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1.  Pathological gait in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and proposal for gait modification to decrease the hip joint loading 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(6):1235-1241.
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) severely limits the range of hip motion and hinders a normal gait. Loading of the hip joint is a major consideration in LCP treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait patterns in LCP and identify gait modifications to decrease the load on the affected hip.
Forty children with unilateral LCP were divided into three groups based on the time base integral of the hip abductor moments during single stance on the affected side acquired during instrumented 3D gait analysis. X-rays of the affected hip were classified according to Herring and Catterall.
Children in the “unloading” group spontaneously adopted a Duchenne-like gait with pelvis elevation, hip abduction and external rotation during single support phase. The “normal-loading” group showed pelvis elevation with a neutral hip position in the frontal plane. In the “overloading” group the pelvis dropped to the swinging limb at the beginning of stance accompanied by prolonged hip adduction. The time base integral of the hip abductor moments during single stance correlated positively with the X-ray classifications of Herring and Catterall, hip abduction angle and age. Older children preferred to walk in hip adduction during single stance, had more impaired hips and tended to overload them.
The hip overloading pattern should be avoided in children with LCP. Gait training to unload the hip might become an integral component of conservative treatment in children with LCP.
PMCID: PMC3353082  PMID: 22134707
2.  Patella re-alignment in children with a modified Grammont technique 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):504-510.
Background and purpose
In skeletally immature patients, surgical options due to recurrent patella dislocation are limited, because bony procedures bear the risk of growth disturbances. In this retrospective study, we report the long-term functional and radiographic outcome in skeletally immature patients using the modified Grammont surgical technique.
Between 1999 and 2004, 65 skeletally immature knees (49 children) were treated with a modified Grammont procedure: an open lateral release and a shift of the patella tendon insertion below the growth plate on the tuberositas tibia, allowing the tendon to medialize. At mean 8 (5.6–11) years after surgery, 58 knees in 43 patients were evaluated by clinical examination, from functional scores (Lysholm, Tegner), and from radiographs of the knees.
Mean Lysholm score was 82 postoperatively. Tegner score decreased from 6.2 to 5. Eight knees had a single dislocation within 3 months of surgery. 3 knees had repeated late dislocations, all with a high grade of trochlea dysplasia. 6 knees showed mild signs of osteoarthritis. No growth disturbances were observed.
The modified Grammont technique in skeletally immature patients allows restoration of the distal patella tendon alignment by dynamic positioning. Long-term results showed that there were no growth disturbances and that there was good functional outcome. However, patients with a high grade of trochlea dysplasia tended to re-dislocate.
PMCID: PMC3488178  PMID: 23039166
3.  Outcome of repaired unstable meniscal tears in children and adolescents 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):261-266.
Unstable meniscal tears are rare injuries in skeletally immature patients. Loss of a meniscus increases the risk of subsequent development of degenerative changes in the knee. This study deals with the outcome of intraarticular meniscal repair and factors that affect healing. Parameters of interest were type and location of the tear and also the influence of simultaneous reconstruction of a ruptured ACL.
We investigated the outcome of 25 patients (29 menisci) aged 15 (4–17) years who underwent surgery for full thickness meniscal tears, either as isolated lesions or in combination with ACL ruptures. Intraoperative documentation followed the IKDC 2000 standard. Outcome measurements were the Tegner score (pre- and postoperatively) and the Lysholm score (postoperatively) after an average follow-up period of 2.3 years, with postoperative arthroscopy and MRT in some cases.
24 of the 29 meniscal lesions healed (defined as giving an asymptomatic patient) regardless of location or type. 4 patients re-ruptured their menisci (all in the pars intermedia) at an average of 15 months after surgery following a new injury. Mean Lysholm score at follow-up was 95, the Tegner score deteriorated, mean preoperative score: 7.8 (4–10); mean postoperative score: 7.2 (4–10). Patients with simultaneous ACL reconstruction had a better outcome.
All meniscal tears in the skeletally immature patient are amenable to repair. All recurrent meniscal tears in our patients were located in the pars intermedia; the poorer blood supply in this region may give a higher risk of re-rupture. Simultaneous ACL reconstruction appears to benefit the results of meniscal repair.
PMCID: PMC3369152  PMID: 22616744

Results 1-3 (3)