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1.  Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):523-528.
Background and purpose
Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear.
Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA.
The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls.
The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3488181  PMID: 23043271
2.  Pathomechanisms of ulnar ligament lesions of the wrist in a cadaveric distal radius fracture model 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):360-364.
Background and purpose
Mechanisms of injury to ulnar-sided ligaments (stabilizing the distal radioulnar joint and the ulna to the carpus) associated with dorsally displaced distal radius fractures are poorly described. We investigated the injury patterns in a human cadaver fracture model.
Fresh frozen human cadaver arms were used. A dorsal open-wedge osteotomy was performed in the distal radius. In 8 specimens, pressure was applied to the palm with the wrist in dorsiflexion and ulnar-sided stabilizing structures subsequently severed. Dorsal angulation was measured on digitized radiographs. In 8 other specimens, the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) was forced into rupture by axially loading the forearm with the wrist in dorsiflexion. The ulnar side was dissected and injuries were recorded.
Intact ulnar soft tissues limited the dorsal angulation of the distal radius fragment to a median of 32o (16–34). A combination of bending and shearing of the distal radius fragment was needed to create TFCC injuries. Both palmar and dorsal injuries were observed simultaneously in 6 of 8 specimens.
A TFCC injury can be expected when dorsal angulation of a distal radius fracture exceeds 32o. The extensor carpi ulnaris subsheath may be a functionally integral part of the TFCC. Both dorsal and palmar structures can tear simultaneously. These findings may have implications for reconstruction of ulnar sided soft tissue injuries.
PMCID: PMC3235317  PMID: 21504313
3.  The influence of age, delay of repair, and tendon involvement in acute rotator cuff tears 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(2):187-192.
Background and purpose
Few authors have considered the outcome after acute traumatic rotator cuff tears in previously asymptomatic patients. We investigated whether delay of surgery, age at repair, and the number of cuff tendons involved affect the structural and clinical outcome.
Patients and methods
42 patients with pseudoparalysis after trauma and no previous history of shoulder symptoms were included. A full-thickness tear in at least 1 of the rotator cuff tendons was diagnosed in all patients. Mean time to surgery was 38 (6–91) days. Follow-up at a mean of 39 (12–108) months after surgery included ultrasound, plain radiographs, Constant-Murley score, DASH score, and western Ontario rotator cuff (WORC) score.
At follow-up, 4 patients had a full-thickness tear and 9 had a partial-thickness tear in the repaired shoulder. No correlation between the structural or clinical outcome and the time to repair within 3 months was found. The patients with a tendon defect at follow-up had a statistically significantly lower Constant-Murley score and WORC index in the injured shoulder and were significantly older than those with intact tendons. The outcomes were similar irrespective of the number of tendons repaired.
A delay of 3 months to repair had no effect on outcome. The patients with cuff defects at follow-up were older and they had a worse clinical outcome. Multi-tendon injury did not generate worse outcomes than single-tendon tears at follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3235289  PMID: 21434791

Results 1-3 (3)