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1.  Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses 
Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00289
PMCID: PMC3793123  PMID: 24130554
detection; diagnosis; rice viruses; LAR; ELISA; multiplex RT-PCR; RT-LAMP; real-time RT-PCR
2.  No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8) 
Background
Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8) was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV), has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission.
Methods
Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog) and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia.
Results
All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses.
Conclusions
These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-54-25
PMCID: PMC3416777  PMID: 22506984
Canine influenza; Dog; H3N8; Horse; Interspecies transmission

Results 1-2 (2)