soluble factors. In the present study, it is demonstrated that A. culbertsoni secretes serine peptidases that degrade chemokines and cytokines produced by a mouse microglial cell line (BV-2 cells). Furthermore, soluble factors present in cocultures of A. culbertsoni and BV-2 cells, as well as in cocultures of A. culbertsoni and primary neonatal rat cerebral cortex microglia, induced apoptosis of these macrophage-like cells. Collectively, the results indicate that A. culbertsoni can apply a multiplicity of cell contact-independent modes to target macrophage-like cells that exert antiamoeba activities in the CNS.
PMCID: PMC2937456  PMID: 20605979

Results 1-8 (8)