Metatropic dysplasia is a rare but severe spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by long trunk and short extremities. The exact incidence is not known; however, 81 cases have been reported in the literature till now. Due to progressive kyphoscoliosis, there is a reversal of proportions in childhood (shortening of trunk with relative long extremities). The diagnostic radiographic findings include marked platyspondyly (wafer-thin vertebral bodies), widened metaphyses (dumbbell-shaped tubular bones) and small epiphysis and a specific pelvic shape. The severe kyphoscoliosis is relentless and resistant to conservative treatment with bracing. Operative treatment is controversial due to the recurrence of deformity despite aggressive correction. We, herein report a case of this rare dysplasia and its follow-up after corrective surgery for spine and limb deformity. The excellent correction and good functional pulmonary status at 6-year follow-up has never been previously reported.
Kyphoscoliosis; Metatropic dysplasia; Deformity correction
Treatment of relapsed clubfoot after soft tissue release in children is difficult because of the high recurrence rate and related complications. Even though the Ilizarov method is used for soft tissue distraction, there is a high incidence of recurrence after removal of the Ilizarov frame owing to previous contracture of soft tissue and a skin scar.
We asked (1) whether transfixation of midfoot joints by temporary K wires during the consolidation stage after short-term application of an Ilizarov frame would maintain correction of the relapsed clubfoot clinicoradiologically and (2) whether this method would reduce the rate of recurrence and related complications in patients with a skin scar from previous surgery.
We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients (19 feet) with relapsed clubfeet who underwent correction by soft tissue distraction using an Ilizarov ring fixator, between March 2005 and June 2008. The mean age of the patients was 8 ± 2 years (range, 4–15 years). K wire fixation for the midfoot joints combined with a below-knee cast were used during the consolidation stage. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.5 years; range, 2–6 years).
The average duration of frame application was 5 weeks; the mean duration of treatment was 11 weeks. At last followup, 16 of 19 feet were painless and plantigrade and only three of 19 feet had recurrence. The mean preoperative clinical American Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score had increased at last followup (57 versus 81). The values of the AP talocalcaneal, AP talo-first metatarsal, and lateral calcaneo-first metatarsal angles improved after treatment. The three recurrent clubfeet were treated by corrective osteotomies and Ilizarov frame application.
This method could maintain the correction of relapsed clubfoot in children and reduce the recurrence rate and complications regardless of the presence of a skin scar owing to previous surgery.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, case series. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Background and purpose
Humeral lengthening and deformity correction are now being done increasingly for various etiologies. Monolateral external fixators have advantages over traditional Ilizarov circular fixators; they are easy to apply, they are less bulky, and they are therefore more convenient for the patient. We assessed the effectiveness of hybrid monolateral lateral fixators in humeral lengthening and deformity correction.
We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients (40 humeri) with various pathologies who underwent lengthening—with or without deformity correction using monolateral external fixator—between 2003 and 2008. Mean age at the time of the surgery was 14 (10–22) years. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 (1–7) years.
The average duration of external fixator use was 8.3 (6–19) months. The mean lengthening achieved was 8.8 (4–11) cm and percentage lengthening was 49% (19–73). The healing index was 28 (13–60) days/cm. The major complications were refracture in 3 humeri and varus angulation of 2 humeri. The minor complications were superficial pin tract infection (6 segments), transient radial nerve palsy (1 segment), and elbow flexion contracture (5 segments). All complications resolved.
Hybrid monolateral fixators can be used for humeral lengthening and deformity correction. The advantage over circular fixators is that they are less bulky and patients can perform their day-to-day activities with the fixator in situ.
Fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FCD) has occasionally led to a misdiagnosis and wrong decision which can significantly alter the outcome of the patients. A 9-yr-old boy presented with pain on his left distal thigh for 6 months without any trauma history. Initial radiographs showed moth eaten both osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions and biopsy findings showed that the lesion revealed many irregular shaped and sclerotic mature and immature bony trabeculae. Initial diagnostic suggestions were varied from the conventional osteosarcoma to low grade central osteosarcoma or benign intramedullary bone forming lesion, but close observation was done. This study demonstrated a case of unusual fibrocartilaginous intramedullary bone forming tumor mimicking osteosarcoma, so that possible misdiagnosis might be made and unnecessary extensive surgical treatment could be performed. In conclusion, the role of orthopaedic oncologist as a decision maker is very important when the diagnosis is uncertain.
Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia; Osteosarcoma; Orthopaedic Oncologist; Diagnosis
Use of the Ilizarov technique for limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia is controversial, with a high risk of complications balancing cosmetic gains. Although several articles have described the complications of this procedure and satisfaction of patients after surgery, it remains unclear whether lengthening improves the quality of life (QOL) of these patients.
We asked whether bilateral lower limb lengthenings with deformity correction in patients with achondroplasia would improve QOL and investigated the correlation between complication rate and QOL.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients (average age, 12.7 years) diagnosed with achondroplasia who underwent bilateral lower limb lengthenings between 2002 and 2005. These patients were compared with 22 patients with achondroplasia for whom limb lengthening was not performed. The two groups were assessed using the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) lower limb, SF-36, and Rosenberg self-esteem scores. Minimum followup was 4.5 years (range, 4.5–6.9 years).
Among the lengthening group, the average gain in length was 10.21 ± 2.39 cm for the femur and 9.13 ± 2.12 cm for the tibia. A total of 123 complications occurred in these 88 segments. The surgical group had higher Rosenberg self-esteem scores than the nonsurgical group although there were no differences in the AAOS and the SF-36 scores. The self-esteem scores decreased with the increase in the number of complications.
Our data suggest that despite frequent complications, bilateral lower limb lengthening increases patients’ QOL. We believe lengthening is a reasonable option in selected patients.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Background and purpose
Ilizarov’s technique and intramedullary rodding have often been used individually in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. In this series, we attempted to combine the advantages of both methods while minimizing the complications.
We reviewed 15 cases of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) who were treated with a combination of Ilizarov’s apparatus and antegrade intramedullary nailing between 2003 and 2008. The mean age at surgery was 7.5 (3–12) years and the mean limb length discrepancy was 2.5 (1.5–5) cm. At a mean follow-up time of 4.5 (1.6–7.2) years after the index surgery, the patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically for ankle function (AOFAS score) and for malalignment, signs of union, limb length discrepancy, and complications.
14 patients achieved union, in 6 patients primary union and in 8 patients after secondary procedures. The AOFAS score improved from a preoperative mean of 40 (20–57) to 64 (47–75). The main complication was refracture in 1 patient, and non-union in 1 patient.
The combination of the Ilizarov technique and conventional antegrade intramedullary nailing was successful in achieving union with few complications, though this should be shown in long-term studies lasting until skeletal maturity.
Background and purpose
Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years.
The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments.
PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications.
Background and purpose
Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia.
We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years.
Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis.
Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.
The application of transgenic plants to clean up environmental pollution caused by the wastes of heavy metal mining is a promising method for removing metal pollutants from soils. However, the effect of using genetically modified organisms for phytoremediation is a poorly researched topic in terms of microbial community structures, despite the important role of microorganisms in the health of soil. In this study, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities found in the rhizosphere of genetically modified (GM) versus wild-type (WT) poplar was conducted on trees at different growth stages (i.e., the rhizospheres of 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3-year-old poplars) that were cultivated on contaminated soils together with nonplanted control soil. Based on the results of DNA pyrosequencing, poplar type and growth stages were associated with directional changes in the structure of the microbial community. The rate of change was faster in GM poplars than in WT poplars, but the microbial communities were identical in the 3-year-old poplars. This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat.
Several methods are used to measure lumbar lordosis. In adult scoliosis patients, the measurement is difficult due to degenerative changes in the vertebral endplate as well as the coronal and sagittal deformity. We did the observational study with three examiners to determine the reliability of six methods for measuring the global lumbar lordosis in adult scoliosis patients. Ninety lateral lumbar radiographs were collected for the study. The radiographs were divided into normal (Cobb < 10°), low-grade (Cobb 10°–19°), high-grade (Cobb ≥ 20°) group to determine the reliability of Cobb L1–S1, Cobb L1–L5, centroid, posterior tangent L1–S1, posterior tangent L1–L5 and TRALL method in adult scoliosis. The 90 lateral radiographs were measured twice by each of the three examiners using the six measurement methods. The data was analyzed to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability. In general, for the six radiographic methods, the inter- and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were all ≥0.82. A comparison of the ICCs and 95% CI for the inter- and intra-observer reliability between the groups with varying degrees of scoliosis showed that, the reliability of the lordosis measurement decreased with increasing severity of scoliosis. In Cobb L1–S1, centroid and posterior tangent L1–S1 methods, the ICCs were relatively lower in the high-grade scoliosis group (≥0.60). And, the mean absolute difference (MAD) in these methods was high in the high-grade scoliosis group (≤7.17°). However, in the Cobb L1–L5 and posterior tangent L1–L5 method, the ICCs were ≥0.86 in all groups. And, in the TRALL method, the ICCs were ≥0.76 in all groups. In addition, in the Cobb L1–L5 and posterior tangent L1–L5 method, the MAD was ≤3.63°. And, in the TRALL method, the MAD was ≤3.84° in all groups. We concluded that the Cobb L1–L5 and the posterior tangent L1–L5 methods are reliable methods for measuring the global lumbar lordosis in adult scoliosis. And the TRALL method is more reliable method than other methods which include the L5–S1 joint in lordosis measurement.
Adult scoliosis; Lumbar lordosis; Radiographic measurement
The literature has described different indications for pelvic fixation in neuromuscular scoliosis. We retrospectively evaluated changes in pelvic obliquity for a minimum of two years among three groups: group I (initial pelvic obliquity >15°; with pelvic fixation), group II (initial pelvic obliquity >15°; without pelvic fixation), and group III (initial pelvic obliquity <15°; without pelvic fixation). We used iliac screws for pelvic fixation in group I. There was significant postoperative improvement (p < 0.0001) in Cobb’s angle and pelvic obliquity. There was no significant loss of correction in Cobb’s angle, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis among all three groups; however, group II showed significant correction loss in pelvic obliquity compared to groups I and III at final follow-up (p < 0.0001). Our results indicate that patients who have pelvic obliquity >15° require pelvic fixation to maintain the correction and balance over time while obliquity <15° does not require pelvic fixation.
During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 ± 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.
This article studies the incidence and magnitude of delayed callus subsidence, which will also help in study the hypothesis of three cortex corticalisation to determine the time of fixator removal during distraction osteogenesis (DO). Eighty-one tibia segments with mean lengthening of 7.7 ± 2.9 cm were studied with age, gender, skeletal maturity, amount and percentage of lengthening, callus pattern, callus shape, number of cortices seen at the time of fixator removal, bone mineral density (BMD) ratio, and callus diameter ratio analysed for their effect on callus subsidence. All segments had tibia callus subsidence ranging from 4 mm to 3.2 cm with 54% having significant subsidence of more than 1 cm. Multivariate regression analysis revealed only the amount of lengthening and callus patterns to be significant. In conclusion, we can say that tibia callus subsidence is a significant delayed complication and factors affecting it can be used to determine the time of fixator removal.
The skeletal age in short stature and in various other growth abnormalities is well documented. We lack the study pertaining to the analysis of the skeletal age in idiopathic short stature or analyzing the difference in skeletal age delay or advancement between the familial short stature (FSS) and non-familial short stature (non-FSS) groups, hence this study. Present retrospective study is designed to study the variation in patterns of skeletal age in ISS.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and eighty six patients, 95 males and 91 females of idiopathic short stature were examined to assess the skeletal age deviation in relation to chronological age. The radiographs of the left hand and wrist were done. The skeletal age was assessed using Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas. The patients were divided into two groups based on the parental heights. Group A (Familial Short Stature; FSS) with 100 patients (55 males, 45 females) included patients whose at least one parent was short and Group B (non-Familial Short Stature; non-FSS) with 86 patients (40 males, 46 females), included patients whose parental height was normal. The carpal scores, RUS (Radius, Ulna and Short bone) scores and GP age were determined and the respective delay or advances were calculated.
The skeletal age in Group A was delayed relative to chronological age by a mean of 1.9 years in males and 2.3 years in females (P<0.05) by RUS method, mean of 2.7 years in males and 2.6 years in females by Carpal score (P<0.05), 2.2 years in males and 2.7 years in females by GP atlas age (P<0.05). The skeletal age in Group B was advanced by a mean of 0.9 years in males and 1.4 years in females (P<0.05) by RUS method, mean of 0.4 years in males and 0.35 years in females by Carpal score (P<0.05), mean of 1.1 years in males and 0.2 years in females by GP atlas method (P<0.05). The Pearson’s coefficient of correlation (P<.001) demonstrated good agreement association between all three scores.
There is definite age delay in both males and females in the FSS group while the bone maturation is accelerated in the non-FSS group. Both RUS and GP show good correlation amongst both the genders in both the groups and there is good inter observer correlation for both the methods. We can hypothesize that while treatment protocols to accelerate bone age will be beneficial in the FSS group, these should be avoided in the non-FSS group. Our study also indicates that there definitely exists a difference in normal growth curves in both these groups and a detailed study is required to plot their respective normal growth lines so as to make proper adjustments in the assessment of the remaining growth and limb lengthening protocols.
Greulich and Pyle atlas; idiopathic short stature; skeletal age; TW3 method
Previously, we described the ideal pedicle entry point (IPEP) for the thoracic spine at the base of the superior facet at the junction of the lateral one third and medial two thirds with the freehand technique on cadavers. Here we measured the accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement (Chung et al. Int Orthop 2008) on post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans in 43 scoliosis patients who underwent operation with the freehand technique taking the same entry point. Of the 854 inserted screws, 268 (31.3%) were displaced; 88 (10.3%) and 180 (21.0%) screws were displaced medially and laterally, respectively. With regard to the safe zone, 795 screws were within the safe zone representing an accuracy rate of 93%; 448 and 406 thoracic screws inserted in adolescent idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis showed an accuracy of 89.9 and 94%, respectively (p = 0.6475). The accuracy rate of screws inserted in the upper, middle and lower thoracic pedicles were 94.2, 91.6 and 93.7%, respectively (p = 0.2411). The results indicate that IPEP should be considered by surgeons during thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation.
It is a measurement of Cobb’s angles between adolescent (AIS) and juvenile (JIS) idiopathic scoliosis who had stable curves (variation <5 degrees) in more than three visits. Main objective of this paper is to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability of measurements between AIS and JIS who had stable curves in regular follow-up. Twenty-nine JIS and 44 AIS patients who had stable curves without bracing were identified using PACS system. Two observers independently measured Cobb’s angle twice on first, during follow-up and final radiogram using computer-based digital radiogram. Both observers were given pre-decided level of upper and lower end plates. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of the measurement was calculated using Pearson correlation-coefficient test between JIS and AIS group. There was no significant difference in Cobb’s angle in all measurements by both observers either in JIS (p = 0.756, range 0.706–0.815; ANOVA) or AIS (p = 0.871, range 0.795–0.929; ANOVA) group which suggested that there is no significant difference in Cobb’s angle in repeated measurements. Intra-observer reliability for JIS (r = 0.600, range 0.521–0.751; Pearson test) was less than AIS (r = 0.969, range 0.943–0.984; Pearson test); and similarly, inter-observer reliability for JIS (r = 0.547, Pearson test) was also less than AIS (r = 0.961, Pearson test) which indicates that Cobb’s angle measurement is less reliable in patients who have juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. Using the identical condition for measurements in both the groups, we could find only one reason for less reliability in JIS group and that is poor demarcation of the vertebral end-plates in this group. This poor inter- and intra-observer reliability in JIS due to ill-defined endplates can be reduced by measuring all previous curves along with latest curves at the same time during the follow-up of patients with JIS to decide about the progression of curves and treatment options.
Juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Stable curves; Cobb’s angle; Computerized digital radiogram; Inter- and intra-observer reliability
It is a retrospective analytic study of 1,009 transpedicular screws (689 thoracic and 320 lumbosacral), inserted with free-hand technique in neuromuscular scoliosis using postoperative CT scan. The aim of paper was to determine the accuracy and safety of transpedicular screw placement with free-hand technique in neuromuscular scoliosis and to compare the accuracy at different levels in such population. All studies regarding accuracy and safety of pedicle screw in scoliosis represent idiopathic scoliosis using various techniques such as free-hand, navigation, image intensifier, etc., for screw insertion. Anatomies of vertebrae and pedicle are distorted in scoliosis, hence accurate and safe placement of pedicle screw is prerequisite for surgery. Between 2004 and 2006, 37 consecutive patients, average age 20 years (9–44 years), of neuromuscular scoliosis were operated with posterior pedicle screw fixation using free-hand technique. Accuracy of pedicle screws was studied on postoperative CT scan. Placement up to 2 mm medial side and 4 mm lateral side was considered within-safe zone. Of the 1,009 screws, 273 screws were displaced medially, laterally or on the anterior side showing that 73% screws (68% in thoracic and 82.5% in lumbar spine) were accurately placed within pedicle. Considering the safe zone, 93.3% (942/1009, 92.4% in thoracic and 95.3% in lumbar spine) of the screws were within the safe zone. Comparing accuracy according to severity of curve, accuracy was 75% in group 1 (curve <90°) and 69% in group 2 (curve >90°) with a safety of 94.8 and 91.2%, respectively (P = 0.35). Comparing the accuracy at different thoracic levels, it showed 67, 64 and 72% accuracy in upper, middle and lower thoracic levels with safety of 96.6, 89.2 and 93.1%, respectively, exhibiting no statistical significant difference (P = 0.17). Pedicle screw placement in neuromuscular scoliosis with free-hand technique is accurate and safe as other conditions.
Neuromuscular scoliosis; Pedicle screw fixation; Free-hand technique; Postoperative CT scan; Accuracy; Safe
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) plays a key role as a mobile floral induction signal that initiates the floral transition. Therefore, precise control of FT expression is critical for the reproductive success of flowering plants. Coexistence of bivalent histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and H3K4me3 marks at the FT locus and the role of H3K27me3 as a strong FT repression mechanism in Arabidopsis have been reported. However, the role of an active mark, H3K4me3, in FT regulation has not been addressed, nor have the components affecting this mark been identified. Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana Jumonji4 (AtJmj4) and EARLY FLOWERING6 (ELF6), two Arabidopsis genes encoding Jumonji (Jmj) family proteins, caused FT-dependent, additive early flowering correlated with increased expression of FT mRNA and increased H3K4me3 levels within FT chromatin. Purified recombinant AtJmj4 protein possesses specific demethylase activity for mono-, di-, and trimethylated H3K4. Tagged AtJmj4 and ELF6 proteins associate directly with the FT transcription initiation region, a region where the H3K4me3 levels were increased most significantly in the mutants. Thus, our study demonstrates the roles of AtJmj4 and ELF6 as H3K4 demethylases directly repressing FT chromatin and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis.
We have attempted to determine the spatial orientation of the base of the superior articular process in relation to the centre of the pedicle and then measure the transverse and sagittal screw angles using this ideal pedicle screw entry point – the base of the superior articular process at the junction of the lateral one-third and medial two-thirds. The proposed advantages of this technique are the easily identifiable entry point, the well-defined transverse and sagittal screw angles and a very low incidence of medial and inferior pedicle violation.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into lineages of mesenchymal tissues that are currently under investigation for a variety of therapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to compare cytokine gene expression in MSCs from human placenta, cord blood (CB) and bone marrow (BM). The cytokine expression profiles of MSCs from BM, CB and placenta (amnion, decidua) were compared by proteome profiler array analysis. The cytokines that were expressed differently, in each type of MSC, were analyzed by real-time PCR. We evaluated 36 cytokines. Most types of MSCs had a common expression pattern including MIF (GIF, DER6), IL-8 (CXCL8), Serpin E1 (PAI-1), GROα(CXCL1), and IL-6. MCP-1, however, was expressed in both the MSCs from the BM and the amnion. sICAM-1 was expressed in both the amnion and decidua MSCs. SDF-1 was expressed only in the BM MSCs. Real-time PCR demonstrated the expression of the cytokines in each of the MSCs. The MSCs from bone marrow, placenta (amnion and decidua) and cord blood expressed the cytokines differently. These results suggest that cytokine induction and signal transduction are different in MSCs from different tissues.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Placenta; Fetal Blood; Bone Marrow; Cytokines
Lumbar stenosis is common in patients with achondroplasia because of narrowing of the neural canal. However, it is unclear what causes stenosis, narrowing of the central canal or foramina. We performed a morphometric analysis of the lumbar nerve roots and intervertebral foramen in 17 patients (170 nerve roots and foramina) with achondroplasia (eight symptomatic, nine asymptomatic) and compared the data with that from 20 (200 nerve roots and foramina) asymptomatic patients without achondroplasia presenting with low back pain without neurologic symptoms. The measurements were made on left and right parasagittal MRI scans of the lumbar spine. The foramen area and root area were reduced at all levels from L1 to L5 between the patients with achondroplasia (Groups I and II) and the nonachondroplasia group (Group III). The percentage of nerve root occupancy in the foramen between Group I and Group II as compared with the patients without achondroplasia was similar or lower. This implied the lumbar nerve root size in patients with achondroplasia was smaller than that of the normal population and thus there is no effective nerve root compression. Symptoms of lumbar stenosis in achondroplasia may be arising from the central canal secondary to degenerative disc disease rather than a true foraminal stenosis.
Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
To study the effect of the degree of scoliosis, degree of hypokyphosis/lordosis and rotation of apical vertebra on individual lung volume (measured with CT scan) in asymptomatic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Individual (right and left) lung volume, angle of kyphosis and rotation of apical vertebra, were measured in 77 asymptomatic AIS patients having right thoracic curve, using modern computed tomography (CT) scan. To compare, lung volumes were measured in 22 normal persons (control group). The ratio of “right to left lung volume (convex to concave side)” was obtained and compared among these groups. With increased Cobb’s angle, ratio of convex to concave lung volume increased. For Cobb’s angle more than 40°, it was increased significantly (P = 0.0042). A significant degree of correlation was found between axial rotation angle of apical vertebra and right to left lung volume ratio (P = 0.0067, r = 0.271). A significant inverse correlation was found between the angle of kyphosis and right to left lung volume ratio, i.e., as the angle of kyphosis decreased the convex to concave lung volume ratio increased (P = 0.0109, r = −0.255). In asymptomatic, AIS patients, with increase in degree of curvature, and rotation of apical vertebra, the ratio of convex to concave side lung volume increases; indicating concave side lung volume is comparatively more affected (decreased) than convex side lung volume. On the other hand with decrease in the angle of kyphosis the convex to concave lung volume ratio increases indicating kyphotic angle has an inverse relation to convex to concave lung volume ratio.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Individual lung volume; Convex to concave lung volume ratio