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author:("geiger, Mats")
1.  Bone microarchitecture in ankylosing spondylitis and the association with bone mineral density, fractures, and syndesmophytes 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(6):R179.
Introduction
Osteoporosis of the axial skeleton is a known complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but bone loss affecting the peripheral skeleton is less studied. This study on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture in AS was conducted to compare peripheral vBMD in AS patients with that in healthy controls, to study vBMD in axial compared with peripheral bone, and to explore the relation between vertebral fractures, spinal osteoproliferation, and peripheral bone microarchitecture and density.
Methods
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) of ultradistal radius and tibia and QCT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine were performed in 69 male AS patients (NY criteria). Spinal radiographs were assessed for vertebral fractures and syndesmophyte formation (mSASSS). The HRpQCT measurements were compared with the measurements of healthy controls.
Results
The AS patients had lower cortical vBMD in radius (P = 0.004) and lower trabecular vBMD in tibia (P = 0.033), than did the controls. Strong correlations were found between trabecular vBMD in lumbar spine, radius (rS = 0.762; P < 0.001), and tibia (rS = 0.712; P < 0.001).
When compared with age-matched AS controls, patients with vertebral fractures had lower lumbar cortical vBMD (-22%; P = 0.019), lower cortical cross-sectional area in radius (-28.3%; P = 0.001) and tibia (-24.0%; P = 0.013), and thinner cortical bone in radius (-28.3%; P = 0.001) and tibia (-26.9%; P = 0.016).
mSASSS correlated negatively with trabecular vBMD in lumbar spine (rS = -0.620; P < 0.001), radius (rS = -0.400; p = 0.001) and tibia (rS = -0.475; p < 0.001) and also with trabecular thickness in radius (rS = -0.528; P < 0.001) and tibia (rS = -0.488; P < 0.001).
Adjusted for age, syndesmophytes were significantly associated with decreasing trabecular vBMD, but increasing cortical vBMD in lumbar spine, but not with increasing cortical thickness or density in peripheral bone. Estimated lumbar vBMD by DXA correlated with trabecular vBMD measured by QCT (rS = 0.636; P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Lumbar osteoporosis, syndesmophytes, and vertebral fractures were associated with both lower vBMD and deteriorated microarchitecture in peripheral bone. The results indicate that trabecular bone loss is general, whereas osteoproliferation is local in AS.
doi:10.1186/ar4368
PMCID: PMC3978766  PMID: 24517240
2.  Radiography, tomosynthesis, CT and MRI in the evaluation of pulmonary cystic fibrosis: an untangling review of the multitude of scoring systems 
Insights into Imaging  2013;4(6):787-798.
Objective
The first radiographic scoring system for pulmonary cystic fibrosis was presented in 1958. Since then a multitude of scoring systems for radiography and computed tomography (CT) have been presented, recently also for tomosynthesis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the current review was to analyse and compare the plethora of scoring systems for cystic fibrosis, especially regarding which scoring components are considered most important.
Methods
Four scoring systems for chest radiography, one for tomosynthesis, eight for CT and one for MRI were compared regarding components evaluated and their terminology; the areas scored; scoring levels; the weighting of each component in percentage of the total score; and the calculations for the final score.
Results
In most radiological scoring systems the lungs are evaluated for increased volume, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, atelectasis and consolidation. In addition, for instance abscesses, bullae, septal thickening, mosaic perfusion, ground glass opacities and air trapping are evaluated in some CT scoring systems. Pleural affection and perfusion defects are scored on MRI.
Conclusions
Bronchiectasis alone, or in combination with mucus plugging, is given the highest weighting in most scoring systems and is thus commonly considered to be the most significant finding when evaluating cystic fibrosis lung disease.
Teaching points
• Scoring of examinations is used for comparison of outcome in studies.
• Scoring of examinations can also be used for monitoring disease progression.
• Cystic fibrosis can be scored on radiography, tomosynthesis, CT or MRI.
• The typical imaging findings of cystic fibrosis depend on the imaging modality used.
• Bronchiectasis is commonly considered the most significant finding when scoring cystic fibrosis.
doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0288-y
PMCID: PMC3846934  PMID: 24065629
Cystic fibrosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Radiography; Tomography, X-ray; Tomography, X-ray computed
3.  Infliximab Dose Reduction Sustains the Clinical Treatment Effect in Active HLAB27 Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Two-Year Pilot Study 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:289845.
The rationale of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine whether IFX dose reduction and interval extension sustains the treatment effect. Nineteen patients were included and treated with IFX 5 mg/kg every 6 weeks for 56 weeks. All patients concomitantly received MTX with median dose 7.5 mg/weekly. During the second year, the IFX dose was reduced to 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks. Eighteen patients completed the 1-year and 15 patients the 2-year trial. The ≥50% improvement at week 16 from baseline of BASDAI was achieved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Significant reductions in BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores, decrease in ESR and CRP, and improvement in SF-36 were observed at weeks 16 and 56. The MRI-defined inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints disappeared in 10/15 patients (67%) already at 16 weeks. IFX treatment effect was sustained throughout the second year after IFX dose reduction and interval extension. We conclude that IFX treatment is effective in well-established active AS and a dose reduction sustains the treatment effect. These observations are of clinical importance and open the opportunity to reduce the drug costs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01850121.
doi:10.1155/2013/289845
PMCID: PMC3780705  PMID: 24089587
4.  The Utility of Digital Linear Tomosynthesis Imaging of Total Hip Joint Arthroplasty with Suspicion of Loosening: A Prospective Study in 40 Patients 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:594631.
Aim. The clinical utility of digital linear tomosynthesis in musculoskeletal applications has been validated in only a few reports. Technical performance and utility in hip prosthesis imaging have been discussed in technical reports, but no clinical evaluation has been reported. The purpose of the current study was to assess the added clinical utility of digital linear tomosynthesis compared to radiography in loosening of total hip joint arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. In a prospective study, radiography and digital tomosynthesis were performed in 40 consecutive patients with total hip arthroplasty referred for suspect prosthesis loosening. Tomosynthesis images were compared to anterior-posterior (AP) and cross-table lateral radiographs regarding demarcation and extent of demineralization and osteolysis. Further noted were skeletal fractures, cement fractures, fragmentation, and artifacts interfering with the diagnosis. Results. Tomosynthesis was superior to radiography with sharper delineation of demineralization and osteolysis in the AP projection. A limitation was the inability to generate lateral tomosynthesis images, with inferior assessment of the area anterior and posterior to the acetabular cup compared to cross-table radiographs. Artifacts interfering with diagnosis were found in one hip. Conclusion. Tomosynthesis improved evaluation of total hip arthroplasty in the AP projection but was limited by the lack of lateral projections.
doi:10.1155/2013/594631
PMCID: PMC3776365  PMID: 24078921
5.  Diagnosis and Progression of Sacroiliitis in Repeated Sacroiliac Joint Computed Tomography 
Arthritis  2013;2013:659487.
Objective. To assess the clinical utility of repeat sacroiliac joint computed tomography (CT) in sacroiliitis by assessing the proportion of patients changing from normal to pathologic at CT and to which degree there is progression of established sacroiliitis at repeat CT. Methods. In a retrospective analysis of 334 patients (median age 34 years) with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory back pain, CT had been performed twice, in 47 of these thrice, and in eight patients four times. The studies were scored as normal, equivocal, unilateral sacroiliitis, or bilateral sacroiliitis. Results. There was no change in 331 of 389 repeat examinations. Ten patients (3.0%) had progressed from normal or equivocal to unilateral or bilateral sacroiliitis. Of 43 cases with sacroiliitis on the first study, 36 (83.7%) progressed markedly. Two normal cases had changed to equivocal. Eight equivocal cases were classified as normal on the repeat study. In further two patients, only small changes within the scoring grade equivocal were detected. Conclusions. CT is a valuable examination for diagnosis of sacroiliitis, but a repeated examination detects only a few additional cases of sacroiliitis. Most cases with already established sacroiliitis showed progression of disease.
doi:10.1155/2013/659487
PMCID: PMC3776366  PMID: 24078875
6.  The natural course of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(4):410-414.
Background and purpose
Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) is a painful lesion in the elderly, frequently leading to osteoarthritis and subsequent knee surgery. We evaluated the natural course and long-term consequences of SPONK in terms of need for major knee surgery.
Methods
Between 1982 and 1988, 40 consecutive patients were diagnosed with SPONK. The short-term outcome has been reported previously (1991). After 1–7 years, 10 patients had a good radiographic outcome and 30 were considered failures, developing osteoarthritis. In 2012, all 40 of the patients were matched with the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) and their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the long-term need for major knee surgery.
Results
At the 2012 review, 33 of the 40 patients had died. The mean follow-up time from diagnosis to surgery, death, or end of study was 9 (1–27) years. 17 of 40 patients had had major knee surgery with either arthroplasty (15) or osteotomy (2). All operated patients but 1 were in the radiographic failure group and had developed osteoarthritis in the study from 1991. 6 of 7 patients with large lesions (> 40% of the AP radiographic view of the condyle) at the time of the diagnosis were operated. None of the 10 patients with a lesion of less than 20% were ever operated.
Interpretation
It appears that the size of the osteonecrotic lesion can be used to predict the outcome. Patients showing early signs of osteoarthritis or with a large osteonecrosis have a high risk of later major knee surgery.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.810521
PMCID: PMC3768043  PMID: 23799344
7.  A Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Impact of 939 Chest Radiographs Using the Medical Records 
Objective. Between one-third and half of all radiology examinations worldwide are probably chest studies. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical influence of chest radiography. Methods. In a tertiary referral hospital, 939 consecutive daytime chest radiography examinations were evaluated. The outcome was classified as normal, incidental, or pathologic. The referring physician's reaction to radiologic outcome was classified as highly expected, moderately expected, or unexpected. The influence on the patients' treatment was divided into four groups from major to no influence. Results. In all, 71.6% of the studies had a highly expected outcome. Moderately expected or unexpected outcomes were noted in 36.6% of 500 pathologic examinations. Unexpected outcome was noted in 11.6% of all studies. The radiologic outcome influenced treatment in 65.4% of patients where pathology was demonstrated. Patients with normal or incidental findings had treatment influenced in 1/3 of the cases. Unexpected findings influenced treatment more than moderately expected findings. When radiological findings were highly expected, treatment was influenced in less than half of the cases. Surprisingly few chest radiology examinations were commented upon in the medical records.
doi:10.1155/2012/862198
PMCID: PMC3539410  PMID: 23316358
8.  Treatment of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) by a bisphosphonate 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):511-514.
Background and purpose
Primary spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee is a painful lesion in the elderly without any known cause. The onset of pain is usually acute. The prognosis is poor with high frequency of osteoarthritis, joint surface collapse, and subsequent knee surgery. In the present study, we determined whether bisphosphonates can prevent the joint surface collapse by delaying the post-necrotic remodeling.
Patients and methods
Between 2006 and 2009, 17 consecutive patients (mean age 68 years) with clinical and radiographic signs of knee osteonecrosis were identified and given alendronate, 70 mg perorally, once a week for a minimum of 6 months. The patients were followed clinically, radiographically, and by MRI.
Results
10 of the 17 patients did not develop osteoarthritis (group A), 4 patients developed mild osteoarthritis but no knee joint surface collapse (group B), and 3 patients had a joint surface collapse (group C). 2 of the 3 patients in group C—as compared to none in the other groups—stopped medication prematurely, due to side effects.
Interpretation
Compared to a previous, untreated series of osteonecrosis patients at our hospital, the clinical results in the present series appeared better. 59% of the patients had a complete radiographic recovery, as compared to 25% in the original study. 12% were failures regarding need to undergo surgery when bisphosphonates were given, as compared to 32% in the previous untreated series. An anticatabolic drug delaying the remodeling might be an effective treatment in osteonecrosis of the knee but further (preferably randomized) studies are necessary.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.729184
PMCID: PMC3488179  PMID: 22998531
9.  Osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis - prevalence, risk factors and methods of assessment 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R108.
Introduction
Osteoporosis can be a complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but diagnosing spinal osteoporosis can be difficult since pathologic new bone formation interferes with the assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of the current study were to investigate prevalence and risk factors for reduced BMD in a Swedish cohort of AS patients, and to examine how progressive ankylosis influences BMD with the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine in different projections.
Methods
Methods of assessment were questionnaires, back mobility tests, blood samples, lateral spine radiographs for syndesmophyte grading (mSASSS), DXA of the hip, radius and lumbar spine in anteroposterior (AP) and lateral projections with estimation of volumetric BMD (vBMD).
Results
AS patients (modified New York criteria), 87 women and 117 men, mean age 50 ± 13 years and disease duration 15 ± 11 years were included. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria 21% osteoporosis and 44% osteopenia was diagnosed in patients > = 50 years. Under age 50 BMD below expected range for age was found in 5%. Interestingly lateral lumbar DXA showed significantly lower BMD and revealed significantly more cases with osteoporosis as compared with AP DXA. Lumbar vBMD was not different between sexes, but women had significantly more lumbar osteoporosis measured with AP DXA (P < 0.001). Men had significantly higher mSASSS (P < 0.001). Low BMD was associated with high age, disease duration, mSASSS, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), inflammatory parameters and low body mass index (BMI). Increasing mSASSS correlated significantly with decreasing lateral and volumetric lumbar BMD, while AP lumbar BMD showed tendency to increase.
Conclusions
Osteoporosis and osteopenia is common in AS and associated with high disease burden. Lateral and volumetric lumbar DXA are more sensitive than AP DXA in detecting osteoporosis and are less affected by syndesmophyte formation.
doi:10.1186/ar3833
PMCID: PMC3446485  PMID: 22569245
10.  Tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis with comparison to radiography and computed tomography: a pictorial review 
Insights into Imaging  2011;3(1):81-89.
The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate chest imaging findings of cystic fibrosis (CF) using tomosynthesis (digital tomography), in comparison to radiography and computed tomography (CT). CF is a chronic systemic disease where imaging has long been used for monitoring chest status. CT exposes the patient to a substantially higher radiation dose than radiography, rendering it unsuitable for the often needed repeated examinations of these patients. Tomosynthesis has recently appeared as an interesting low dose alternative to CT, with an effective dose of approximately 0.08 mSv for children and 0.12 mSv for adults. Tomosynthesis is performed on the same X-ray system as radiography, adding only about 1 min to the normal examination time. Typical pulmonary changes in CF such as mucus plugging, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectases are shown in significantly better detail with tomosynthesis than with traditional radiography. In addition, the cost for a tomosynthesis examination is low compared to CT. To reduce the radiation burden of patients with CF it is important to consider low dose alternatives to CT, especially in the paediatric population. Tomosynthesis has a lower radiation dose than CT and gives a superior visualisation of pulmonary CF changes compared to radiography. It is important to further determine the role of tomosynthesis for monitoring disease progression in CF.
doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0137-9
PMCID: PMC3292643  PMID: 22696001
Cystic fibrosis; Lung; Radiography; Tomography, spiral computed; Tomography, X-ray computed
11.  Tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis with comparison to radiography and computed tomography: a pictorial review 
Insights into Imaging  2011;3(1):81-89.
The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate chest imaging findings of cystic fibrosis (CF) using tomosynthesis (digital tomography), in comparison to radiography and computed tomography (CT). CF is a chronic systemic disease where imaging has long been used for monitoring chest status. CT exposes the patient to a substantially higher radiation dose than radiography, rendering it unsuitable for the often needed repeated examinations of these patients. Tomosynthesis has recently appeared as an interesting low dose alternative to CT, with an effective dose of approximately 0.08 mSv for children and 0.12 mSv for adults. Tomosynthesis is performed on the same X-ray system as radiography, adding only about 1 min to the normal examination time. Typical pulmonary changes in CF such as mucus plugging, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectases are shown in significantly better detail with tomosynthesis than with traditional radiography. In addition, the cost for a tomosynthesis examination is low compared to CT. To reduce the radiation burden of patients with CF it is important to consider low dose alternatives to CT, especially in the paediatric population. Tomosynthesis has a lower radiation dose than CT and gives a superior visualisation of pulmonary CF changes compared to radiography. It is important to further determine the role of tomosynthesis for monitoring disease progression in CF.
doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0137-9
PMCID: PMC3292643  PMID: 22696001
Cystic fibrosis; Lung; Radiography; Tomography, spiral computed; Tomography, X-ray computed
12.  External or internal fixation in the treatment of non-reducible distal radial fractures? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(5):610-613.
Background and purpose
We have previously shown in a randomized study that in the first year after treatment, open reduction and internal fixation resulted in better grip strength and forearm rotation than closed reduction and bridging external fixation. In the present study, we investigated whether this difference persists over time.
Patients and methods
The 50 patients included in the original study (mean age 53 years, 36 women) were sent a QuickDASH questionnaire and an invitation to a radiographic and clinical examination after a mean of 5 (3–7) years.
Results
All 50 patients returned the QuickDASH questionnaire and 45 participated in the clinical and radiographic examination. In the internal fixation group, the grip strength was 95% (SD 12) of the uninjured side and in the external fixation group it was 90% (SD 21) of the uninjured side (p = 0.3). QuickDASH score, range of motion, and radiographic parameters were similar between the groups.
Interpretation
The difference originally found between internal and external fixation in distal radial fractures at 1 year regarding grip strength and range of motion was found to diminish with time. At 5 years, both groups had approached normal values.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.618910
PMCID: PMC3242960  PMID: 21895505
13.  A single bisphosphonate infusion does not accelerate fracture healing in high tibial osteotomies 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(4):465-470.
Background
Bisphosphonates increase the callus size and strength in animal fracture studies. In a human non-randomized pilot study of high tibial osteotomies in knee osteoarthritis, using the hemicallotasis (HCO) technique, bisphosphonates shortened the healing time by 12 days. In the present randomized study, we wanted to determine whether a single infusion of zoledronic acid reduces the time to clinical osteotomy healing. Results from the same trial, showing improved pin fixation with zoledronate, have been published separately.
Methods
46 consecutive patients (aged 35–65 years) were operated. At 4 weeks postoperatively, the patients were randomized to an intravenous infusion of either zoledronic acid or sodium chloride. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed 10 weeks postoperatively. Radiographs were taken at 10 weeks and every second week until there was radiographic and clinical healing. Healing was evaluated blind, with extraction of the external fixator as the endpoint. At 1.5 years, an additional radiograph was taken and the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle measured to evaluate whether correction had been retained.
Results
All osteotomies healed with no difference in healing time between the groups (77 (SD 7) days). Bone mineral density and bone mineral content, as assessed with DEXA, were similar between the groups. Radiographically, both groups had retained the acquired correction at the 1.5-year follow-up.
Interpretation
In this randomized comparison, a single infusion of zoledronic acid increased the pin fixation of the external frame but did not shorten the healing time. In both groups, the external fixator was extracted almost 2 weeks earlier than in previous studies. The early extraction did not cause a loss of correction in either group.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.594231
PMCID: PMC3237038  PMID: 21689069
14.  The Artelon CMC spacer compared with tendon interposition arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(2):237-244.
Background and purpose The Artelon CMC spacer is designed for surgical treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC-I). Good results using this degradable device were previously presented in a pilot study. We now present results from a larger randomized, controlled, multicenter study.
Patients and methods 109 patients (94 females) with a mean age of 60 (42–83) years, suffering from painful CMC OA, were included in the study at 7 centers in Sweden. The patients were randomized to Artelon CMC spacer (test, n = 72) or tendon arthroplasty (control, n = 37) at a ratio of 2:1. Perceived pain was recorded on a visual analog scale (VAS) before treatment and after 3, 6, and 12 months, when measuring maximal tripod pinch strength (primary outcome measure). In addition, range of motion, radiographic findings, and functional testing were recorded pre- and postoperatively.
Results Swelling and pain were more common in the test group and 6 implants were removed because of such symptoms. 5 of these patients did not receive antibiotics preoperatively according to the study protocol. In a per-protocol analysis, i.e. patients without signs of concomitant OA in the scaphoid-trapezium-trapezoid (STT) joint and those in the test group who received antibiotics, the mean difference in tripod pinch strength increase, adjusted for baseline, was 1.4 kg in favor of the test group (not statistically significant). Statistically significant pain relief was achieved in both groups, with perceived pain gradually decreasing during the follow-up period. In the intention-to-treat analysis but not in the per-protocol analysis, significantly better pain relief (VAS) was obtained in the control group. Patient-perceived disability evaluated by the DASH questionnaire improved in both groups.
Interpretation The Artelon CMC spacer did not show superior results compared to tendon interposition arthroplasty. Proper use of preoperative antibiotics and a thorough patient selection appear to be important for the results.
doi:10.3109/17453671003635835
PMCID: PMC2895345  PMID: 20180717
15.  Open reduction and internal fixation compared to closed reduction and external fixation in distal radial fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(4):478-485.
Background and purpose In unstable distal radial fractures that are impossible to reduce or to maintain in reduced position, the treatment of choice is operation. The type of operation and the choice of implant, however, is a matter of discussion. Our aim was to investigate whether open reduction and internal fixation would produce a better result than traditional external fixation.
Methods 50 patients with an unstable or comminute distal radius fracture were randomized to either closed reduction and bridging external fixation, or open reduction and internal fixation using the TriMed system. The primary outcome parameter was grip strength, but the patients were followed for 1 year with objective clinical assessment, subjective outcome using DASH, and radiographic examination.
Results At 1 year postoperatively, grip strength was 90% (SD 16) of the uninjured side in the internal fixation group and 78% (17) in the external fixation group. Pronation/supination was 150° (15) in the internal fixation group and 136° (20) in the external fixation group at 1 year. There were no differences in DASH scores or in radiographic parameters. 5 patients in the external fixation group were reoperated due to malunion, as compared to 1 in the internal fixation group. 7 other cases were classified as radiographic malunion: 5 in the external fixation group and 2 in the internal fixation group.
Interpretation Internal fixation gave better grip strength and a better range of motion at 1 year, and tended to have less malunions than external fixation. No difference could be found regarding subjective outcome.
doi:10.3109/17453670903171875
PMCID: PMC2823185  PMID: 19857180
16.  Comparison of Color LCD and Medical-grade Monochrome LCD Displays in Diagnostic Radiology 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2007;20(2):114-121.
In diagnostic radiology, medical-grade monochrome displays are usually recommended because of their higher luminance. Standard color displays can be used as a less expensive alternative, but have a lower luminance. The aim of the present study was to compare image quality for these two types of displays. Images of a CDRAD contrast-detail phantom were read by four radiologists using a 2-megapixel (MP) color display (143 cd/m2 maximum luminance) as well as 2-MP (295 cd/m2) and 3-MP monochrome displays. Thirty lumbar spine radiographs were also read by four radiologists using the color and the 2-MP monochrome display in a visual grading analysis (VGA). Very small differences were found between the displays when reading the CDRAD images. The VGA scores were −0.28 for the color and −0.25 for the monochrome display (p = 0.24; NS). It thus seems possible to use color displays in diagnostic radiology provided that grayscale adjustment is used.
doi:10.1007/s10278-007-9028-5
PMCID: PMC3043910  PMID: 17340227
PACS; displays; digital imaging; luminance; image quality; monitor; medical imaging; liquid crystal display

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