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1.  PACAP signaling exerts opposing effects on neuroprotection and neuroinflammation during disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis☆ 
Neurobiology of disease  2013;54:32-42.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic peptide with autocrine neuroprotective and paracrine anti-inflammatory properties in various models of acute neuronal damage and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we examined a possible beneficial role of endogenous PACAP in the superoxide dismutase 1, SOD1(G93A), mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a lethal neurodegenerative disease particularly affecting somatomotor neurons. In wild-type mice, somatomotor and visceromotor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord were found to express the PACAP specific receptor PAC1, but only visceromotor neurons expressed PACAP as a potential autocrine source of regulation of these receptors. In SOD1(G93A) mice, only a small subset of the surviving somatomotor neurons showed induction of PACAP mRNA, and somatomotor neuron degeneration was unchanged in PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice. Pre-ganglionic sympathetic visceromotor neurons were found to be resistant in SOD1(G93A) mice, while pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons degenerated during ALS disease progression in this mouse model. PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice showed even greater pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neuron loss compared to SOD1(G93A) mice, and additional degeneration of pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons. Thus, constitutive expression of PACAP and PAC1 may confer neuroprotection to central visceromotor neurons in SOD1(G93A) mice via autocrine pathways. Regarding the progression of neuroinflammation, the switch from amoeboid to hypertrophic microglial phenotype observed in SOD1(G93A) mice was absent in PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice. Thus, endogenous PACAP may promote microglial cytodestructive functions thought to drive ALS disease progression. This hypothesis was consistent with prolongation of life expectancy and preserved tongue motor function in PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice, compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. Given the protective role of PACAP expression in visceromotor neurons and the opposing effect on microglial function in SOD1(G93A) mice, both PACAP agonism and antagonism may be promising therapeutic tools for ALS treatment, if stage of disease progression and targeting the specific auto- and paracrine signaling pathways are carefully considered.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.02.010
PMCID: PMC3955759  PMID: 23466699
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Microglia; Neuroinflammation; Neuroprotection; Neuropeptide; Parasympathetic; Sympathetic
2.  Localization and Expression of VMAT2 Aross Mammalian Species: A Translational Guide for Its Visualization and Targeting in Health and Disease 
VMAT2 is the vesicular monoamine transporter that allows DA, NE, Epi, His, and 5-HT uptake into neurons and endocrine cells. A second isoform, VMAT1, has similar structure and function, but does not recognize histamine as a substrate. VMAT1 is absent from neurons, and its major function appears to be in endocrine cells, that is, enterochromaffin cells, which scavenge 5-HT, but not histamine, from dietary sources. This chapter provides an update on the neuroanatomical distribution of VMAT2 across various mammalian species, including human, primate, pig, rat, and mouse. When necessary, VMAT1 expression is provided as a contrast. The main purpose of this chapter is to allow clinicians, in particular endocrinologists and diagnosing neuroradiologists and neuropathologists, an acquaintanceship with the possibilities for VMAT2 as a target for in vivo imaging, and drug development, based on this updated information.
doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-411512-5.00015-4
PMCID: PMC3928124  PMID: 24054151
3.  New Model for Gastroenteropancreatic Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Establishment of Two Clinically Relevant Cell Lines 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88713.
Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1) or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2) from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088713
PMCID: PMC3925161  PMID: 24551139
4.  Lentiviral Infection of Rhesus Macaques Causes Long-Term Injury to Cortical and Hippocampal Projections of Prostaglandin-Expressing Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons 
The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model resembles human HIV-AIDS and associated brain dysfunction. Altered expression of synaptic markers and transmitters in neuro-AIDS has been reported, but limited data exist for the cholinergic system and lipid mediators such as prostaglandins. Here, we analyzed cholinergic basal forebrain neurons with their telencephalic projections and the rate-limiting enzymes for prostaglandin synthesis, cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX1 and 2) in brains of SIV-infected macaques with and without encephalitis and antiretroviral therapy, and uninfected controls. COX1 but not COX2 was co-expressed with markers of cholinergic phenotype, i.e. choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), in basal forebrain neurons of monkey, as well as human samples. COX1 was decreased in basal forebrain neurons in macaques with AIDS vs. uninfected and asymptomatic SIV-infected macaques. VAChT-positive fiber density was reduced in frontal, parietal and hippocampal-entorhinal cortex. Although brain SIV burden and associated COX1- and COX2-positive mononuclear and endothelial inflammatory reactions were mostly reversed in AIDS-diseased macaques that received 6-chloro-2′,3′-dideoxyguanosine treatment, decreased VAChT-positive terminal density and reduced cholinergic COX1 expression were not. Thus, COX1 expression is a feature of primate cholinergic basal forebrain neurons; it may be functionally important and a critical biomarker of cholinergic dysregulation accompanying lentiviral encephalopathy. These results imply that insufficiently prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy in lentiviral infection may lead to neurostructurally unremarkable but neurochemically prominent, irreversible brain damage.
doi:10.1097/NEN.0b013e31823cfac5
PMCID: PMC3258462  PMID: 22157616
AIDS; Antiretroviral treatment; Cholinergic; Dementia; Encephalitis; Prostaglandins
5.  Embalmed and fresh frozen human bones in orthopedic cadaveric studies: which bone is authentic and feasible? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):543-547.
Background and purpose
The most frequently used bones for mechanical testing of orthopedic and trauma devices are fresh frozen cadaveric bones, embalmed cadaveric bones, and artificial composite bones. Even today, the comparability of these different bone types has not been established.
Methods
We tested fresh frozen and embalmed cadaveric femora that were similar concerning age, sex, bone mineral density, and stiffness. Artificial composite femora were used as a reference group. Testing parameters were pullout forces of cortex and cancellous screws, maximum load until failure, and type of fracture generated.
Results
Stiffness and type of fracture generated (Pauwels III) were similar for all 3 bone types (fresh frozen: 969 N/mm, 95% confidence interval (CI): 897–1,039; embalmed: 999 N/mm, CI: 875–1,121; composite: 946 N/mm, CI: 852–1,040). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between fresh frozen and embalmed femora concerning pullout forces of cancellous screws (fresh frozen: 654 N, CI: 471–836; embalmed: 595 N, CI: 365–823) and cortex screws (fresh frozen: 1,152 N, CI: 894–1,408; embalmed: 1,461 N, CI: 880–2,042), and axial load until failure (fresh frozen: 3,427 N, CI: 2,564–4290; embalmed: 3,603 N, CI: 2,898–4,306). The reference group showed statistically significantly different results for pullout forces of cancellous screws (2,344 N, CI: 2,068–2,620) and cortex screws (5,536 N, CI: 5,203–5,867) and for the axial load until failure (> 7,952 N).
Interpretation
Embalmed femur bones and fresh frozen bones had similar characteristics by mechanical testing. Thus, we suggest that embalmed human cadaveric bone is a good and safe option for mechanical testing of orthopedic and trauma devices.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.727079
PMCID: PMC3488184  PMID: 22978564
6.  COX1 and COX2 Expression in Non-neuronal Cellular Compartments of the Rhesus Macaque Brain during Lentiviral Infection 
Neurobiology of disease  2011;42(1):108-115.
Recent evidence suggest that cyclooxygenases, COX1 and COX2, differentially affect brain immunity. Limited data exist about their expressional changes in neurodegenerative diseases like in neuro-AIDS. Here, we analyzed the regulation of non-neuronal COX1/2 expression in rhesus macaque brain during infection with SIVδ670 and antiretroviral treatment. COX1 was constitutively expressed in microglia and endothelial cells, and was not changed in early SIV infection. Late stage of disease was characterized by increased COX1 expression in globally activated microglia, macrophage nodules, infiltrates and multinucleated giant cells. Endothelial COX1 expression was unaltered. In contrast, COX2 was not expressed in non-neuronal cells in the brain of uninfected and asymptomatically SIV-infected monkeys, but was induced in nodule and syncitium forming macrophages and in endothelial cells in areas with infiltrates and SIV in monkeys with AIDS. Antiretroviral treatment of AIDS-diseased monkeys with 6-chloro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine markedly reduced SIV burden, appearance of COX1-positive macrophage nodules, giant cells and infiltrates, and COX2 induction in the brain. But the number of COX1-positive diffuse microglia was still increased in antiretrovirally treated animals as compared to uninfected or asymptomatic SIV-infected monkeys. Our data implicate that both COX isoforms are differentially regulated, and may distinctly modulate local immune responses in the brain during lenitiviral disease.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.01.011
PMCID: PMC3066154  PMID: 21220019
AIDS; Antiretroviral treatment; Encephalitis; Microglia; Prostaglandins
7.  STC1 induction by PACAP is mediated through cAMP and ERK1/2 but not PKA in cultured cortical neurons 
The neuroprotective actions of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) in vitro and in vivo suggest that activation of its cognate G protein-coupled receptor PAC1 or downstream signaling molecules, and thus activation of PACAP target genes, could be of therapeutic benefit. Here we show, that cultured rat cortical neurons predominantly expressed the PAC1hop and null variants, activation of which resulted in elevation of the two second messengers cAMP and Ca2+ and expression of the putative neuroprotectant stanniocalcin 1 (STC1). PACAP signaling to the STC1 gene proceeded through the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), but not through the cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA), and was mimicked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. PACAP- and forskolin-mediated activation of ERK1/2 occurred through cAMP, but not PKA. These results suggest that STC1 gene induction proceeds through cAMP and ERK1/2, independently of PKA, the canonical cAMP effector. In contrast, PACAP signaling to the BDNF gene proceeded through PKA, suggesting that two different neuroprotective cAMP pathways co-exist in differentiated cortical neurons. The selective activation of a potentially neuroprotective cAMP dependent pathway different from the canonical cAMP pathway used in many physiological processes, such as memory storage, has implications for pharmacological activation of neuroprotection in vivo.
doi:10.1007/s12031-011-9653-9
PMCID: PMC3256285  PMID: 21975601
PACAP; cAMP; PKA; ERK; STC1 gene induction; signaling
8.  Intravenous Inoculation of a Bat-Associated Rabies Virus Causes Lethal Encephalopathy in Mice through Invasion of the Brain via Neurosecretory Hypothalamic Fibers 
PLoS Pathogens  2009;5(6):e1000485.
The majority of rabies virus (RV) infections are caused by bites or scratches from rabid carnivores or bats. Usually, RV utilizes the retrograde transport within the neuronal network to spread from the infection site to the central nervous system (CNS) where it replicates in neuronal somata and infects other neurons via trans-synaptic spread. We speculate that in addition to the neuronal transport of the virus, hematogenous spread from the site of infection directly to the brain after accidental spill over into the vascular system might represent an alternative way for RV to invade the CNS. So far, it is unknown whether hematogenous spread has any relevance in RV pathogenesis. To determine whether certain RV variants might have the capacity to invade the CNS from the periphery via hematogenous spread, we infected mice either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the dog-associated RV DOG4 or the silver-haired bat-associated RV SB. In addition to monitoring the progression of clinical signs of rabies we used immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to follow the spread of the virus from the infection site to the brain. In contrast to i.m. infection where both variants caused a lethal encephalopathy, only i.v. infection with SB resulted in the development of a lethal infection. While qRT-PCR did not reveal major differences in virus loads in spinal cord or brain at different times after i.m. or i.v. infection of SB, immunohistochemical analysis showed that only i.v. administered SB directly infected the forebrain. The earliest affected regions were those hypothalamic nuclei, which are connected by neurosecretory fibers to the circumventricular organs neurohypophysis and median eminence. Our data suggest that hematogenous spread of SB can lead to a fatal encephalopathy through direct retrograde invasion of the CNS at the neurovascular interface of the hypothalamus-hypophysis system. This alternative mode of virus spread has implications for the post exposure prophylaxis of rabies, particularly with silver-haired bat-associated RV.
Author Summary
Rabies virus (RV) infects mammalian neurons and cycles in regionally distinct animal populations such as the red fox in Europe, domestic canines in Asia, or raccoons, skunks and bats in Northern America. Although human rabies can be prevented by pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, more than 50,000 people die annually from the severe encephalopathy caused by RV. Recently, two cases of RV transmission by organ transplantation were reported. In our study, using intravenous inoculation of mice, we evaluated the pathogenetic relevance of virions that reach the bloodstream. Mice inoculated intravenously with a canine-derived RV survived the infection in contrast to intramuscularly injected mice, while mice infected with a silver-haired bat-related RV succumbed to the disease regardless of the route of inoculation. We found that the silver-haired bat-related RV was able to transit from the blood to the brain by invading neurosecretory fibers of the hypothalamus, which form neurohemal synapses lacking a blood-brain-barrier. This newly described route of brain invasion might reflect how RV reached the central nervous system from transplanted organs, since it takes longer to establish the neural connections between host and grafted tissue necessary for classical RV migration than the time until the infection became symptomatic in the two reported cases.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000485
PMCID: PMC2691950  PMID: 19543379
9.  C1q, the recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement, drives microglial activation 
Journal of neuroscience research  2009;87(3):644-652.
Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage and pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology, by release of cytokines, chemokines or nitric oxide, and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously, that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, non-ramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca2+ increase. A shift towards proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of IL6, TNF-α, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to pro-inflammatory response of microglia to exposure to LPS. Our findings indicate (i) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood brain barrier impairment and (ii) C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue.
doi:10.1002/jnr.21875
PMCID: PMC2635544  PMID: 18831010
microglia; MBL; C1q; Calcium increase; TNF-alpha; IL6; proliferation
10.  Co-expression of Cholinergic and Noradrenergic Phenotypes in Human and Non-Human Autonomic Nervous System 
It has long been known that the sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands is cholinergic in most mammalian species, and that during development, rodent sympathetic cholinergic sweat gland innervation transiently expresses noradrenergic traits. We show here that some noradrenergic traits persist in cholinergic sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands in rodents, but that lack of expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter renders these cells functionally non-noradrenergic. Adult human sweat gland innervation, however, is not only cholinergic, but co-expresses all of the proteins required for full noradrenergic function as well, including tyrosine hydroxylase, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, dopamine ß-hydroxylase, and the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2. Thus, cholinergic/noradrenergic co-transmission is apparently a unique feature of the primate autonomic sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, sympathetic neurons innervating specifically the cutaneous arteriovenous anastomoses (Hoyer Grosser organs) in humans also possess a full cholinergic/noradrenergic co-phenotype. Cholinergic/noradrenergic co-expression is absent from other portions of the human sympathetic nervous system, but is extended in the parasympathetic nervous system to the intrinsic neurons innervating the heart. These observations suggest a mode of autonomic regulation, based on co-release of norepinephrine and acetylcholine at parasympathocardiac, sudomotor, and selected vasomotor neuroeffector junctions, that is unique to the primate peripheral nervous system.
doi:10.1002/cne.20745
PMCID: PMC2593918  PMID: 16217790
co-transmission; vesicular neurotransmitter transporter; sympathetic; parasympathetic; skin nerves; cardiac innervation
11.  Overexpression of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha by a Recombinant Rabies Virus Attenuates Replication in Neurons and Prevents Lethal Infection in Mice 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(24):15405-15416.
The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on rabies virus (RV) infection of the mouse central nervous system (CNS) was studied, using recombinant RV engineered to express either soluble TNF-α [SPBN-TNF-α(+)] or insoluble membrane-bound TNF-α [SPBN-TNF-α(MEM)]. Growth curves derived from infections of mouse neuroblastoma NA cells revealed significantly less spread and production of SPBN-TNF-α(+) than of SPBN-TNF-α(MEM) or SPBN-TNF-α(−), which carries an inactivated TNF-α gene. The expression of soluble or membrane-bound TNF-α was not associated with increased cell death or induction of alpha/beta interferons. Brains of mice infected intranasally with SPBN-TNF-α(+) showed significantly less virus spread than did mouse brains after SPBN-TNF-α(−) infection, and none of the SPBN-TNF-α(+)-infected mice succumbed to RV infection, whereas 80% of SPBN-TNF-α(−)-infected mice died. Reduced virus spread in SPBN-TNF-α(+)-infected mouse brains was paralleled by enhanced CNS inflammation, including T-cell infiltration and microglial activation. These data suggest that TNF-α exerts its protective activity in the brain directly through an as yet unknown antiviral mechanism and indirectly through the induction of inflammatory processes in the CNS.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.24.15405-15416.2005
PMCID: PMC1316002  PMID: 16306612
12.  A Single Amino Acid Change in Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Increases Virus Spread and Enhances Virus Pathogenicity 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(22):14141-14148.
Several rabies virus (RV) vaccine strains containing an aspartic acid (Asp) or glutamic acid (Glu) instead of an arginine (Arg) at position 333 of the RV glycoprotein (G) are apathogenic for immunocompetent mice even after intracranial inoculation. However, we previously showed that the nonpathogenic phenotype of the highly attenuated RV strain SPBNGA, which contains a Glu at position 333 of G, is unstable when this virus is passaged in newborn mice. While the Glu333 remained unchanged after five mouse passages, an Asn194→Lys194 mutation occurred in RV G. This mutation was associated with increased pathogenicity for adult mice. Using site-directed mutagenesis to exchange Asn194 with Lys194 in the G protein of SPBNGA, resulting in SPBNGA-K, we show here that this mutation is solely responsible for the increase in pathogenicity and that the Asn194→Lys194 mutation does not arise when Asn194 is exchanged with Ser194 (SPBNGA-S). Our data presented indicate that the increased pathogenicity of SPBNGA-K is due to increased viral spread in vivo and in vitro, faster internalization of the pathogenic virus into cells, and a shift in the pH threshold for membrane fusion. These results are consistent with the notion that the RV G protein is a major contributor to RV pathogenesis and that the more pathogenic RVs escape the host responses by a faster spread than that of less pathogenic RVs.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.22.14141-14148.2005
PMCID: PMC1280225  PMID: 16254349
13.  Overexpression of Cytochrome c by a Recombinant Rabies Virus Attenuates Pathogenicity and Enhances Antiviral Immunity 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(22):10800-10807.
The pathogenicity of individual rabies virus strains appears to correlate inversely with the extent of apoptotic cell death they induce and with the expression of rabies virus glycoprotein, a major inducer of an antiviral immune response. To determine whether the induction of apoptosis by rabies virus contributes to a decreased pathogenicity by stimulating antiviral immunity, we have analyzed these parameters in tissue cultures and in mice infected with a recombinant rabies virus construct that expresses the proapoptotic protein cytochrome c. The extent of apoptosis was strongly increased in primary neuron cultures infected with the recombinant virus carrying the active cytochrome c gene [SPBN-Cyto c(+)], compared with cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the inactive cytochrome c gene [SPBN-Cyto c(−)]. Mortality in mice infected intranasally with SPBN-Cyto c(+) was substantially lower than in SPBN-Cyto c(−)-infected mice. Furthermore, virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers were significantly higher in mice immunized with SPBN-Cyto c(+) at the same dose. The VNA titers induced by these recombinant viruses paralleled their protective activities against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection, with SPBN-Cyto c(+) revealing an effective dose 20 times lower than that of SPBN-Cyto c(−). The strong increase in immunogenicity, coupled with the marked reduction in pathogenicity, identifies the SPBN-Cyto c(+) construct as a candidate for a live rabies virus vaccine.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.22.10800-10807.2001
PMCID: PMC114661  PMID: 11602721
14.  Collaboration of Antibody and Inflammation in Clearance of Rabies Virus from the Central Nervous System 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(5):3711-3719.
To investigate the involvement of various cellular and humoral aspects of immunity in the clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system, (CNS), we studied the development of clinical signs and virus clearance from the CNS in knockout mice lacking either B and T cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, B cells, alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptors, IFN-γ receptors, or complement components C3 and C4. Following intranasal infection with the attenuated rabies virus CVS-F3, normal adult mice of different genetic backgrounds developed a transient disease characterized by loss of body weight and appetite depression which peaked at 13 days postinfection (p.i.). While these animals had completely recovered by day 21 p.i., mice lacking either B and T cells or B cells alone developed a progressive disease and succumbed to infection. Mice lacking either CD8+ T cells, IFN receptors, or complement components C3 and C4 showed no significant differences in the development of clinical signs by comparison with intact counterparts having the same genetic background. However, while infectious virus and viral RNA could be detected in normal control mice only until day 8 p.i., in all of the gene knockout mice studied except those lacking C3 and C4, virus infection persisted through day 21 p.i. Analysis of rabies virus-specific antibody production together with histological assessment of brain inflammation in infected animals revealed that clearance of CVS-F3 by 21 days p.i. correlated with both a strong inflammatory response in the CNS early in the infection (day 8 p.i.), and the rapid (day 10 p.i.) production of significant levels of virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA). These studies confirm that rabies VNA is an absolute requirement for clearance of an established rabies virus infection. However, for the latter to occur in a timely fashion, collaboration between VNA and inflammatory mechanisms is necessary.
PMCID: PMC109593  PMID: 9557653

Results 1-14 (14)