Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-10 (10)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Synchrotron Imaging Assessment of Bone Quality 
Bone is a complex hierarchical structure, and its principal function is to resist mechanical forces and fracture. Bone strength depends not only on the quantity of bone tissue but also on the shape and hierarchical structure. The hierarchical levels are interrelated, especially the micro-architecture, collagen and mineral components; hence, analysis of their specific roles in bone strength and stiffness is difficult. Synchrotron imaging technologies including micro-CT and small/wide angle X-ray scattering/diffraction are becoming increasingly popular for studying bone because the images can resolve deformations in the micro-architecture and collagen–mineral matrix under in situ mechanical loading. Synchrotron cannot be directly applied in vivo due to the high radiation dose but will allow researchers to carry out systematic multifaceted studies of bone ex vivo. Identifying characteristics of aging and disease will underpin future efforts to generate novel devices and interventional therapies for assessing and promoting healthy aging. With our own research work as examples, this paper introduces how synchrotron imaging technology can be used with in situ testing in bone research.
PMCID: PMC5018259  PMID: 27683260
Synchrotron X-ray imaging; Microstructure; Nanomechanics
2.  Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(7):e0158563.
MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases.
Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI.
The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05).
The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position.
PMCID: PMC4951034  PMID: 27434235
3.  Variable bone mineral density reductions post-unicompartmental knee arthroplasty 
Radiolucencies are commonly observed in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) patients within 1 year of arthroplasty. The objective of the study was to identify how the bone mineral density (BMD) changes up to 1 year post-arthroplasty.
Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were obtained from 11 UKA patients at 10 days and 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery. Patients were scanned in both anteroposterior and lateral knee orientations.
Most subjects saw a large decline in BMD in the first 6 months following surgery, followed by some recovery in bone mass. The biggest change occurred under the tibial intercondylar eminence, which decreased significantly by an average of 18 % at 6 months and was 15 % at 1 year. The average bone loss under the tibial tray was low; however, the bone loss at the anterior portion was higher with a significant average decrease of 14 %. There was no change in BMD under the tibial keel. There was significant bone loss of 13 % under the femoral component; the regions anterior and posterior to the central femoral implant peg both had significant bone loss of 14 %. The bone response between patients was very variable, with some patients losing bone steadily, and others gaining it rapidly after an early fall.
While the overall reduction in BMD under both components was low, it was significant and there was substantial individual variation superimposed on this. Improving our understanding of this response to surgery may impact on prosthesis survival.
Level of evidence
Therapeutic study: case series with no comparison group, Level IV.
PMCID: PMC4512571  PMID: 24770381
Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty; UKA; Bone density changes; BMD; DXA
4.  A CT scan protocol for the detection of radiographic loosening of the glenoid component after total shoulder arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):91-96.
Background and purpose
It is difficult to evaluate glenoid component periprosthetic radiolucencies in total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs) using plain radiographs. This study was performed to evaluate whether computed tomography (CT) using a specific patient position in the CT scanner provides a better method for assessing radiolucencies in TSA.
Following TSA, 11 patients were CT scanned in a lateral decubitus position with maximum forward flexion, which aligns the glenoid orientation with the axis of the CT scanner. Follow-up CT scanning is part of our routine patient care. Glenoid component periprosthetic lucency was assessed according to the Molé score and it was compared to routine plain radiographs by 5 observers.
The protocol almost completely eliminated metal artifacts in the CT images and allowed accurate assessment of periprosthetic lucency of the glenoid fixation. Positioning of the patient within the CT scanner as described was possible for all 11 patients. A radiolucent line was identified in 54 of the 55 observed CT scans and osteolysis was identified in 25 observations. The average radiolucent line Molé score was 3.4 (SD 2.7) points with plain radiographs and 9.5 (SD 0.8) points with CT scans
(p = 0.001). The mean intra-observer variance was lower in the CT scan group than in the plain radiograph group (p = 0.001).
The CT scan protocol we used is of clinical value in routine assessment of glenoid periprosthetic lucency after TSA. The technique improves the ability to detect and monitor radiolucent lines and, therefore, possibly implant loosening also.
PMCID: PMC3940998  PMID: 24286563
5.  Poly-S-Nitrosated Albumin as a Safe and Effective Multifunctional Antitumor Agent: Characterization, Biochemistry and Possible Future Therapeutic Applications 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:353892.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous molecule involved in multiple cellular functions. Inappropriate production of NO may lead to disease states. To date, pharmacologically active compounds that release NO within the body, such as organic nitrates, have been used as therapeutic agents, but their efficacy is significantly limited by unwanted side effects. Therefore, novel NO donors with better pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties are highly desirable. The S-nitrosothiol fraction in plasma is largely composed of endogenous S-nitrosated human serum albumin (Mono-SNO-HSA), and that is why we are testing whether this albumin form can be therapeutically useful. Recently, we developed SNO-HSA analogs such as SNO-HSA with many conjugated SNO groups (Poly-SNO-HSA) which were prepared using chemical modification. Unexpectedly, we found striking inverse effects between Poly-SNO-HSA and Mono-SNO-HSA. Despite the fact that Mono-SNO-HSA inhibits apoptosis, Poly-SNO-HSA possesses very strong proapoptotic effects against tumor cells. Furthermore, Poly-SNO-HSA can reduce or perhaps completely eliminate the multidrug resistance often developed by cancer cells. In this review, we forward the possibility that Poly-SNO-HSA can be used as a safe and effective multifunctional antitumor agent.
PMCID: PMC3893780  PMID: 24490156
6.  Accuracy of Glenoid Component Placement in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty and Its Effect on Clinical and Radiological Outcome in a Retrospective, Longitudinal, Monocentric Open Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e75791.
The success of Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (TSA) is believed to depend on the restoration of the natural anatomy of the joint and a key development has been the introduction of modular humeral components to more accurately restore the patient’s anatomy. However, there are no peer-reviewed studies that have reported the degree of glenoid component mal-position achieved in clinical practice and the clinical outcome of such mal-position. The main purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of glenoid implant positioning during TSA and to relate it to the radiological (occurrence of radiolucent lines and osteolysis on CT) and clinical outcomes.
68 TSAs were assessed with a mean follow-up of 38+/−27 months. The clinical evaluation consisted of measuring the mobility as well as of the Constant Score. The radiological evaluation was performed on CT-scans in which metal artefacts had been eliminated. From the CT-scans radiolucent lines and osteolysis were assessed. The positions of the glenoid and humeral components were also measured from the CT scans.
Four position glenoid component parameters were calculated The posterior version (6°±12°; mean ± SD), the superior tilt (12°±17°), the rotation of the implant relative to the scapular plane (3°±14°) and the off-set distance of the centre of the glenoid implant from the scapular plane (6±4 mm). An inferiorly inclined implant was found to be associated with higher levels of radiolucent lines while retroversion and non-neutral rotation were associated with a reduced range of motion.
this study demonstrates that glenoid implants of anatomic TSA are poorly positioned and that this malposition has a direct effect on the clinical and radiological outcome. Thus, further developments in glenoid implantation techniques are required to enable the surgeon to achieve a desired implant position and outcome.
PMCID: PMC3793002  PMID: 24116075
7.  Total shoulder arthroplasty does not correct the orientation of the eroded glenoid 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):529-535.
Background and purpose
Alignment of the glenoid component with the scapula during total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is challenging due to glenoid erosion and lack of both bone stock and guiding landmarks. We determined the extent to which the implant position is governed by the preoperative erosion of the glenoid. Also, we investigated whether excessive erosion of the glenoid is associated with perforation of the glenoid vault.
We used preoperative and postoperative CT scans of 29 TSAs to assess version, inclination, rotation, and offset of the glenoid relative to the scapula plane. The position of the implant keel within the glenoid vault was classified into three types: centrally positioned, component touching vault cortex, and perforation of the cortex.
Preoperative glenoid erosion was statistically significantly linked to the postoperative placement of the implant regarding all position parameters. Retroversion of the eroded glenoid was on average 10° (SD10) and retroversion of the implant after surgery was 7° (SD11). The implant keel was centered within the vault in 7 of 29 patients and the glenoid vault was perforated in 5 patients. Anterior cortex perforation was most frequent and was associated with severe preoperative posterior erosion, causing implant retroversion.
The position of the glenoid component reflected the preoperative erosion and “correction” was not a characteristic of the reconstructive surgery. Severe erosion appears to be linked to vault perforation. If malalignment and perforation are associated with loosening, our results suggest reorientation of the implant relative to the eroded surface.
PMCID: PMC3488182  PMID: 23083436
8.  Measurement of femoral head penetration in polyethylene using a 3-dimensional CT-scan technique 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(5):563-569.
Current techniques for measuring in vivo polyethylene wear suffer from a range of problems, resulting in an unacceptable lack of repeatability and/or insufficient accuracy when they are used to measure the low wear rates associated with new, highly crosslinked polyethylene. We describe an improved CT method for measurement of 3D femoral head penetration in PE acetabular cups that has sufficient accuracy and repeatability to allow assessment of the wear potential of modern implants.
The accuracy and repeatability of the CT-scan method was determined by blindly repeating measurements on a precisely calibrated 28-mm prosthetic head and by comparing them with direct metrological measurements on 10 acetabular specimens with in vitro wear from machining, and on 8 explanted acetabular specimens with in vivo wear.
The intra- and interobserver errors in femoral head diameter were 0.036 mm (SD 0.044) and 0.050 mm (SD 0.022), respectively. CT estimated femoral head penetration in both all-poly and metal-backed acetabular components with accuracy ranging from 0.009 to 0.245 mm (mean 0.080; SD 0.067).
We found that the CT method is rapid, is accurate, and has repeatability and ease of availability. Using a slice thickness of 0.0625 mm, this method can detect wear—and also the threshold for the wear rate that causes osteolysis—much earlier than previous methods.
PMCID: PMC3214744  PMID: 20860445
9.  S-Nitrosylated Human Serum Albumin-mediated Cytoprotective Activity Is Enhanced by Fatty Acid Binding* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2008;283(50):34966-34975.
Binding of oleate to S-nitrosylated human serum albumin (SNO-HSA) enhances its cytoprotective effect on liver cells in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model. It enhances the antiapoptotic effect of SNO-HSA on HepG2 cells exposed to anti-Fas antibody. To identify some of the reasons for the increased cytoprotective effects, additional experiments were performed with glutathione and HepG2 cells. As indicated by 5,5′-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid binding, the addition of oleate increased the accessibility of the single thiol group of albumin. Binding of increasing amounts of oleate resulted in increasing and more rapid S-transnitrosation of glutathione. Likewise, binding of oleate, or of a mixture of endogenous fatty acids, improved S-denitrosation of SNO-HSA by HepG2 cells. Oleate also enhanced S-transnitrosation by HepG2 cells, as detected by intracellular fluorescence of diaminofluorescein-FM. All of the S-transnitrosation caused by oleate binding was blocked by filipin III. Oleate also increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the binding of SNO-HSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate to the surface of the hepatocytes. A model in two parts was worked out for S-transnitrosation, which does not involve low molecular weight thiols. Fatty acid binding facilitates S-denitrosation of SNO-HSA, increases its binding to HepG2 cells and greatly increases S-transnitrosation by hepatocytes in a way that is sensitive to filipin III. A small nitric oxide transfer takes place in a slow system, which is unaffected by fatty acid binding to SNO-HSA and not influenced by filipin III. Thus, fatty acids could be a novel type of mediator for S-transnitrosation.
PMCID: PMC2596408  PMID: 18940810
10.  An optimised method for quantifying glenoid orientation 
A robust quantification method is essential for inter-subject glenoid comparison and planning of total shoulder arthroplasty. This study compared various scapular and glenoid axes with each other in order to optimally define the most appropriate method of quantifying glenoid version and inclination.
Six glenoid and eight scapular axes were defined and quantified from identifiable landmarks of twenty-one scapular image scans. Pathology independency and insensitivity of each axis to inter-subject morphological variation within its region was tested. Glenoid version and inclination were calculated using the best axes from the two regions.
The best glenoid axis was the normal to a least-square plane fit on the glenoid rim, directed approximately medio-laterally. The best scapular axis was the normal to a plane formed by the spine root and lateral border ridge. Glenoid inclination was 15.7° ± 5.1° superiorly and version was 4.9° ± 6.1°, retroversion.
The choice of axes in the present technique makes it insensitive to pathology and scapular morphological variabilities. Its application would effectively improve inter-subject glenoid version comparison, surgical planning and design of prostheses for shoulder arthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC2840818  PMID: 20300307
Version; inclination; morphology

Results 1-10 (10)