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1.  Tourniquet time affects postoperative complications after knee arthroplasty 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(5):827-832.
Pneumatic tourniquets are frequently used in knee arthroplasty surgery. However, there is a lack of evidence to define safe tourniquet time in lower limb surgery. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether tourniquet time influences the risk of postoperative complications after primary and secondary knee arthroplasty.
This study was a prospective register study. Since we wanted dispersion in tourniquet time, we included a consecutive series of 577 primary knee arthroplasties, 46 revision knee arthroplasties, and 18 patellar supplementing knee arthroplasties from a clinical audit database over a period of five years. The following postoperative complications were recorded: superficial wound infections, deep wound infections, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, nerve injuries, compartment syndrome, cuff pressure injuries, and bandage injuries.
Tourniquet time over 100 minutes was associated with an increased risk of complications after knee arthroplasty surgery (OR 2.2, CI 1.5–3.1). This increase in risk remained after adjusting for cuff pressure, sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, smoking, diabetes, and surgery indication (OR 2.4, CI 1.6–3.6).
Tourniquet time over 100 minutes increases the risk of complications after knee arthroplasty surgery and special attention is advocated to reduce the tourniquet time.
PMCID: PMC3631475  PMID: 23417522
2.  Medial Achilles tendon island flap—a novel technique to treat reruptures and neglected ruptures of the Achilles tendon 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(8):1629-1634.
There is a strong consensus for surgical treatment of reruptures and neglected ruptures of the Achilles tendon. A number of different surgical techniques have been described and several of these methods include extensive surgical exposure to the calf and technically demanding tendon transfers. The overall risk of complications is high and in particular the risk for wound healing problems, which are triggered by an increased tension in the skin when inserting a bulky graft to cover the rupture. In order to reduce the risk for wound healing problems a new, less complicated surgical technique was developed, as described in this study.
Nine consecutive patients (including six chronic ruptures and three reruptures) with complicating co-morbidities and with a tendon defect between three and eight centimetres were operated upon using the described novel technique. Patient-reported functional outcome was reported after two to eight years.
All tendon defects were successfully repaired. Neither early nor late surgical complications occurred. High patient satisfaction was reported for all patients.
The new surgical technique with a medial Achilles tendon island flap seems to be safe and results in a good patient reported outcome.
PMCID: PMC3535045  PMID: 22426931
3.  Symptomatic venous thromboembolism and mortality in orthopaedic surgery – an observational study of 45 968 consecutive procedures 
Little information exists on the presentation of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in orthopaedic surgery when a defined protocol for thromboprophylaxis is used. The objective with this study was to establish the VTE rate and mortality rate in orthopaedic surgery.
We performed a prospective, single centre observational cohort study of 45 968 consecutive procedures in 36 388 patients over a 10 year period. Follow-up was successful in 99.3%. The primary study outcome was the incidence of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) and mortality at 6 weeks, specified for different surgical procedures. The secondary outcome was to describe the DVT distribution in proximal and distal veins and the proportion of VTEs diagnosed after hospital discharge. For validation purposes, a retrospective review of VTEs diagnosed 7–12 weeks postoperatively was also performed.
In total, 514 VTEs were diagnosed (1.1%; 95% CI: 1.10-1.14), the majority (84%) after hospital discharge (432 out of 514).With thromboprophylaxis, high incidence of VTE was found after internal fixation (IF) of pelvic fracture (12%; 95% CI: 5–26), knee replacement surgery (3.7%; 95% CI: 2.8-5.0), after internal fixation (IF) of proximal tibia fracture (3.8%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.3) and after IF of ankle fracture (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.9-4.4). Without thromboprophylaxis, high incidence of VTE was found after Achilles tendon repair (7.2%; 95% CI: 5.5-9.4). In total 1094 patients deceased (2.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.33- 2.44) within 6 weeks of surgery. Highest mortality was seen after lower limb amputation (16.3%, CI: 13.8-19.1) and after hip hemiarthroplasty due to hip fracture (9.6%, CI; 7.6-12.1).
The overall incidence of VTE is low after orthopaedic surgery but our study highlights surgical procedures after which the risk for VTE remains high and improved thromboprophylaxis is needed.
PMCID: PMC3682916  PMID: 23734770
Deep vein thrombosis; Mortality; Operation; Orthopaedic surgery; Prophylaxis; Pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis; Venous thromboembolism
4.  Unipolar versus bipolar Exeter hip hemiarthroplasty: a prospective cohort study on 830 consecutive hips in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):711-717.
Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty (HA) is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register suggest that there is a higher risk for revision surgery with the bipolar HA compared with the unipolar HA.
In this study we analysed the reoperation and the dislocation rates for Exeter HAs in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, comparing the unipolar and bipolar prosthetic designs. Additionally, we compared the outcome for HAs performed as a primary intervention with those performed secondary to failed internal fixation.
We studied 830 consecutive Exeter HAs (427 unipolar and 403 bipolar) performed either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reoperation and prosthetic dislocation. Age, gender, the surgeon’s experience, indication for surgery (primary or secondary) and type of HA (unipolar or bipolar) were tested as independent variables in the model.
The prosthetic design (uni- or bipolar) had no influence on the risk for reoperation or dislocation, nor had the age, gender or the surgeon’s experience. The secondary HAs were associated with a significantly increased risk for reoperation (HR 2.6, CI 1.5–4.5) or dislocation (HR 3.3, CI 1.4–7.3) compared to the primary HAs. We found no difference in the risk for reoperation or dislocation when comparing Exeter unipolar and bipolar HAs, but special attention is called for to reduce the risk of prosthesis dislocation and reoperation after a secondary HA.
PMCID: PMC3311798  PMID: 21789497
5.  Hip arthroplasty after failed fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):493-498.
Background and purpose
Hip arthroplasty is an option for elderly patients with osteoporosis for the treatment of failure after fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, either as a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or as a hemiarthroplasty (HA). We analyzed the reoperation rate and risk factors for reoperation in a consecutive series of patients.
All patients (n = 88) operated from 1999 to 2006 with a THA (n = 63) or an HA (n = 25) due to failure of fixation of a trochanteric fracture (n = 63) or subtrochanteric fracture (n = 25) were included. Background data were collected from the patient records. A search was performed in the national registry of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in order to find information on all reoperations. The follow-up time was 5–11 years.
The reoperation rate was 16% (14/88 hips). A periprosthetic fracture occurred in 6 patients, a deep prosthetic infection in 5 patients, and a dislocation of the prosthesis in 3 patients. Standard-length femoral stems had an increased risk of reoperation (11/47) compared to long stems (3/41) (HR = 4, 95% CI: 1.0–13; p = 0.06).
The high reoperation rate reflects the complexity of the surgery. Using long femoral stems that bridge previous holes and defects may be one way to reduce the risk for reoperation.
PMCID: PMC3488176  PMID: 22574819
6.  The vertical hip fracture – a treatment challenge. A cohort study with an up to 9 year follow-up of 137 consecutive hips treated with sliding hip screw and antirotation screw 
Femoral neck fractures with a vertical orientation have been associated with an increased risk for failure as they are both axial and rotational unstable and experience increased shear forces compared to the conventional and more horizontally oriented femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyse outcome and risk factors for reoperation of these uncommon fractures.
A cohort study with a consecutive series of 137 hips suffering from a vertical hip fracture, treated with one method: a sliding hips screw with plate and an antirotation screw. Median follow-up time was 4.8 years. Reoperation data was validated against the National Board of Health and Welfare’s national registry using the unique Swedish personal identification number.
The total reoperation rate was 18%. After multivariable Logistic regression analysis adjusting for possible confounding factors there was an increased risk for reoperation for displaced fractures (22%) compared to undisplaced fractures (3%), and for fractures with poor implant position (38%) compared to fractures with adequate implant position (15%).
The reoperation rate was high, and special attention should be given to achieve an appropriate position of the implant.
PMCID: PMC3495198  PMID: 22971243
Hip fracture; Osteosynthesis; Basicervical fracture; Vertical hip fracture
7.  Direction of hip arthroplasty dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2010;34(5):641-647.
In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n = 42) or THA (n = 32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p < 0.001), while no such correlation was found after THA (p = 0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p = 0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.
PMCID: PMC2903178  PMID: 20091307
8.  A follow-up study of the fate of small asymptomatic deep venous thromboses 
Thrombosis Journal  2010;8:4.
Postoperative asymptomatic deep venous thromboses (ADVT) can give rise to posttthrombotic syndrome (PTS), but there are still many unresolved issues in this context. For example, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the fate of small ADVT following minor orthopedic surgery. This follow-up study evaluates postthrombotic changes and clinical manifestations of PTS in a group of patients with asymptomatic calf vein DVT after surgery for Achilles tendon rupture.
Forty-six consecutive patients with distal ADVT were contacted and enrolled in a follow-up consisting of a single visit at the hospital at a mean time of 5 years postoperatively, including clinical examination and scoring, ultrasonography and venous plethysmography. All patients had participated in DVT-screening with colour duplex ultrasound (CDU) 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively and 80% of them were treated with anticoagulation.
With CDU postthrombotic changes and deep venous reflux were detected at follow-up in more than 50% of the patients, more commonly in somewhat larger calf DVT:s initially affecting more than one vessel. However, only about 10% of the patients had significant venous reflux according to venous plethysmography. No patient had plethysmographic evidence of remaining outflow obstruction, but presence of postthrombotic changes shown with CDU negatively influenced venous outflow capacity measured with plethysmography. A clinical entity of PTS was rarely found and occurred only in two patients (4%) and then classified by Villalta scoring as of mild degree with few clinical signs of disease. Distal ADVT:s detected in the early postoperative period (3 weeks) showed DVT-progression in 75% of the limbs that were still immobilized and without anticoagulation.
Asymptomatic postoperative distal DVT:s following surgery for Achilles tendon rupture have a good prognosis and a favourable clinical outcome. In our material of 46 patients the general appearance of the clinical entity of PTS at 5 years follow-up was low (<5%). Morphological and functional abnormalities were mainly seen in those patients that initially had somewhat larger distal DVT:s involving more than one deep calf vein segment.
PMCID: PMC2850883  PMID: 20819203
9.  Dislocation of total hip replacement in patients with fractures of the femoral neck 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(2):184-189.
Background Total hip replacement is increasingly used in active, relatively healthy elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Dislocation of the prosthesis is a severe complication, and there is still controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach and its influence on stability. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the total hip replacement, paying special attention to the surgical approach.
Patients and methods We included 713 consecutive hips in a series of 698 patients (573 females) who had undergone a primary total hip replacement (n = 311) for a non-pathological, displaced femoral neck fracture (Garden III or IV) or a secondary total hip replacement (n = 402) due to a fracture-healing complication after a femoral neck fracture. We used Cox regression to evaluate factors associated with prosthetic dislocation after the operation. Age, sex, indication for surgery, the surgeon’s experience, femoral head size, and surgical approach were tested as independent factors in the model.
Results The overall dislocation rate was 6%. The anterolateral surgical approach was associated with a lower risk of dislocation than the posterolateral approach with or without posterior repair (2%, 12%, and 14%, respectively (p < 0.001)). The posterolateral approach was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of dislocation, with a hazards ratio (HR) of 6 (2–14) for the posterolateral approach with posterior repair and of 6 (2–16) without posterior repair.
Interpretation In order to minimize the risk of dislocation, we recommend the use of the anterolateral approach for total hip replacement in patients with femoral neck fractures.
PMCID: PMC2823165  PMID: 19404800

Results 1-9 (9)