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1.  Dangers of neglect: partially embedded ring upon a finger 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2013009501.
Digital swelling is a common presentation in clinical practice. Patients presenting with swollen fingers to the emergency department will often have rings on their finger, which can be removed using a variety of simple non-operative techniques or by cutting the ring off and thus avoiding any long-term consequences. Very rarely, when there is a delay in presentation of these patients, serious consequences may proceed, including finger ischaemia, infection, tendon attrition or ultimately the need for surgical amputation. We present an unusual case of patient with psychiatric illness who presented late with a ring that had embedded upon the volar aspect of the index finger. The difficulties faced by the emergency care practitioners in such circumstances, the consequences of rings acting as a tourniquet and strategies for removal of rings on swollen fingers are highlighted.
PMCID: PMC3669852  PMID: 23667223
2.  Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal, Lengthening Scarf Osteotomy with Bone Graft 
Orthopedic Reviews  2013;5(3):e21.
A 16-year-old girl presented with left fourth metatarsal shortening causing significant psychological distress. She underwent lengthening scarf osteotomy held with an Omnitech® screw (Biotech International, France) with the addition of two 1 cm cancellous cubes (RTI Biologics, United States). A lengthening zplasty of the extensor tendons and skin were also performed. At 6 weeks the patient was fully weight bearing and at one-year follow up, the patient was satisfied and discharged. A modified technique of lengthening scarf osteotomy is described for congenital brachymatatarsia. This technique allows one stage lengthening through a single incision with graft incorporation by 6 weeks.
PMCID: PMC3808796  PMID: 24191181
omnitech; scarf osteotomy; lengthening
3.  Patella re-alignment in children with a modified Grammont technique 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):504-510.
Background and purpose
In skeletally immature patients, surgical options due to recurrent patella dislocation are limited, because bony procedures bear the risk of growth disturbances. In this retrospective study, we report the long-term functional and radiographic outcome in skeletally immature patients using the modified Grammont surgical technique.
Between 1999 and 2004, 65 skeletally immature knees (49 children) were treated with a modified Grammont procedure: an open lateral release and a shift of the patella tendon insertion below the growth plate on the tuberositas tibia, allowing the tendon to medialize. At mean 8 (5.6–11) years after surgery, 58 knees in 43 patients were evaluated by clinical examination, from functional scores (Lysholm, Tegner), and from radiographs of the knees.
Mean Lysholm score was 82 postoperatively. Tegner score decreased from 6.2 to 5. Eight knees had a single dislocation within 3 months of surgery. 3 knees had repeated late dislocations, all with a high grade of trochlea dysplasia. 6 knees showed mild signs of osteoarthritis. No growth disturbances were observed.
The modified Grammont technique in skeletally immature patients allows restoration of the distal patella tendon alignment by dynamic positioning. Long-term results showed that there were no growth disturbances and that there was good functional outcome. However, patients with a high grade of trochlea dysplasia tended to re-dislocate.
PMCID: PMC3488178  PMID: 23039166
4.  Surgical management of idiopathic torticollis secondary to a fibrotic band 
Orthopedic Reviews  2012;4(3):e27.
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is the third commonest congenital deformity, commonly presenting in the first week of life. Due to contracture and shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the head is tilted towards the affected side; however there may also be a varying degree of rotation towards the contralateral side. Most infants with CMT can be managed non-surgically, however if this is unsuccessful surgery may be necessary, with many different techniques described. In this case report, we describe a 17-year old woman with persistent left sided CMT despite botulinum toxin paralysis that was successfully treated with surgery.
PMCID: PMC3470033  PMID: 23066495
congenital muscular torticollis; idiopathic torticollis.
5.  Median Nerve Palsy following Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing of a Monteggia Fracture: An Unusual Case and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:682454.
Monteggia fractures are rare in children, and subtle radial head dislocations, with minor plastic deformation of the ulna, may be missed in up to a third of cases. Complications of Monteggia fractures-dislocations include persistent radial head dislocation, forearm deformity, elbow stiffness, and nerve palsies at the time of presentation. An unusual case of median nerve palsy following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a type I Monteggia lesion in a 6-year-old girl is presented, and we highlight that, although most nerve palsies associated with a Monteggia fracture-dislocations are treated expectantly in children, early intervention here probably provided the best outcome.
PMCID: PMC3090656  PMID: 21559094
6.  Massive pleural effusion due to IgG multiple myeloma 
Hematology Reviews  2009;1(2):e18.
Pleural effusion directly attributable to multiple myeloma is exceedingly uncommon and is said to occur in only 1–2% of cases. Of these around 80% occur in IgA disease. We report a case of myelomatous pleural effusion (proven on cytological and immunohistochemical analysis) in a patient with the IgG-κ subtype. We describe the diagnosis, pathogenesis and management of this condition and show the radiological and cytological evidence of the case.
PMCID: PMC3222259
hematology; multiple myeloma; pleural effusion.
7.  Tuberculosis of the knee 
Orthopedic Reviews  2009;1(2):e24.
Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are reported in less than one in five cases with the knee affected in 8% after the spine and hip. We report a case of isolated highly erosive tuberculosis of the knee presenting in a previously fit Vietnamese woman. The difficulties of diagnosis, modalities of chemotherapeutic management, and surgical treatment are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3143978  PMID: 21808686
tuberculosis; infectious arthritis; knee; arthroscopy.
8.  Chronic asymptomatic dislocation of a total hip replacement: a case report 
Dislocation of a prosthetic hip is the second most common complication after thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, with an incidence reported as 0.5 to 20%. Although the period of greatest risk for dislocation has been reported to be within the first few months after surgery, late dislocation occurs more commonly then previously thought.
Case presentation
A 60-year-old man underwent a right Exeter cemented total hip replacement and was subsequently discharged after appropriate follow-up. He next presented 8 years later complaining of pain in the left groin. An anterioposterior radiograph of the pelvis revealed degenerative changes in the left hip and a dislocated right total hip replacement. The dislocated femoral component had formed a neoacetabulum within the ilium, in which it was freely articulating. He remained pain-free on this side, had 5 cm of true leg length shortening with a good range of movement and was very pleased with his hip replacement. He was later placed on the waiting list for a left total hip replacement.
This case illustrates that a dislocated total hip replacement may occasionally not cause symptoms that cause significant discomfort or reduction in range of movement. The prosthetic femoral head can form a neoacetabulum allowing a full range of pain-free movement. Furthermore it emphasises that with an increased trend to earlier hospital discharge and shorter follow-up, potential complications may be missed. We urge a low index of suspicion for potential complications and suggest that regular review with radiographic follow-up should be made.
PMCID: PMC2767143  PMID: 19918281
9.  Surgical excision of wrist ganglia; literature review and nine-year retrospective study of recurrence and patient satisfaction 
Orthopedic Reviews  2009;1(1):e5.
The main options for the treatment of wrist ganglia are reassurance, aspiration, arthroscopic resection and open excision. Variations within each option have been described and the literature is clouded by widespread variability in the results reported. We present the results of our own long-term retrospective study, review the literature and question the surgical risks and demands placed on healthcare resources. A retrospective review of the surgical results of dorsal and volar wrist ganglia excision between January 1998 and March 2005 was undertaken at a single institution. Of the 152 patients in this consecutive series, 117 (77%) patients responded to a telephone questionnaire. The mean length of follow-up in this series of 117 patients was 4.2 years (range 1.5–8.7 years). The overall recurrence rate following excision of all wrist ganglia in this series was 41.8 %. When looking just at volar ganglia, the risk of recurrence is higher at 46.8%. Should the ganglion recur, the risk of developing a moderate to severely tender scar is 34.6% and the risk of developing an unsightly scar is 8.2%. This study questions the effectiveness of surgical excision in the treatment of wrist ganglia when performed by a mixture of surgeons in that the recurrence rates are very similar to the rates seen in studies that merely observe or aspirate wrist ganglia. We propose that for symptomatic ganglia, specialists in hand surgery may be more appropriate at treating such a pathology.
PMCID: PMC3143961  PMID: 21808669
wrist ganglia; patient satisfaction; recurrence.
10.  Intussusception of the appendix secondary to endometriosis: a case report 
Intussusception of the appendix is an extremely rare condition that ranges from partial invagination of the appendix to involvement of the entire colon. Endometriosis is an exceptionally rare cause of appendiceal intussusception and only very few cases have been reported in the literature to date.
Case presentation
A 40 year-old woman presented to clinic with a long history of lower abdominal pain, loose motions and painful, heavy periods. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed submucosal endometriotic nodules in the sigmoid as well as a polyp thought to be arising from the appendix, which had inverted itself. She was referred to a colorectal surgeon because the polyp could not be removed endoscopically despite several attempts. At laparotomy, the appendix had intussuscepted but it was possible to reduce it and therefore a simple appendicectomy was carried out. On histology, there were widespread endometrial deposits within the wall of the appendix and this was thought to be the basis for the intussusception.
Histological evidence of the lead point is of crucial importance in cases of appendiceal intussusception, in order to exclude an underlying neoplastic process. Consequently, surgical resection is necessary either through an open or a laparoscopic approach. Gastrointestinal endometriosis should be considered as a cause of appendiceal intussusception in post-menarchal women with episodic symptoms and proven disease.
PMCID: PMC2254640  PMID: 18211674

Results 1-10 (10)