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1.  Unipolar hemiarthroplasty versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures. A four-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(12):2457-2464.
The treatment of choice for a displaced femoral neck fracture in the most elderly patients is a cemented hemiarthroplasty (HA). The optimal design, unipolar or bipolar head, remains unclear. The possible advantages of a bipolar HA are a better range of motion and less acetabular wear. The aim of this study was to evaluate hip function, health related quality of life (HRQoL), surgical outcome and acetabular erosion in a medium-term follow-up.
One hundred and twenty patients aged 80 or more with a displaced fracture of the femoral neck (Garden III and IV) were randomised to treatment with a cemented Exeter HA using a unipolar or a bipolar head. All patients were able to walk independently, with or without aids, before surgery. Follow-ups were performed at four, 12, 24 and 48 months postoperatively. Assessments included HRQoL (EQ-5D index score), hip function (Harris hip score [HHS]) and radiological acetabular erosion.
The mean EQ-5D index score was generally higher among the patients with bipolar hemiarthroplasties at the follow-ups with a significant difference at 48 months: unipolar HAs 0.59 and bipolar HAs 0.70 (p = 0.04). There was an increased rate of acetabular erosion among the patients with unipolar hemiarthroplasties at the early follow-ups with a significant difference at 12 months (unipolar HAs 20 % and bipolar HAs 5 %, p = 0.03). At the later follow-ups the incidence of acetabular erosion accelerated in the bipolar group, and there were no significant differences between the groups at the 24- and 48-month follow-ups. There was no difference in HHS or reoperation rate between the groups at any of the follow-ups.
The bipolar HAs seem to result in better HRQoL beyond the first two years after surgery compared to unipolar HAs. Bipolar HAs displayed a later onset of acetabular erosion compared to unipolar HAs.
PMCID: PMC3843188  PMID: 24122045
Arthroplasty; Hemiarthroplasty; Hip fracture; Elderly; Osteoporosis
2.  Unipolar versus bipolar Exeter hip hemiarthroplasty: a prospective cohort study on 830 consecutive hips in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):711-717.
Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty (HA) is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register suggest that there is a higher risk for revision surgery with the bipolar HA compared with the unipolar HA.
In this study we analysed the reoperation and the dislocation rates for Exeter HAs in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, comparing the unipolar and bipolar prosthetic designs. Additionally, we compared the outcome for HAs performed as a primary intervention with those performed secondary to failed internal fixation.
We studied 830 consecutive Exeter HAs (427 unipolar and 403 bipolar) performed either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reoperation and prosthetic dislocation. Age, gender, the surgeon’s experience, indication for surgery (primary or secondary) and type of HA (unipolar or bipolar) were tested as independent variables in the model.
The prosthetic design (uni- or bipolar) had no influence on the risk for reoperation or dislocation, nor had the age, gender or the surgeon’s experience. The secondary HAs were associated with a significantly increased risk for reoperation (HR 2.6, CI 1.5–4.5) or dislocation (HR 3.3, CI 1.4–7.3) compared to the primary HAs. We found no difference in the risk for reoperation or dislocation when comparing Exeter unipolar and bipolar HAs, but special attention is called for to reduce the risk of prosthesis dislocation and reoperation after a secondary HA.
PMCID: PMC3311798  PMID: 21789497
3.  Hip arthroplasty after failed fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):493-498.
Background and purpose
Hip arthroplasty is an option for elderly patients with osteoporosis for the treatment of failure after fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, either as a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or as a hemiarthroplasty (HA). We analyzed the reoperation rate and risk factors for reoperation in a consecutive series of patients.
All patients (n = 88) operated from 1999 to 2006 with a THA (n = 63) or an HA (n = 25) due to failure of fixation of a trochanteric fracture (n = 63) or subtrochanteric fracture (n = 25) were included. Background data were collected from the patient records. A search was performed in the national registry of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in order to find information on all reoperations. The follow-up time was 5–11 years.
The reoperation rate was 16% (14/88 hips). A periprosthetic fracture occurred in 6 patients, a deep prosthetic infection in 5 patients, and a dislocation of the prosthesis in 3 patients. Standard-length femoral stems had an increased risk of reoperation (11/47) compared to long stems (3/41) (HR = 4, 95% CI: 1.0–13; p = 0.06).
The high reoperation rate reflects the complexity of the surgery. Using long femoral stems that bridge previous holes and defects may be one way to reduce the risk for reoperation.
PMCID: PMC3488176  PMID: 22574819
4.  The vertical hip fracture – a treatment challenge. A cohort study with an up to 9 year follow-up of 137 consecutive hips treated with sliding hip screw and antirotation screw 
Femoral neck fractures with a vertical orientation have been associated with an increased risk for failure as they are both axial and rotational unstable and experience increased shear forces compared to the conventional and more horizontally oriented femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyse outcome and risk factors for reoperation of these uncommon fractures.
A cohort study with a consecutive series of 137 hips suffering from a vertical hip fracture, treated with one method: a sliding hips screw with plate and an antirotation screw. Median follow-up time was 4.8 years. Reoperation data was validated against the National Board of Health and Welfare’s national registry using the unique Swedish personal identification number.
The total reoperation rate was 18%. After multivariable Logistic regression analysis adjusting for possible confounding factors there was an increased risk for reoperation for displaced fractures (22%) compared to undisplaced fractures (3%), and for fractures with poor implant position (38%) compared to fractures with adequate implant position (15%).
The reoperation rate was high, and special attention should be given to achieve an appropriate position of the implant.
PMCID: PMC3495198  PMID: 22971243
Hip fracture; Osteosynthesis; Basicervical fracture; Vertical hip fracture
5.  Direction of hip arthroplasty dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2010;34(5):641-647.
In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n = 42) or THA (n = 32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p < 0.001), while no such correlation was found after THA (p = 0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p = 0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.
PMCID: PMC2903178  PMID: 20091307
6.  Dislocation of total hip replacement in patients with fractures of the femoral neck 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(2):184-189.
Background Total hip replacement is increasingly used in active, relatively healthy elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Dislocation of the prosthesis is a severe complication, and there is still controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach and its influence on stability. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the total hip replacement, paying special attention to the surgical approach.
Patients and methods We included 713 consecutive hips in a series of 698 patients (573 females) who had undergone a primary total hip replacement (n = 311) for a non-pathological, displaced femoral neck fracture (Garden III or IV) or a secondary total hip replacement (n = 402) due to a fracture-healing complication after a femoral neck fracture. We used Cox regression to evaluate factors associated with prosthetic dislocation after the operation. Age, sex, indication for surgery, the surgeon’s experience, femoral head size, and surgical approach were tested as independent factors in the model.
Results The overall dislocation rate was 6%. The anterolateral surgical approach was associated with a lower risk of dislocation than the posterolateral approach with or without posterior repair (2%, 12%, and 14%, respectively (p < 0.001)). The posterolateral approach was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of dislocation, with a hazards ratio (HR) of 6 (2–14) for the posterolateral approach with posterior repair and of 6 (2–16) without posterior repair.
Interpretation In order to minimize the risk of dislocation, we recommend the use of the anterolateral approach for total hip replacement in patients with femoral neck fractures.
PMCID: PMC2823165  PMID: 19404800

Results 1-6 (6)