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author:("furness, Ove")
1.  Pelvic irradiation does not increase the risk of hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(6):652-656.
Background and purpose —
Long-term survivors of cancer can develop adverse effects of the treatment. 60% of cancer patients survive for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Pelvic irradiation can cause bone damage in these long-term survivors, with increased risk of fracture and degeneration of the hip.
Patients and methods —
Analyses were based on linkage between the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). All women who had been exposed to radiation for curative radiotherapy of gynecological cancer (40–60 Gy for at least 28 days) were identified in the CRN. Radiotherapy had been given between 1998 and 2006 and only patients who were irradiated within 6 months of diagnosis were included. The control group contained women with breast cancer who had also undergone radiotherapy, but not to the pelvic area. Fine and Gray competing-risk analysis was used to calculate subhazard-rate ratios (subHRRs) and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for the risk of having a prosthesis accounting for differences in mortality.
Results —
Of 962 eligible patients with gynecological cancer, 26 (3%) had received a total hip replacement. In the control group without exposure, 253 (3%) of 7,545 patients with breast cancer had undergone total hip replacement. The 8-year CIF for receiving a total hip replacement was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.6–2.8) for gynecological cancer patients and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.95–3.03) for breast cancer patients; subHRR was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.53–1.22; p = 0.3). In both groups, the most common reason for hip replacement was idiopathic osteoarthritis.
Interpretation —
We did not find any statistically significantly higher risk of undergoing total hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer who had had pelvic radiotherapy than in women with breast cancer who had not had pelvic radiotherapy.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.963784
PMCID: PMC4259020  PMID: 25238432
2.  Worse patient-reported outcome after lateral approach than after anterior and posterolateral approach in primary hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(5):463-469.
Background
The surgical approach in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is often based on surgeon preference and local traditions. The anterior muscle-sparing approach has recently gained popularity in Europe. We tested the hypothesis that patient satisfaction, pain, function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after THA is not related to the surgical approach.
Patients
1,476 patients identified through the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register were sent questionnaires 1–3 years after undergoing THA in the period from January 2008 to June 2010. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) included the hip disability osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), visual analog scales (VAS) addressing pain and satisfaction, and questions about complications. 1,273 patients completed the questionnaires and were included in the analysis.
Results
Adjusted HOOS scores for pain, other symptoms, activities of daily living (ADL), sport/recreation, and quality of life were significantly worse (p < 0.001 to p = 0.03) for the lateral approach than for the anterior approach and the posterolateral approach (mean differences: 3.2–5.0). These results were related to more patient-reported limping with the lateral approach than with the anterior and posterolateral approaches (25% vs. 12% and 13%, respectively; p < 0.001).
Interpretation
Patients operated with the lateral approach reported worse outcomes 1–3 years after THA surgery. Self-reported limping occurred twice as often in patients who underwent THA with a lateral approach than in those who underwent THA with an anterior or posterolateral approach. There were no significant differences in patient-reported outcomes after THA between those who underwent THA with a posterolateral approach and those who underwent THA with an anterior approach.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.934183
PMCID: PMC4164862  PMID: 24954494
3.  Higher revision risk for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in low-volume hospitals 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(4):342-347.
Background and purpose
Some studies have found high complication rates and others have found low complication rates after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). We evaluated whether hospital procedure volume influences the risk of revision using data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR).
Materials and methods
5,791 UKAs have been registered in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We analyzed the 4,460 cemented medial Oxford III implants that were used from 1999 to 2012; this is the most commonly used UKA implant in Norway. Cox regression (adjusted for age, sex, and diagnosis) was used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) for revision. 4 different volume groups were compared: 1–10, 11–20, 21–40, and > 40 UKA procedures annually per hospital. We also analyzed the reasons for revision.
Results and interpretation
We found a lower risk of revision in hospitals performing more than 40 procedures a year than in those with less than 10 UKAs a year, with an unadjusted RR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.35–0.81) and adjusted RR of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.39–0.90). Low-volume hospitals appeared to have a higher risk of revision due to dislocation, instability, malalignment, and fracture than high-volume hospitals.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.920990
PMCID: PMC4105763  PMID: 24847789
4.  Risk factors for knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis, a population based, prospective cohort study of 315,495 individuals 
Background
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common and disabling condition. We wanted to investigate the modifiable risk factors Body Mass Index (BMI) and physical activity, using knee replacement (KR) as a marker for severely symptomatic disease, focusing on the interaction between these risk factors.
Methods
315,495 participants (mean age 43.0 years) from national health screenings were followed prospectively with respect to KR identified by linkage to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazard regression.
Results
During 12 years of follow up 1,323 individuals received KR for primary OA. There was a dose–response relationship between BMI and heavy labour, and later KR. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quarter of BMI, the relative risk was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.2-9.0) in men and 11.1 (95% CI: 7.8-15.6) in women. Men reporting intensive physical activity at work had a relative risk of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) versus men reporting sedentary activity at work, the corresponding figure in women being 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.2). The effect of BMI and physical activity at work was additive. The heaviest men with the most strenuous work had a RR of 11.7 (95% CI: 5.9-23.1) compared to the ones with the lowest BMI and most sedentary work. For women the corresponding RR was 15.8 (95% CI: 8.2-30.3). There was no association between physical activity during leisure and KR.
Conclusion
We found that a high BMI and intensive physical activity at work both contribute strongly to the risk of having a KR. As the two risk factors seem to act independently, people with strenuous physical work with a high BMI are at particularly high risk for severely disabling OA of the knee, and should be targeted with effective preventive measures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-217
PMCID: PMC4081510  PMID: 24957045
Osteoarthritis; Obesity; Knee joint replacement; Body mass index; Risk factor; Epidemiology
5.  Countrywise results of total hip replacement 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(2):107-116.
Background and purpose
An earlier Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) report on 280,201 total hip replacements (THRs) based on data from 1995–2006, from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, was published in 2009. The present study assessed THR survival according to country, based on the NARA database with the Finnish data included.
Material and methods
438,733 THRs performed during the period 1995–2011 in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate survival probabilities with 95% confidence interval (CI). Cox multiple regression, with adjustment for age, sex, and diagnosis, was used to analyze implant survival with revision for any reason as endpoint.
Results
The 15-year survival, with any revision as an endpoint, for all THRs was 86% (CI: 85.7–86.9) in Denmark, 88% (CI: 87.6–88.3) in Sweden, 87% (CI: 86.4–87.4) in Norway, and 84% (CI: 82.9–84.1) in Finland. Revision risk for all THRs was less in Sweden than in the 3 other countries during the first 5 years. However, revision risk for uncemented THR was less in Denmark than in Sweden during the sixth (HR = 0.53, CI: 0.34–0.82), seventh (HR = 0.60, CI: 0.37–0.97), and ninth (HR = 0.59, CI: 0.36–0.98) year of follow-up.
Interpretation
The differences in THR survival rates were considerable, with inferior results in Finland. Brand-level comparison of THRs in Nordic countries will be required.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.893498
PMCID: PMC3967250  PMID: 24650019
6.  Increased risk of revision in patients with non-traumatic femoral head necrosis 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):11-17.
Background and purpose
Previous studies of patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to femoral head necrosis (FHN) have shown an increased risk of revision compared to cases with primary osteoarthritis (POA), but recent studies have suggested that this procedure is not associated with poor outcome. We compared the risk of revision after operation with THA due to FHN or POA in the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) database including Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.
Patients and methods
427,806 THAs performed between 1995 and 2011 were included. The relative risk of revision for any reason, for aseptic loosening, dislocation, deep infection, and periprosthetic fracture was studied before and after adjustment for covariates using Cox regression models.
Results
416,217 hips with POA (mean age 69 (SD 10), 59% females) and 11,589 with FHN (mean age 65 (SD 16), 58% females) were registered. The mean follow-up was 6.3 (SD 4.3) years. After 2 years of observation, 1.7% in the POA group and 3.0% in the FHN group had been revised. The corresponding proportions after 16 years of observation were 4.2% and 6.1%, respectively. The 16-year survival in the 2 groups was 86% (95% CI: 86–86) and 77% (CI: 74–80). After adjusting for covariates, the relative risk (RR) of revision for any reason was higher in patients with FHN for both periods studied (up to 2 years: RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.34–1.54; p < 0.001; and 2–16 years: RR = 1.25, 1.14–1.38; p < 0.001).
Interpretation
Patients with FHN had an overall increased risk of revision. This increased risk persisted over the entire period of observation and covered more or less all of the 4 most common reasons for revision.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.874927
PMCID: PMC3940986  PMID: 24359026
7.  Posterior approach and uncemented stems increases the risk of reoperation after hemiarthroplasties in elderly hip fracture patients 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):18-25.
Background
Hemiarthroplasties are performed in great numbers worldwide but are seldom registered on a national basis. Our aim was to identify risk factors for reoperation after fracture-related hemiarthroplasty in Norway and Sweden.
Material and methods
A common dataset was created based on the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register and the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. 33,205 hip fractures in individuals > 60 years of age treated with modular hemiarthroplasties were reported for the period 2005–2010. Cox regression analyses based on reoperations were performed (covariates: age group, sex, type of stem and implant head, surgical approach, and hospital volume).
Results
1,164 patients (3.5%) were reoperated during a mean follow-up of 2.7 (SD 1.7) years. In patients over 85 years, an increased risk of reoperation was found for uncemented stems (HR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8), bipolar heads (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8), posterior approach (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8) and male sex (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.0–1.6). For patients aged 75–85 years, uncemented stems (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.0) and men (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.6) carried an increased risk. Increased risk of reoperation due to infection was found for patients aged < 75 years (HR = 1.5, CI: 1.1–2.0) and for uncemented stems. For open surgery due to dislocation, the strongest risk factor was a posterior approach (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.8–2.6). Uncemented stems in particular (HR = 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3) and male sex increased the risk of periprosthetic fracture surgery.
Interpretation
Cemented stems and a direct lateral transgluteal approach reduced the risk of reoperation after hip fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty in patients over 75 years. Men and younger patients had a higher risk of reoperation. For the age group 60–74 years, there were no such differences in risk in this material.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.885356
PMCID: PMC3940987  PMID: 24460108
8.  Pain and function in eight hundred and fifty nine patients comparing shoulder hemiprostheses, resurfacing prostheses, reversed total and conventional total prostheses 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(1):59-66.
Purpose
Functional results of reversed total prostheses (RTP) have—to a very limited degree—been compared with those of other shoulder prosthesis types. The aim of our study was to compare results of four different types of shoulder prostheses in terms of function, pain, and quality of life (QoL).
Methods
Questionnaires were completed by 859 patients with shoulder prostheses registered in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or fracture sequela (FS) were included. Symptoms and function were assessed using the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS, scale 0–48), and the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) was used to assess QoL.
Results
Best functional results were obtained using conventional total prostheses (TPs) and RTPs —mean OSS improvement 18 and 16 units, respectively, vs 11 with hemiprostheses (HPs). For patients with OA, TPs performed best; for those with RA and FS, RTPs performed best; and those with HPs had the worst results in all diagnostic groups. The greatest improvement in QoL was seen in patients with TPs and RTPs.
Conclusions
Conventional TPs provide the best improvement in pain, function and QoL in OA patients; RTPs are superior in patients with RA and FS.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1722-3
PMCID: PMC3532636  PMID: 23229798
9.  Is the use of computer navigation in total knee arthroplasty improving implant positioning and function? A comparative study of 198 knees operated at a Norwegian district hospital 
Background
There are few Scandinavian studies on the effect of computer assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), compared to conventional technique (CON), and there is little information on effects in pain and function scores. This retrospective study has evaluated the effects of CAOS on radiological parameters and pain, function and quality of life after primary TKA.
Methods
198 primary TKAs were operated by one surgeon in two district hospitals; 103 CAOS and 95 CON. The groups were evaluated based on 3 months post-operative radiographs and a questionnaire containing the knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), the EQ-5D index score and a visual analogue scale (VAS) two years after surgery. Multiple linear regression method was used to investigate possible impact from exposure (CON or CAOS).
Results
On hip-knee-ankle radiographs, 20% of measurements were > ±3° of neutral in the CAOS group and 25% in the CON group (p = 0.37). For the femoral component, the number was 5% for CAOS and 18% for CON (p < 0.01). For the tibial component, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.58). In the sagittal plane, the surgeon tended to apply more femoral flexion and more posterior tibial slope with CAOS. We observed no statistically or clinically significant difference in KOOS score, VAS or ∆EQ-5D (all p values >0.05), but there was a trend towards better scores for CAOS. Operation time was 3 minutes longer for CON (p = 0.37).
Conclusions
CAOS can improve radiological measurements in primary TKA, and makes it possible to adjust component placement to the patient’s anatomy. Over-all, the two methods are equal in pain, function and quality-of-life scores.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-321
PMCID: PMC3833179  PMID: 24228727
Computer navigation; Total knee arthroplasty; KOOS; EQ-5D; Quality of life
10.  Head Material Influences Survival of a Cemented Total Hip Prosthesis in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register 
Background
High prosthesis survival is reported for total hip prostheses with metal and alumina heads, but direct comparisons of a single prosthesis design with one of two different head materials has seldom been studied. Prostheses with zirconia heads are less commonly used than metal and alumina heads, and the few reports suggest variable results with zirconia heads.
Questions/Purposes
We therefore asked: (1) Would metal heads provide better survival of a cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) than alumina heads? (2) Would metal heads provide better survival of a cemented THA than zirconia heads?
Methods
We searched in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for cemented primary THA cup/stem combinations that simultaneously had been used with different head materials. The only THA that fulfilled these inclusion criteria was the cemented Reflection All-Poly/Spectron EF (cup/stem) that had during 2001 to 2006 been used both with alumina (n = 448) and cobalt-chromium (n = 5229) heads; that implant had also been used with zirconia (n = 275) and cobalt-chromium heads (n = 3195) during 1997 to 2003, and we included patients with this THA from these two time intervals in the study. All cups were conventional polyethylene. We estimated prosthesis survival and relative revision risks adjusting for age, sex, and diagnosis. The followup in the two study materials was until December 2010.
Results
The survival at 8 years of the Spectron EF/Reflection THAs, inserted with alumina and cobalt-chromium heads during 2001 to 2006, was 92.3% and 94.0%, respectively. The Reflection/Spectron EF THA had inferior survival with zirconia heads compared with cobalt-chromium heads (relative risk, 1.7). At 12 years, the survival rate was 88.1% with cobalt-chromium heads and 74.8% with zirconia heads.
Conclusions
Alumina femoral heads provided no advantage over cobalt-chromium heads on midterm prosthesis survival. THAs with zirconia heads had inferior survival.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2396-2
PMCID: PMC3462857  PMID: 22644422
11.  An economic model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of computer assisted knee replacement surgery in Norway 
Background
The use of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) for knee replacements is intended to improve the alignment of knee prostheses in order to reduce the number of revision operations. Is the cost effectiveness of computer assisted surgery influenced by patient volume and age?
Methods
By employing a Markov model, we analysed the cost effectiveness of computer assisted surgery versus conventional arthroplasty with respect to implant survival and operation volume in two theoretical Norwegian age cohorts. We obtained mortality and hospital cost data over a 20-year period from Norwegian registers. We presumed that the cost of an intervention would need to be below NOK 500,000 per QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year) gained, to be considered cost effective.
Results
The added cost of computer assisted surgery, provided this has no impact on implant survival, is NOK 1037 and NOK 1414 respectively for 60 and 75-year-olds per quality-adjusted life year at a volume of 25 prostheses per year, and NOK 128 and NOK 175 respectively at a volume of 250 prostheses per year. Sensitivity analyses showed that the 10-year implant survival in cohort 1 needs to rise from 89.8% to 90.6% at 25 prostheses per year, and from 89.8 to 89.9% at 250 prostheses per year for computer assisted surgery to be considered cost effective. In cohort 2, the required improvement is a rise from 95.1% to 95.4% at 25 prostheses per year, and from 95.10% to 95.14% at 250 prostheses per year.
Conclusions
The cost of using computer navigation for total knee replacements may be acceptable for 60-year-old as well as 75-year-old patients if the technique increases the implant survival rate just marginally, and the department has a high operation volume. A low volume department might not achieve cost-effectiveness unless computer navigation has a more significant impact on implant survival, thus may defer the investments until such data are available.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-202
PMCID: PMC3722089  PMID: 23829478
Artrhroplasty; Computer navigation; Cost-effectiveness; Health economy; Register; Markov
12.  Good function after shoulder arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):467-473.
Background and purpose
Different results after shoulder arthroplasty have been found for different diagnostic groups. We evaluated function, pain, and quality of life after shoulder arthroplasty in 4 diagnostic groups.
Patients and methods
Patients with shoulder arthroplasties registered in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register from 1994 through 2008 were posted a questionnaire in 2010. 1,107 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), acute fracture (AF), or fracture sequela (FS) returned completed forms (65% response rate). The primary outcome measure was the Oxford shoulder score (OSS), which assesses symptoms and function experienced by the patient on a scale from 0 to 48. A secondary outcome measure was the EQ-5D, which assesses life quality. The patients completed a questionnaire concerning symptoms 1 month before surgery, and another concerning the month before they received the questionnaire.
Results
Patients with RA and OA had the best results with a mean improvement in OSS of 16 units, as opposed to 11 for FS patients. Both shoulder pain and function had improved substantially. The change in OSS for patients with AF was negative (–11), but similar end results were obtained for AF patients as for RA and OA patients. Quality of life had improved in patients with RA, OA, and FS.
Interpretation
Good results in terms of pain relief and improved level of function were obtained after shoulder arthroplasty for patients with RA, OA, and—to a lesser degree—FS. A shoulder arthropathy had a major effect on quality of life, and treatment with shoulder replacement substantially improved it.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.720118
PMCID: PMC3488172  PMID: 22950481
13.  Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):449-458.
Background and purpose
The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden).
Materials and methods
The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection as the endpoint. The effect of risk factors such as the year of surgery, age, sex, diagnosis, type of prosthesis, and fixation were assessed.
Results
2,778 (0.6%) of the primary THAs were revised due to infection. Compared to the period 1995–1999, the relative risk (with 95% CI) of revision due to infection was 1.1 (1.0–1.2) in 2000–2004 and 1.6 (1.4–1.7) in 2005–2009. Adjusted cumulative 5–year revision rates due to infection were 0.46% (0.42–0.50) in 1995–1999, 0.54% (0.50–0.58) in 2000–2004, and 0.71% (0.66–0.76) in 2005–2009. The entire increase in risk of revision due to infection was within 1 year of primary surgery, and most notably in the first 3 months. The risk of revision due to infection increased in all 4 countries. Risk factors for revision due to infection were male sex, hybrid fixation, cement without antibiotics, and THA performed due to inflammatory disease, hip fracture, or femoral head necrosis. None of these risk factors increased in incidence during the study period.
Interpretation
We found increased relative risk of revision and increased cumulative 5–year revision rates due to infection after primary THA during the period 1995–2009. No change in risk factors in the NARA dataset could explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.733918
PMCID: PMC3488170  PMID: 23083433
14.  Registration rate in the Norwegian Cruciate Ligament Register 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):174-178.
Background and purpose
The Norwegian Cruciate Ligament Register (NCLR) was founded in 2004. The purpose of the NCLR is to provide representative and reliable data for future research. In this study we evaluated the development of the registration rate in the NCLR.
Methods
The Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) and the electronic patient charts (EPCs) were used as reference data for public and private hospitals, respectively. Data were retrieved for all primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery during 2008–2009 in public hospitals and during 2008 in private hospitals. The NOMESCO classification of surgical procedures was used for identification of ACL surgeries. Public hospitals were divided into subgroups according to the annual number of operations in the NPR: small hospitals (< 30 operations) and large hospitals (≥ 30 operations).
Results
For the 2-year data extracted from public hospitals, 2,781 and 2,393 operations met the inclusion criteria according to the NPR and the NCLR, respectively, giving an average registration rate of 86% (95% CI: 0.85–0.87). The registration rate for small public hospitals was 69% (CI: 0.65–0.73), which was significantly less than for large public hospitals (89%, CI: 0.88–0.90; p < 0.001). In 2008, private hospitals reported 548 operations to the NCLR while 637 were found in the EPCs, giving a registration rate of 86% (CI: 0.83–0.89). In that year, the registration rate for public hospitals was 86%, which was similar to that for private hospitals.
Interpretation
The NCLR registration rate for the period 2008–09 was similar in both 2008 and 2009, and is satisfactory for research. There is room for improvement of registration rates, particularly in hospitals with a small volume of ACL operations.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.678800
PMCID: PMC3339533  PMID: 22489890
15.  Is there still a place for the cemented titanium femoral stem? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(1):1-6.
Background and purpose
Despite the fact that there have been some reports on poor performance, titanium femoral stems intended for cemented fixation are still used at some centers in Europe. In this population-based registry study, we examined the results of the most frequently used cemented titanium stem in Norway.
Patients and methods
11,876 cases implanted with the cemented Titan stem were identified for the period 1987–2008. Hybrid arthroplasties were excluded, leaving 10,108 cases for this study. Stem survival and the influence of age, sex, stem offset and size, and femoral head size were evaluated using Cox regression analyses. Questionnaires were sent to the hospitals to determine the surgical technique used.
Results
Male sex, high stem offset, and small stem size were found to be risk factors for stem revision, (adjusted RR = 2.5 (1.9–3.4), 3.3 (2.3–4.8), and 2.2 (1.4–3.5), respectively). Patients operated in the period 2001–2008 had an adjusted relative risk (RR) of 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0–7.4) for stem revision due to aseptic stem loosening compared to the period 1996–2000. Changes in broaching technique and cementing technique coincided with deterioration of the results in some hospitals.
Interpretation
The increased use of small stem sizes and high-offset stems could only explain the deterioration of results to a certain degree since the year 2000. The influence of discrete changes in surgical technique over time could not be fully evaluated in this registry study. We suggest that this cemented titanium stem should be abandoned. The results of similar implants should be carefully evaluated.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.645194
PMCID: PMC3278649  PMID: 22206445
16.  Is reverse hybrid hip replacement the solution? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(6):639-645.
Background and purpose
Reverse hybrid hip replacement uses a cemented all-polyethylene cup and an uncemented stem. Despite increasing use of this method in Scandinavia, there has been very little documentation of results. We have therefore analyzed the results from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR), with up to 10 years of follow-up.
Patients and methods
The NAR has been collecting data on total hip replacement (THR) since 1987. Reverse hybrid hip replacements were used mainly from 2000. We extracted data on reverse hybrid THR from this year onward until December 31, 2009, and compared the results with those from cemented implants over the same period. Specific cup/stem combinations involving 100 cases or more were selected. In addition, only combinations that were taken into use in 2005 or earlier were included. 3,963 operations in 3,630 patients were included. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis for estimation of prosthesis survival and relative risk of revision. The main endpoint was revision for any cause, but we also performed specific analyses on different reasons for revision.
Results
We found equal survival to that from cemented THR at 5 years (cemented: 97.0% (95% CI: 96.8–97.2); reverse hybrid: 96.7% (96.0–97.4)) and at 7 years (cemented: 96.0% (95.7–96.2); reverse hybrid: 95.6% (94.4–96.7)). Adjusted relative risk of revision of the reverse hybrids was 1.1 (0.9–1.4). In patients under 60 years of age, we found similar survival of the 2 groups at 5 and 7 years, with an adjusted relative risk of revision of reverse hybrids of 0.9 (0.6–1.3) compared to cemented implants.
Interpretation
With a follow-up of up to 10 years, reverse hybrid THRs performed well, and similarly to all-cemented THRs from the same time period. The reverse hybrid method might therefore be an alternative to all-cemented THR. Longer follow-up time is needed to evaluate whether reverse hybrid hip replacement has any advantages over all-cemented THR.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.623569
PMCID: PMC3247878  PMID: 21999624
17.  Infection after primary hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(6):646-654.
Background and purpose
The aim of the present study was to assess incidence of and risk factors for infection after hip arthroplasty in data from 3 national health registries. We investigated differences in risk patterns between surgical site infection (SSI) and revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA).
Materials and methods
This observational study was based on prospective data from 2005–2009 on primary THAs and HAs from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR), the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR), and the Norwegian Surveillance System for Healthcare–Associated Infections (NOIS). The Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) was used for evaluation of case reporting. Cox regression analyses were performed with revision due to infection as endpoint for data from the NAR and the NHFR, and with SSI as the endpoint for data from the NOIS.
Results
The 1–year incidence of SSI in the NOIS was 3.0% after THA (167/5,540) and 7.3% after HA (103/1,416). The 1–year incidence of revision due to infection was 0.7% for THAs in the NAR (182/24,512) and 1.5% for HAs in the NHFR (128/8,262). Risk factors for SSI after THA were advanced age, ASA class higher than 2, and short duration of surgery. For THA, the risk factors for revision due to infection were male sex, advanced age, ASA class higher than 1, emergency surgery, uncemented fixation, and a National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) risk index of 2 or more. For HAs inserted after fracture, age less than 60 and short duration of surgery were risk factors of revision due to infection.
Interpretation
The incidences of SSI and revision due to infection after primary hip replacements in Norway are similar to those in other countries. There may be differences in risk pattern between SSI and revision due to infection after arthroplasty. The risk patterns for revision due to infection appear to be different for HA and THA.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.636671
PMCID: PMC3247879  PMID: 22066562
18.  A randomized study on migration of the Spectron EF and the Charnley flanged 40 cemented femoral components using radiostereometric analysis at 2 years 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(5):538-544.
Background and purpose
We performed a randomized study to determine the migration patterns of the Spectron EF femoral stem and to compare them with those of the Charnley stem, which is regarded by many as the gold standard for comparison of implants due to its extensive documentation.
Patients and methods
150 patients with a mean age of 70 years were randomized, single-blinded, to receive either a cemented Charnley flanged 40 monoblock, stainless steel, vaquasheen surface femoral stem with a 22.2-mm head (n = 30) or a cemented Spectron EF modular, matte, straight, collared, cobalt-chrome femoral stem with a 28-mm femoral head and a roughened proximal third of the stem (n = 120). The patients were followed with repeated radiostereometric analysis for 2 years to assess migration.
Results
At 2 years, stem retroversion was 2.3° and 0.7° (p < 0.001) and posterior translation was 0.44 mm and 0.17 mm (p = 0.002) for the Charnley group (n = 26) and the Spectron EF group (n = 74), respectively. Subsidence was 0.26 mm for the Charnley and 0.20 mm for the Spectron EF (p = 0.5).
Interpretation
The Spectron EF femoral stem was more stable than the Charnley flanged 40 stem in our study when evaluated at 2 years. In a report from the Norwegian arthroplasty register, the Spectron EF stem had a higher revision rate due to aseptic loosening beyond 5 years than the Charnley. Initial stability is not invariably related to good long-term results. Our results emphasize the importance of prospective long-term follow-up of prosthetic implants in clinical trials and national registries and a stepwise introduction of implants.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.618914
PMCID: PMC3242949  PMID: 21895504
19.  Results of 189 wrist replacements 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(4):405-409.
Background and purpose
There is very little literature on the long-term outcome of wrist replacements. The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register has registered wrist replacements since 1994. We report on the total wrist replacements and their revision rates over a 16-year period.
Material and methods
189 patients with 189 primary wrist replacements (90 Biax prostheses (80 of which were cementless), 23 cementless Elos prostheses, and 76 cementless Gibbon prostheses), operated during the period 1994–2009 were identified in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Prosthesis survival was analyzed using Cox regression analyses. The 3 implant designs were compared and time trends were analyzed.
Results
The 5-year survival was 78% (95% CI: 70–85) and the 10-year survival was 71% (CI: 59–80). Prosthesis survival was 85% (CI: 78–93) at 5 years for the Biax prosthesis, 77% (CI: 30–90) at 4 years for the Gibbon prosthesis, and 57% (CI: 33–81) at 5 years for the Elos prosthesis. There was no statistically significant influence of age, diagnosis, or year of operation on the risk of revision, but females had a higher revision rate than males (RR = 3, CI: 1–7). The number of wrist replacements performed due to osteoarthritis increased with time, but no such change was apparent for inflammatory arthritis.
Interpretation
The survival of the total wrist arthroplasties studied was similar to that in other studies of wrist arthroplasties, but it was still not as good as that for most total knee and hip arthroplasties. However, a failed wrist arthroplasty still leaves the option of a well-functioning arthrodesis.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.588858
PMCID: PMC3237028  PMID: 21657971
20.  Statistical analysis of arthroplasty data 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):253-257.
It is envisaged that guidelines for statistical analysis and presentation of results will improve the quality and value of research. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has therefore developed guidelines for the statistical analysis of arthroplasty register data. The guidelines are divided into two parts, this one with an introduction and a discussion of the background to the guidelines, and the second one with a more technical statistical discussion on how specific problems can be handled (Ranstam et al. 2011b, see pages x-y in this issue). This first part contains an overview of implant survival analysis and statistical methods used to evaluate factors with a potential influence on this outcome.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.588862
PMCID: PMC3235301  PMID: 21619499
21.  Statistical analysis of arthroplasty data 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):258-267.
It is envisaged that guidelines for statistical analysis and presentation of results will improve the quality and value of research. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has therefore developed guidelines for the statistical analysis of arthroplasty register data. The guidelines are divided into two parts, one with an introduction and a discussion of the background to the guidelines (Ranstam et al. 2011a, see pages x-y in this issue), and this one with a more technical statistical discussion on how specific problems can be handled. This second part contains (1) recommendations for the interpretation of methods used to calculate survival, (2) recommendations on howto deal with bilateral observations, and (3) a discussion of problems and pitfalls associated with analysis of factors that influence survival or comparisons between outcomes extracted from different hospitals.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.588863
PMCID: PMC3235302  PMID: 21619500
22.  Failure of total knee arthroplasty with or without patella resurfacing 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):282-292.
Background and purpose
Patella resurfacing during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is disputed and new prosthesis designs have been introduced without documentation of their survival. We assessed the impact on prosthesis survival of patella resurfacing and of prosthesis brand, based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register.
Patients and methods
5 prosthesis brands in common use with and without patella resurfacing from 1994 through 2009 were included n = 11,887. The median follow-up times were 9 years for patella-resurfaced implants and 7 years for implants without patella resurfacing. For comparison of prosthesis brands, also brands in common use with only one of the two treatment options were included in the study population (n = 25,590). Cox regression analyses were performed with different reasons for revision as endpoints with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results
We observed a reduced overall risk of revision for patella resurfaced (PR) TKAs, but the statistical significance was borderline (RR = 0.84, p = 0.05). At 15 years, 92% of PR and 91% of patella non resurfaced (NR) prostheses were still unrevised. However, PR implants had a lower risk of revision due to pain alone (RR = 0.1, p < 0.001), but a higher risk of revision due to loosening of the tibial component (RR = 1.4, p = 0.03) and due to a defective polyethylene insert (RR = 3.2, p < 0.001).
At 10 years, the survival for the reference NR brand AGC Universal was 93%. The NR brands Genesis I, Duracon, and Tricon (RR = 1.4–1.7) performed statistically significantly worse than NR AGC Universal, while the NR prostheses e.motion, Profix, and AGC Anatomic (RR = 0.1–0.7), and the PR prostheses NexGen and AGC Universal (RR = 0.4–0.5) performed statistically significantly better. LCS, NexGen, LCS Complete (all NR), and Tricon, Genesis I, LCS, and Kinemax (all PR) showed no differences in this respect from the reference brand. A lower risk of revision (crude) was found for TKAs performed after 2000 as compared to those performed earlier (RR = 0.8, p = 0.001).
Interpretation
Although revision risk was similar for PR and NR TKAs, we found important differences in reasons for revision. Our results also indicate that survivorship of TKAs has improved.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.570672
PMCID: PMC3235305  PMID: 21619502
23.  Short-term outcome of 1,465 computer-navigated primary total knee replacements 2005–2008 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):293-300.
Background and purpose
Improvement of positioning and alignment by the use of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) might improve longevity and function in total knee replacements, but there is little evidence. In this study, we evaluated the short-term results of computer-navigated knee replacements based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register.
Patients and methods
Primary total knee replacements without patella resurfacing, reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the years 2005–2008, were evaluated. The 5 most common implants and the 3 most common navigation systems were selected. Cemented, uncemented, and hybrid knees were included. With the risk of revision for any cause as the primary endpoint and intraoperative complications and operating time as secondary outcomes, 1,465 computer-navigated knee replacements (CAS) and 8,214 conventionally operated knee replacements (CON) were compared. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, prosthesis brand, fixation method, previous knee surgery, preoperative diagnosis, and ASA category were used.
Results
Kaplan-Meier estimated survival at 2 years was 98% (95% CI: 97.5–98.3) in the CON group and 96% (95% CI: 95.0–97.8) in the CAS group. The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed a higher risk of revision in the CAS group (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.5; p = 0.02). The LCS Complete knee had a higher risk of revision with CAS than with CON (RR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3–3.4; p = 0.004)). The differences were not statistically significant for the other prosthesis brands. Mean operating time was 15 min longer in the CAS group.
Interpretation
With the introduction of computer-navigated knee replacement surgery in Norway, the short-term risk of revision has increased for computer-navigated replacement with the LCS Complete. The mechanisms of failure of these implantations should be explored in greater depth, and in this study we have not been able to draw conclusions regarding causation.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.575743
PMCID: PMC3235306  PMID: 21504309
24.  Improved results of primary total hip replacement 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(6):649-659.
Background and purpose
Over the past 20 years, several changes in treatment policy and treatment options have taken place regarding hip replacement. For this reason, we wanted to investigate the results after hip replacement in terms of revision rate, during a 21-year period among hip replacements reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register.
Methods
110,882 primary total hip replacements were reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register from 1987 through 2007. Risk of revision during the time periods 1993–1997, 1998–2002, and 2003–2007 was compared to that of the reference period 1987–1992. Adjusted Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of revision in different time periods and extended analyses were done to investigate revision within the first postoperative year and after the first year.
Results
There was an overall reduced risk of revision in the time periods 1993–1997, 1998–2002, and 2003–2007 compared to the reference period: RR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.77–0.86), 0.51 (CI 0.47–0.55), and 0.77 (CI 0.68–0.85), respectively. The improved results were due to a marked reduction in aseptic loosening of the femoral and acetabular components in all time periods and in all subgroups of prostheses. A change in the timing of revision took place, with more early revisions and fewer late revisions in the later time periods. Revision due to dislocation and infection increased over time.
Interpretation
The risk of revision decreased during the study period, due to fewer cases of aseptic loosening of prosthetic components. The best results were obtained with the use of cemented prostheses. Prevention of dislocation and infection should be a major goal in the future, as revision due to these causes increased during the study period.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.537807
PMCID: PMC3216073  PMID: 21110699
25.  Prevention of deep infection in joint replacement surgery 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(6):660-666.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.537805
PMCID: PMC3216074  PMID: 21110700

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