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1.  Relative Difference in Orbital Volume as an Indication for Surgical Reconstruction in Isolated Orbital Floor Fractures 
In orbital floor fractures, the estimation of the herniated orbital content in the maxillary sinus has traditionally been the dividing line between surgical and nonsurgical management. In this study, we evaluated whether a relative change in volume would function as an indicator for surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of orbital floor fractures. This was a follow-up study in patients with untreated unilateral isolated orbital floor fractures admitted to our department from March 2003 to April 2007. Patients were contacted by regular mail and invited to have a clinical eye examination. The volume of the orbital content was calculated digitally from the patients' computed tomography scans at the time of their injury. Eighteen subjects with no facial skeleton fracture were included for reference of orbital content volumes. Five of 23 patients showed 2 to 4 mm of enophthalmos, and only three of them had intermittent diplopia. No statistical correlation was found between the herniated volume and enophthalmos. No statistical correlation supporting the supposition that 1 mL of herniated orbital content would result in 1 mm of enophthalmos was found. The relative volume change between the fractured and nonfractured orbit in an individual does not appear to be a useful criterion for surgery. The importance of the herniated orbital tissue for the development of enophthalmos is unclear.
doi:10.1055/s-0031-1286117
PMCID: PMC3314253  PMID: 23205172
Orbital floor fracture; blowout fracture; orbital volume; nonsurgical treatment
2.  Salvage of failed trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures using a distally fixed, modular, uncemented hip revision stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):488-492.
Background and purpose
Treatment options for failed internal fixation of hip fractures include prosthetic replacement. We evaluated survival, complications, and radiographic outcome in 30 patients who were operated with a specific modular, uncemented hip reconstruction prosthesis as a salvage procedure after failed treatment of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.
Patients and methods
We used data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and journal files to analyze complications and survival. Initially, a high proportion of trochanteric fractures (7/10) were classified as unstable and 12 of 20 subtrochanteric fractures had an extension through the greater trochanter. Modes of failure after primary internal fixation were cutout (n = 12), migration of the femoral neck screw (n = 9), and other (n = 9).
Results
Mean age at the index operation with the modular prosthesis was 77 (52–93) years and the mean follow-up was 4 (1–9) years. Union of the remaining fracture fragments was observed in 26 hips, restoration of proximal bone defects in 16 hips, and bone ingrowth of the stem in 25 hips. Subsidence was evident in 4 cases. 1 patient was revised by component exchange because of recurrent dislocation, and another 6 patients were reoperated: 5 because of deep infections and 1 because of periprosthetic fracture. The cumulative 3-year survival for revision was 96% (95% CI: 89–100) and for any reoperation it was 83% (68–93).
Interpretation
The modular stem allowed fixation distal to the fracture system. Radiographic outcome was good. The rate of complications, however—especially infections—was high. We believe that preoperative laboratory screening for low-grade infection and synovial cultures could contribute to better treatment in some of these patients.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.733917
PMCID: PMC3488175  PMID: 23083435
3.  Distal femoral stem-bone anchorage of a cementless revision total hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(3):298-302.
Background and purpose According to the manual of the cementless Link MP reconstruction prosthesis, a distal femoral stem-bone anchorage of at least 80 mm is necessary to gain implant stability. There have been no in vivo studies showing that this distance is either achieved in clinical practice or needed for clinically satisfying results. Thus, we assessed the femoral stem-bone anchorage of the MP prosthesis using CT.
Methods 14 patients with the MP stem were evaluated by CT scans at a median follow-up time of 12 months postoperatively. Femoral stem-bone anchorage was defined as adequate if 50% of the stem flutes or more had cortical bone contact. The length of anchorage was derived from the number of slices with adequate anchorage. Clinical outcome was assessed with VAS for pain and Harris hip score (HHS), both at 1 and 5 years of follow-up.
Results The median length of stem-bone anchorage was 33 mm (interquartile range 10–60), which was shorter than recommended (p = 0.002). Still, at the 1-year control, all patients were fully weight-bearing and only 1/14 complained about mild thigh pain. 7/14 patients did not experience any pain in the affected hip. The patients had a median of 85 points in the HHS. The clinical outcome at 5 years was unchanged.
Interpretation We found that it can be difficult to achieve a stem-bone anchorage of at least 80 mm for the MP Link prosthesis. However, this does not appear to be necessary to obtain stability and to achieve clinically satisfying results.
doi:10.3109/17453670903039403
PMCID: PMC2823214  PMID: 19593722

Results 1-3 (3)