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1.  Recent clinical overview of renal and perirenal abscesses in 56 consecutive cases 
Background/Aims
The aim of this study was to examine the recent clinical trends and antibiotic susceptibilities of the causative microorganisms in renal and perirenal abscesses, and to elucidate the factors associated with treatment strategies.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 56 patients who were diagnosed with renal and perirenal abscesses at our hospital from January 2000 to September 2007.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 53.5 years, and a female predominance of patients (75%) was observed. Diabetes mellitus (44.6%) was the most common predisposing condition. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 11.6 days, and fever (75%) was the most common symptom. Escherichia coli (44%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (28%) were common pathogens, and the rates of susceptibility of E. coli isolates to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem were 18.2%, 27.3%, 72.7%, 72.7%, 63.6%, 63.6%, and 100%, respectively. Abscesses were classified according to the location as follows: renal abscess (n=31, 55.4%) and perirenal abscess±renal abscess (n=25, 44.6%). In the renal abscess group, the infection rate of gram-negative organisms was higher than in the perirenal abscess group. Patients were also divided according to the treatment modality: antibiotics only (n=20, 35.7%) and percutaneous intervention or surgery (n=36, 64.3%). Patients who had a perirenal abscess or a large renal abscess required more invasive treatment.
Conclusion
This study revealed somewhat different results from those of previous studies. Clinical and microbial differences were observed between the renal and perirenal abscess groups. Abscess location and the size of the renal abscess were the factors associated with treatment strategies.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2008.23.3.140
PMCID: PMC2686968  PMID: 18787367
Kidney; Abscess
2.  The Significance of Serum Phosphate Level on Healing Index and Its Relative Effects in Skeletally Immature and Mature Patients with Hypophosphatemic Rickets 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:569530.
The aim of this study was to find out the ideal cut-off level of phosphate for safe healing when deformity correction and concomitant lengthening are indicated in the two different skeletal maturity groups of patients with rickets. Thirty-nine hypophosphatemic rickets patients were selected for the study and were divided into two groups: 27 skeletally immature (group IM) and 12 skeletally mature (group M). The outcomes were evaluated with respect to the healing index (HI), laboratory findings, and complications with the mean follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.1–7.9). The healing index (HI) of group IM was 1.44 month/cm and HI of group M was 1.68 month/cm. The negative correlation between the level of serum phosphate and HI in group M (coefficient = −0.94) was evaluated to be less than the correlation in group IM (coefficient = −0.50), indicating that the HI is more likely to be affected by serum phosphate in group M than in group IM. Preoperative serum phosphate levels of 2.3 mg/dL and 2.6 mg/dL were analyzed to be the cut-off values of group IM and group M, respectively, in which the cut-off points divided the series into two groups having the most significantly different HI.
doi:10.1155/2014/569530
PMCID: PMC4017876  PMID: 24868530
3.  Bone Formation in a Rat Tibial Defect Model Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose/BioC/Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Hybrid Materials 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:230152.
The objective of this study was to assess whether carboxymethyl cellulose- (CMC-) based hydrogel containing BioC (biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP); tricalcium phosphate (TCP) : hydroxyapatite (Hap) = 70 : 30) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) led to greater bone formation than CMC-based hydrogel containing BioC without BMP-2. In order to demonstrate bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks, plain radiographs, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation, and histological studies were performed after implantation of all hybrid materials on an 8 mm defect of the right tibia in rats. The plain radiographs and micro-CT analyses revealed that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5 mg) led to much greater mineralization at 4 and 8 weeks than did CMC/BioC or CMC/Bio/BMP-2 (0.1 mg). Likewise, bone formation and bone remodeling studies revealed that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5 mg) led to a significantly greater amount of bone formation and bone remodeling at 4 and 8 weeks than did CMC/BioC or CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.1 mg). Histological studies revealed that mineralized bone tissue was present around the whole circumference of the defect site with CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5 mg) but not with CMC/BioC or CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.1 mg) at 4 and 8 weeks. These results suggest that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 hybrid materials induced greater bone formation than CMC/BioC hybrid materials. Thus, CMC/BioC/BMP-2 hybrid materials may be used as an injectable substrate to regenerate bone defects.
doi:10.1155/2014/230152
PMCID: PMC3997084  PMID: 24804202
4.  Urinary Cystatin C and Tubular Proteinuria Predict Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(3):656-661.
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary cystatin C, a tubular damage marker, with the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
RESERCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The baseline values of serum and urinary cystatin C were measured as primary parameters and those of urinary nonalbumin protein (NAP) were measured as secondary parameters. In this prospective observational study, a total of 237 type 2 diabetic patients were followed up for 29 months (13–44 months).
RESULTS
Both the urinary cystatin C-to-creatinine ratio (CCR) and NAP-to-creatinine ratio (NAPCR) were significantly different according to the degree of albuminuria. Both markers had strongly positive correlations at baseline. After adjusting for several clinical factors, both urinary CCR and NAPCR had significant associations with the decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = 0.160, P = 0.021; r = 0.412, P < 0.001, respectively). Urinary CCR had positive correlations with the decline of eGFR in the subpopulation of patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and normoalbuminuria, only urinary NAPCR showed a significant association with the decline of eGFR; urinary CCR did not. In multivariate regression analysis, the number of patients who progressed to chronic kidney disease stage 3 or greater was higher in those in the upper tertiles of both the urinary levels of cystatin C and NAP than in those in the lower tertiles.
CONCLUSIONS
The results of this study suggest that urinary cystatin C and NAP may be predictors of the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0849
PMCID: PMC3579333  PMID: 23093662
5.  A Case of Metatropic Dysplasia: Operative Treatment of Severe Kyphoscoliosis and Limb Deformities 
Oman Medical Journal  2013;28(6):445-447.
Metatropic dysplasia is a rare but severe spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by long trunk and short extremities. The exact incidence is not known; however, 81 cases have been reported in the literature till now. Due to progressive kyphoscoliosis, there is a reversal of proportions in childhood (shortening of trunk with relative long extremities). The diagnostic radiographic findings include marked platyspondyly (wafer-thin vertebral bodies), widened metaphyses (dumbbell-shaped tubular bones) and small epiphysis and a specific pelvic shape. The severe kyphoscoliosis is relentless and resistant to conservative treatment with bracing. Operative treatment is controversial due to the recurrence of deformity despite aggressive correction. We, herein report a case of this rare dysplasia and its follow-up after corrective surgery for spine and limb deformity. The excellent correction and good functional pulmonary status at 6-year follow-up has never been previously reported.
doi:10.5001/omj.2013.123
PMCID: PMC3815851  PMID: 24223250
Kyphoscoliosis; Metatropic dysplasia; Deformity correction
6.  Decreased Renal Function Is an Independent Predictor of Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: An Application of Gensini Score 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(11):1615-1621.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Although many studies have shown a higher prevalence of CAD among these patients, the association between the spectrum of renal dysfunction and severity of CAD remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the association between renal function and the severity of CAD. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,192 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography (CAG). The severity of CAD was evaluated by Gensini score according to the degree of luminal narrowing and location(s) of obstruction in the involved main coronary artery. In all patients, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was independently associated with Gensini score (β=-0.27, P < 0.001) in addition to diabetes mellitus (β=0.07, P = 0.02), hypertension (β=0.12, P < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (β=0.08, P = 0.003), and hemoglobin (β=-0.07, P = 0.03) after controlling for other confounding factors. The result of this study demonstrates that decreased renal function is associated not only with the prevalence, but also the severity, of CAD.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1615
PMCID: PMC3835503  PMID: 24265524
Coronary Artery Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Gensini Score; Glomerular Filtration Rate
7.  Clinical features of patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy associated with renal dysfunction: 7 case series in single center 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:213.
Background
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (sCMP) is characterized by transient wall-motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle that are precipitated by emotional or physical stress. As the heart and kidney influence each other’s function through bidirectional pathways, sCMP can induce renal dysfunction or be induced by renal dysfunction. This study reviewed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with confirmed sCMP associated with renal dysfunction.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of all patients from our institution who were diagnosed with sCMP from March 2010 to April 2012. Each patient’s demographic characteristics, presenting symptoms, triggering events, electrocardiographic characteristics, laboratory data, echocardiographic study findings, cardiac catheterization data, and outcomes were reviewed.
Results
Among 30 patients who were diagnosed with sCMP, 7 patients had associated renal dysfunction. Three patients were on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 4 patients had acute kidney injury (AKI). Their mean ejection fraction was 35.2% at initial echocardiography, and 57.2% at follow-up echocardiography. Pericardial effusion was detected in all HD patients initially; these patients were treated with intensive HD for suspected under-dialysis status. In patients with AKI, the mean peak serum creatinine was 4.17 mg/dL. Two patients were treated with continuous renal replacement therapy. One patient required maintenance HD, and 1 patient died. Two patients had full renal recovery to their baseline renal function at 7 and 14 days.
Conclusions
Patients with renal dysfunction including those with AKI and those undergoing HD can develop sCMP, renal function must be closely monitored in patients with sCMP. Additionally, it should be considered that patients on HD who develop sCMP may be under-dialyzed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-213
PMCID: PMC3852228  PMID: 24099436
Stress cardiomyopathy; Acute kidney injury; Hemodialysis
8.  Current Treatments of Isolated Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Knee Achieve Similar Outcomes 
Background
Many surgical techniques, including microfracture, periosteal and perichondral grafts, chondrocyte transplantation, and osteochondral grafts, have been studied in an attempt to restore damaged articular cartilage. However, there is no consensus regarding the best method to repair isolated articular cartilage defects of the knee.
Questions/purposes
We compared postoperative functional outcomes, followup MRI appearance, and arthroscopic examination after microfracture (MF), osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT), or autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI).
Methods
We prospectively investigated 30 knees with MF, 22 with OAT, and 18 with ACI. Minimum followup was 3 years (mean, 5 years; range, 3–10 years). We included only patients with isolated cartilage defects and without other knee injuries. The three procedures were compared in terms of function using the Lysholm knee evaluation scale, Tegner activity scale, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score; modified Outerbridge cartilage grades using MRI; and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) repair grade using arthroscopy.
Results
All three procedures showed improvement in functional scores. There were no differences in functional scores and postoperative MRI grades among the groups. Arthroscopy at 1 year showed excellent or good results in 80% after MF, 82% after OAT, and 80% after ACI. Our study did not show a clear benefit of either ACI or OAT over MF.
Conclusions
Owing to a lack of superiority of any one treatment, we believe MF is a reasonable option as a first-line therapy given its ease and affordability relative to ACI or OAT.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2304-9
PMCID: PMC3392395  PMID: 22422593
9.  Does Short-term Application of an Ilizarov Frame with Transfixion Pins Correct Relapsed Clubfoot in Children? 
Background
Treatment of relapsed clubfoot after soft tissue release in children is difficult because of the high recurrence rate and related complications. Even though the Ilizarov method is used for soft tissue distraction, there is a high incidence of recurrence after removal of the Ilizarov frame owing to previous contracture of soft tissue and a skin scar.
Questions/Purposes
We asked (1) whether transfixation of midfoot joints by temporary K wires during the consolidation stage after short-term application of an Ilizarov frame would maintain correction of the relapsed clubfoot clinicoradiologically and (2) whether this method would reduce the rate of recurrence and related complications in patients with a skin scar from previous surgery.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients (19 feet) with relapsed clubfeet who underwent correction by soft tissue distraction using an Ilizarov ring fixator, between March 2005 and June 2008. The mean age of the patients was 8 ± 2 years (range, 4–15 years). K wire fixation for the midfoot joints combined with a below-knee cast were used during the consolidation stage. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.5 years; range, 2–6 years).
Results
The average duration of frame application was 5 weeks; the mean duration of treatment was 11 weeks. At last followup, 16 of 19 feet were painless and plantigrade and only three of 19 feet had recurrence. The mean preoperative clinical American Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score had increased at last followup (57 versus 81). The values of the AP talocalcaneal, AP talo-first metatarsal, and lateral calcaneo-first metatarsal angles improved after treatment. The three recurrent clubfeet were treated by corrective osteotomies and Ilizarov frame application.
Conclusion
This method could maintain the correction of relapsed clubfoot in children and reduce the recurrence rate and complications regardless of the presence of a skin scar owing to previous surgery.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, case series. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2289-4
PMCID: PMC3369077  PMID: 22354613
10.  Role of hybrid monolateral fixators in managing humeral length and deformity correction 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(3):280-285.
Background and purpose
Humeral lengthening and deformity correction are now being done increasingly for various etiologies. Monolateral external fixators have advantages over traditional Ilizarov circular fixators; they are easy to apply, they are less bulky, and they are therefore more convenient for the patient. We assessed the effectiveness of hybrid monolateral lateral fixators in humeral lengthening and deformity correction.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients (40 humeri) with various pathologies who underwent lengthening—with or without deformity correction using monolateral external fixator—between 2003 and 2008. Mean age at the time of the surgery was 14 (10–22) years. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 (1–7) years.
Results
The average duration of external fixator use was 8.3 (6–19) months. The mean lengthening achieved was 8.8 (4–11) cm and percentage lengthening was 49% (19–73). The healing index was 28 (13–60) days/cm. The major complications were refracture in 3 humeri and varus angulation of 2 humeri. The minor complications were superficial pin tract infection (6 segments), transient radial nerve palsy (1 segment), and elbow flexion contracture (5 segments). All complications resolved.
Interpretation
Hybrid monolateral fixators can be used for humeral lengthening and deformity correction. The advantage over circular fixators is that they are less bulky and patients can perform their day-to-day activities with the fixator in situ.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.786636
PMCID: PMC3715829  PMID: 23506166
11.  Fibrocartilaginous Intramedullary Bone Forming Tumor of the Distal Femur Mimicking Osteosarcoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(4):631-635.
Fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FCD) has occasionally led to a misdiagnosis and wrong decision which can significantly alter the outcome of the patients. A 9-yr-old boy presented with pain on his left distal thigh for 6 months without any trauma history. Initial radiographs showed moth eaten both osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions and biopsy findings showed that the lesion revealed many irregular shaped and sclerotic mature and immature bony trabeculae. Initial diagnostic suggestions were varied from the conventional osteosarcoma to low grade central osteosarcoma or benign intramedullary bone forming lesion, but close observation was done. This study demonstrated a case of unusual fibrocartilaginous intramedullary bone forming tumor mimicking osteosarcoma, so that possible misdiagnosis might be made and unnecessary extensive surgical treatment could be performed. In conclusion, the role of orthopaedic oncologist as a decision maker is very important when the diagnosis is uncertain.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.4.631
PMCID: PMC3617321  PMID: 23580060
Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia; Osteosarcoma; Orthopaedic Oncologist; Diagnosis
12.  Is Bilateral Lower Limb Lengthening Appropriate for Achondroplasia?: Midterm Analysis of the Complications and Quality of Life 
Background
Use of the Ilizarov technique for limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia is controversial, with a high risk of complications balancing cosmetic gains. Although several articles have described the complications of this procedure and satisfaction of patients after surgery, it remains unclear whether lengthening improves the quality of life (QOL) of these patients.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether bilateral lower limb lengthenings with deformity correction in patients with achondroplasia would improve QOL and investigated the correlation between complication rate and QOL.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients (average age, 12.7 years) diagnosed with achondroplasia who underwent bilateral lower limb lengthenings between 2002 and 2005. These patients were compared with 22 patients with achondroplasia for whom limb lengthening was not performed. The two groups were assessed using the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) lower limb, SF-36, and Rosenberg self-esteem scores. Minimum followup was 4.5 years (range, 4.5–6.9 years).
Results
Among the lengthening group, the average gain in length was 10.21 ± 2.39 cm for the femur and 9.13 ± 2.12 cm for the tibia. A total of 123 complications occurred in these 88 segments. The surgical group had higher Rosenberg self-esteem scores than the nonsurgical group although there were no differences in the AAOS and the SF-36 scores. The self-esteem scores decreased with the increase in the number of complications.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that despite frequent complications, bilateral lower limb lengthening increases patients’ QOL. We believe lengthening is a reasonable option in selected patients.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1983-y
PMCID: PMC3254769  PMID: 21785895
13.  Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with a combination of Ilizarov’s technique and intramedullary rodding 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):515-522.
Background and purpose
Ilizarov’s technique and intramedullary rodding have often been used individually in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. In this series, we attempted to combine the advantages of both methods while minimizing the complications.
Methods
We reviewed 15 cases of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) who were treated with a combination of Ilizarov’s apparatus and antegrade intramedullary nailing between 2003 and 2008. The mean age at surgery was 7.5 (3–12) years and the mean limb length discrepancy was 2.5 (1.5–5) cm. At a mean follow-up time of 4.5 (1.6–7.2) years after the index surgery, the patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically for ankle function (AOFAS score) and for malalignment, signs of union, limb length discrepancy, and complications.
Results
14 patients achieved union, in 6 patients primary union and in 8 patients after secondary procedures. The AOFAS score improved from a preoperative mean of 40 (20–57) to 64 (47–75). The main complication was refracture in 1 patient, and non-union in 1 patient.
Interpretation
The combination of the Ilizarov technique and conventional antegrade intramedullary nailing was successful in achieving union with few complications, though this should be shown in long-term studies lasting until skeletal maturity.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.736170
PMCID: PMC3488180  PMID: 23043268
14.  Fibula-related complications during bilateral tibial lengthening 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):271-275.
Background and purpose
Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years.
Results
The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments.
Interpretation
PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.665328
PMCID: PMC3369154  PMID: 22329670
15.  Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):282-287.
Background and purpose
Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years.
Results
Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis.
Interpretation
Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.678802
PMCID: PMC3369156  PMID: 22489887
16.  A Case of Severe Acute Kidney Injury by Near-Drowning 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(2):218-220.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to near-drowning is rarely described and poorly understood. Only few cases of severe isolated AKI resulting from near-drowning exist in the literature. We report a case of near-drowning who developed to isolated AKI due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN) requiring dialysis. A 21-yr-old man who recovered from near-drowning in freshwater 3 days earlier was admitted to our hospital with anuria and elevated level of serum creatinine. He needed five sessions of hemodialysis and then renal function recovered spontaneously. Renal biopsy confirmed ATN. We review the existing literature on near-drowning-induced AKI and discuss the possible pathogenesis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.2.218
PMCID: PMC3271299  PMID: 22323873
Acute Kidney Injury; Acute Tubular Necrosis; Hemodialysis; Near Drowning
17.  Cystatin C as an Early Biomarker of Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(2):258-263.
This study was done to evaluate clinical usefulness of cystatin C levels of serum and urine in predicting renal impairment in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the association between albuminuria and serum/urine cystatin C. Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 332) with normoalbuminuria (n = 210), microalbuminuria (n = 83) and macroalbuminuria (n = 42) were enrolled. Creatinine, urinary albumin levels, serum/urine cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by MDRD [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease] and CKD-EPI [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration] equations) were determined. The cystatin C levels of serum and urine increased with increasing degree of albuminuria, reaching higher levels in macroalbuminuric patients (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, serum cystatin C was affected by C-reactive protein (CRP), sex, albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR. Urine cystatin C was affected by triglyceride, age, eGFR and ACR. In multivariate logistic analysis, cystatin C levels of serum and urine were identified as independent factors associated with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by MDRD equation in patients with normoalbuminuria. On the other hand, eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by CKD-EPI equation was independently associated with low level of high-density lipoprotein in normoalbuminuric patients. The cystatin C levels of serum and urine could be useful markers for renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.2.258
PMCID: PMC3031011  PMID: 21286018
Cystatin C; Diabetic Nephropathies; Albuminuria
18.  Acute Kidney Injury due to Menstruation-related Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in an Adenomyosis Patient: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(9):1372-1374.
The authors report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from menstruation-related disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in an adenomyosis patient. A 40-yr-old woman who had received gonadotropin for ovulation induction therapy presented with anuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. Her medical history showed primary infertility with diffuse adenomyosis. On admission, her pregnancy test was negative and her menstrual cycle had started 1 day previously. Laboratory data were consistent with DIC, and it was believed to be related to myometrial injury resulting from heavy intramyometrial menstrual flow. Gonadotropin is considered to play an important role in the development of fulminant DIC. This rare case suggests that physicians should be aware that gonadotropin may provoke fulminant DIC in women with adenomyosis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.9.1372
PMCID: PMC2923794  PMID: 20808684
Kidney Failure; Multiple Organ Failure; Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation; Menstruation; Gonadotropins
19.  Intraoperative blood loss during different stages of scoliosis surgery: A prospective study 
Scoliosis  2010;5:16.
Background
There are a number of reasons for intraoperative blood loss during scoliosis surgery based on the type of approach, type of disease, osteopenia, and patient blood profile. However, no studies have investigated bleeding patterns according to the stage of the operation. The objective of this prospective study was to identify intraoperative bleeding patterns in different stages of scoliosis surgery.
Methods
We prospectively analyzed the estimated blood loss (EBL) and operation time over four stages of scoliosis surgery in 44 patients. The patients were divided into three groups: adolescent idiopathic (group 1), spastic neuromuscular (group 2) and paralytic neuromuscular (group 3). The per-level EBL and operation times of the groups were compared on a stage-by-stage basis. The bone marrow density (BMD) of each patient was also obtained, and the relationship between per-level EBL and BMD was compared using regression analysis.
Results
Per-level operation time was similar across all groups during surgical stage (p > 0.05). Per-level EBL was also similar during the dissection and bone-grafting states (p > 0.05). However, during the screw insertion stage, the per-level EBL was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (p < 0.05). In the correction stage, per-level EBL was highest in group 3 (followed in order by groups 2 and 1) (p < 0.05). Preoperative BMD indicated that group 3 had the lowest bone quality, followed by groups 2 and 1 (in order), but the preoperative blood indices were similar in all groups. The differences in bleeding patterns in the screw insertion and correction stages were attributed to the poor bone quality of groups 2 and 3. Group 3 had the lowest bone quality, which caused loosening of the bone-screw interface during the correction stage and led to more bleeding. Patients with a T-score less than -2.5 showed a risk for high per-level EBL that was nine times higher than those with scores greater than -2.5 (p = 0.003).
Conclusions
We investigated the blood loss patterns during different stages of scoliosis surgery. Patients with poor BMD showed a risk of blood loss nine times higher than those with good BMD.
doi:10.1186/1748-7161-5-16
PMCID: PMC2924263  PMID: 20691105
20.  Post-treatment Effects of Erythropoietin and Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid on Recovery from Cisplatin-induced Acute Renal Failure in the Rat 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(Suppl 1):S170-S175.
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor and human recombinant erythropoietin might accelerate renal recovery in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) normal controls; 2) Cisplatin group-cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) plus vehicle treatment; 3) Cisplatin+nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor treatment; 4) Cisplatin+erythropoietin (EPO) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus erythropoietin treatment. On day 10 (after 7 daily injections of NDGA or EPO), urea nitrogen and serum Cr concentrations were significantly lower in the Cisplatin+NDGA and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in the Cisplatin group, and 24 hr urine Cr clearances were significantly higher in the Cisplatin+EPO group than in the Cisplatin group. Semi-quantitative assessments of histological lesions did not produce any significant differences between the three treatment groups. Numbers of PCNA(+) cells were significantly higher in Cisplatin, Cisplatin+NDGA, and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in normal controls. Those PCNA(+) cells were significantly increased in Cisplatin+NDGA group. These results suggest that EPO and also NDGA accelerate renal function recovery by stimulating tubular epithelial cell regeneration.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.S1.S170
PMCID: PMC2633206  PMID: 19194548
Kidney Failure, Acute; Cisplatin; Erythropoietin; Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid
21.  Effects of Celecoxib and Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid on Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrosis in the Rat 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(Suppl 1):S183-S188.
The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors might inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and reduce proteinuria. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-proteinuric effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) as compared with celecoxib in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis rats. Fifty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups; A, normal control; B, PAN group; C, PAN+COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) group; and D, PAN+5-LOX inhibitor (NDGA) group. After induction of PAN nephrosis through repeated injections of PAN (7.5 and 15 mg/100 g body weight), rats were treated with celecoxib, NDGA, or vehicle for 2 weeks. Twenty four hour urine protein excretions were significantly lower in PAN+celecoxib and PAN+NDGA groups than in PAN group. Serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations and 24 hr urine creatinine clearances (CCr) were not significantly different in the four groups. Electron microscopy showed that podocyte morphology was changed after the induction of PAN nephrosis and was recovered after celecoxib or NDGA administration. Celecoxib significantly recovered the expressions of nephrin, CD2AP, COX-2, and TGF-β. NDGA also recovered TGF-β expression, but did not alter the expressions of nephrin, CD2AP and COX-2. The present study suggested that celecoxib and NDGA might effectively reduce proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome without impairing renal function.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.S1.S183
PMCID: PMC2633184  PMID: 19194550
Puromycin Aminonucleoside; Proteinuria; Celecoxib; Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid

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