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1.  Pathological gait in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and proposal for gait modification to decrease the hip joint loading 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(6):1235-1241.
Purpose
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) severely limits the range of hip motion and hinders a normal gait. Loading of the hip joint is a major consideration in LCP treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait patterns in LCP and identify gait modifications to decrease the load on the affected hip.
Methods
Forty children with unilateral LCP were divided into three groups based on the time base integral of the hip abductor moments during single stance on the affected side acquired during instrumented 3D gait analysis. X-rays of the affected hip were classified according to Herring and Catterall.
Results
Children in the “unloading” group spontaneously adopted a Duchenne-like gait with pelvis elevation, hip abduction and external rotation during single support phase. The “normal-loading” group showed pelvis elevation with a neutral hip position in the frontal plane. In the “overloading” group the pelvis dropped to the swinging limb at the beginning of stance accompanied by prolonged hip adduction. The time base integral of the hip abductor moments during single stance correlated positively with the X-ray classifications of Herring and Catterall, hip abduction angle and age. Older children preferred to walk in hip adduction during single stance, had more impaired hips and tended to overload them.
Conclusion
The hip overloading pattern should be avoided in children with LCP. Gait training to unload the hip might become an integral component of conservative treatment in children with LCP.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1416-2
PMCID: PMC3353082  PMID: 22134707
2.  Patella re-alignment in children with a modified Grammont technique 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):504-510.
Background and purpose
In skeletally immature patients, surgical options due to recurrent patella dislocation are limited, because bony procedures bear the risk of growth disturbances. In this retrospective study, we report the long-term functional and radiographic outcome in skeletally immature patients using the modified Grammont surgical technique.
Patients
Between 1999 and 2004, 65 skeletally immature knees (49 children) were treated with a modified Grammont procedure: an open lateral release and a shift of the patella tendon insertion below the growth plate on the tuberositas tibia, allowing the tendon to medialize. At mean 8 (5.6–11) years after surgery, 58 knees in 43 patients were evaluated by clinical examination, from functional scores (Lysholm, Tegner), and from radiographs of the knees.
Results
Mean Lysholm score was 82 postoperatively. Tegner score decreased from 6.2 to 5. Eight knees had a single dislocation within 3 months of surgery. 3 knees had repeated late dislocations, all with a high grade of trochlea dysplasia. 6 knees showed mild signs of osteoarthritis. No growth disturbances were observed.
Interpretation
The modified Grammont technique in skeletally immature patients allows restoration of the distal patella tendon alignment by dynamic positioning. Long-term results showed that there were no growth disturbances and that there was good functional outcome. However, patients with a high grade of trochlea dysplasia tended to re-dislocate.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.736168
PMCID: PMC3488178  PMID: 23039166
3.  Outcome of repaired unstable meniscal tears in children and adolescents 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):261-266.
Background
Unstable meniscal tears are rare injuries in skeletally immature patients. Loss of a meniscus increases the risk of subsequent development of degenerative changes in the knee. This study deals with the outcome of intraarticular meniscal repair and factors that affect healing. Parameters of interest were type and location of the tear and also the influence of simultaneous reconstruction of a ruptured ACL.
Methods
We investigated the outcome of 25 patients (29 menisci) aged 15 (4–17) years who underwent surgery for full thickness meniscal tears, either as isolated lesions or in combination with ACL ruptures. Intraoperative documentation followed the IKDC 2000 standard. Outcome measurements were the Tegner score (pre- and postoperatively) and the Lysholm score (postoperatively) after an average follow-up period of 2.3 years, with postoperative arthroscopy and MRT in some cases.
Results
24 of the 29 meniscal lesions healed (defined as giving an asymptomatic patient) regardless of location or type. 4 patients re-ruptured their menisci (all in the pars intermedia) at an average of 15 months after surgery following a new injury. Mean Lysholm score at follow-up was 95, the Tegner score deteriorated, mean preoperative score: 7.8 (4–10); mean postoperative score: 7.2 (4–10). Patients with simultaneous ACL reconstruction had a better outcome.
Interpretation
All meniscal tears in the skeletally immature patient are amenable to repair. All recurrent meniscal tears in our patients were located in the pars intermedia; the poorer blood supply in this region may give a higher risk of re-rupture. Simultaneous ACL reconstruction appears to benefit the results of meniscal repair.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.693017
PMCID: PMC3369152  PMID: 22616744
4.  Comparison of Ponseti versus Surgical Treatment for Idiopathic Clubfoot: A Short-term Preliminary Report 
The Ponseti method of treatment for congenital clubfeet has gained widespread clinical acceptance. We have used manipulation, serial casting, and surgery to treat congenital clubfeet for almost 3 decades. Considering the Ponseti method of treatment to replace our traditional treatment method, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial evaluating the short-term outcome of the two treatment protocols. We evaluated foot function and applied a standardized measure of health status for children with orthopaedic problems. Nineteen patients (28 feet) were included in the trial. Nine infants (12 feet) were assigned to the Ponseti treatment group, and 10 (16 feet) were assigned to a group with initial casting and posteromedial release at the age of 6 to 8 months. The minimum followup was 3.3 years (mean, 3.5 years; range 3.3–3.8 years). Outcome measures included the Functional Rating System of Laaveg and Ponseti, the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), and standardized radiographic measurements. At last followup the mean Functional Rating score was higher in the Ponseti group. Passive dorsiflexion and passive inversion-eversion were better in the Ponseti group. PODCI scales were comparable and radiographic outcome measures were similar in both groups. This trial has documented a favorable short-term outcome for the Ponseti method when compared with a traditional treatment protocol.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-0819-5
PMCID: PMC2745452  PMID: 19350335
5.  Abdominal perforation after rupture of a diamond-studded wire: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:307.
Introduction
There are numerous cases of abdominal injuries due to bullets. Abdominal injuries due to bullets are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Here, an unusual case of an abdominal perforation caused by a metal projectile, lead to confusion in the interpretation of the preoperative computer tomography.
Case presentation
We present an unusual case of a 32-year-old male worker who sustained a "shot" to the left upper abdominal quadrant, as a result of a work-related accident. The projectile derived from a special wire that tore during operation. One chain element happened to accelerate towards the patients belly and perforated the abdominal wall. Computer tomography located the radiopaque projectile to the cortex of the left kidney and showed a lesion of the tail of the pancreas. The presence of intraperitoneal free air suggested a gastrointestinal perforation. Immediate open exploration of the peritoneal cavity and the retroperitoneal space revealed perforating lesions of the anterior and posterior gastric wall, as well as the pancreatic tail. The projectile was finally retrieved in the upper pole of the left kidney. The patient had a good clinical course subsequent to surgery and was discharged in good general condition.
Conclusion
This case represents a rare form of a retained bullet injury and corroborates the need of sufficient measures of worker-protection in area of diamond-studded wire cutting devices.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-307
PMCID: PMC2596791  PMID: 19014528

Results 1-5 (5)