We present a descriptive and retrospective analysis of revision total hip arthroplasties (THA) using the MRP-TITAN stem (Peter Brehm, Weisendorf, GER) with distal diaphyseal fixation and metaphyseal defect augmentation. Our hypothesis was that the metaphyseal defect augmentation (Impaction Bone Grafting) improves the stem survival.
We retrospectively analyzed the aggregated and anonymized data of 243 femoral stem revisions. 68 patients with 70 implants (28.8%) received an allograft augmentation for metaphyseal defects; 165 patients with 173 implants (71.2%) did not, and served as controls. The mean follow-up was 4.4 ± 1.8 years (range, 2.1–9.6 years). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the study and control group regarding age, body mass index (BMI), femoral defects (types I-III as described by Paprosky), and preoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS). Postoperative clinical function was evaluated using the HHS. Postoperative radiologic examination evaluated implant stability, axial implant migration, signs of implant loosening, periprosthetic radiolucencies, as well as bone regeneration and resorption.
There were comparable rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications in the study and control groups (p > 0.05). Clinical function, expressed as the increase in the postoperative HHS over the preoperative score, showed significantly greater improvement in the group with Impaction Bone Grafting (35.6 ± 14.3 vs. 30.8 ± 15.8; p ≤ 0.05). The study group showed better outcome especially for larger defects (types II C and III as described by Paprosky) and stem diameters ≥ 17 mm. The two groups did not show significant differences in the rate of aseptic loosening (1.4% vs. 2.9%) and the rate of revisions (8.6% vs. 11%). The Kaplan-Meier survival for the MRP-TITAN stem in both groups together was 93.8% after 8.8 years. [Study group 95.7% after 8.54 years ; control group 93.1% after 8.7 years]. Radiologic evaluation showed no significant change in axial implant migration (4.3% vs. 9.3%; p = 0.19) but a significant reduction in proximal stress shielding (5.7% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.05) in the study group. Periprosthetic radiolucencies were detected in 5.7% of the study group and in 9.8% of the control group (p = 0.30). Radiolucencies in the proximal zones 1 and 7 according to Gruen occurred significantly more often in the control group without allograft augmentation (p ≤ 0.05).
We present the largest analysis of the impaction grafting technique in combination with cementless distal diaphyseal stem fixation published so far. Our data provides initial evidence of improved bone regeneration after graft augmentation of metaphyseal bone defects. The data suggests that proximal metaphyseal graft augmentation is beneficial for large metaphyseal bone defects (Paprosky types IIC and III) and stem diameters of 17 mm and above. Due to the limitations of a retrospective and descriptive study the level of evidence remains low and prospective trials should be conducted.