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1.  Orthopedic Management of Patients with Pompe Disease: A Retrospective Case Series of 8 Patients 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:963861.
Introduction. Pompe disease (PD), a lysosomal storage disease as well as a neuromuscular disorder, is a rare disease marked by progressive muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in recent years allowed longer survival but brought new problems to the treatment of PD with increasing affection of the musculoskeletal system, particularly with a significantly higher prevalence of scoliosis. The present paper deals with the orthopedic problems in patients with PD and is the first to describe surgical treatment of scoliosis in PD patients. Patients and Methods. The orthopedic problems and treatment of eight patients with PD from orthopedic consultation for neuromuscular disorders are retrospectively presented. We analyzed the problems of scoliosis, hip dysplasia, feet deformities, and contractures and presented the orthopedic treatment options. Results. Six of our eight PD patients had scoliosis and two young patients were treated by operative spine stabilization with benefits for posture and sitting ability. Hip joint surgery, operative contracture release, and feet deformity correction were performed with benefits for independent activity. Conclusion. Orthopedic management gains importance due to extended survival and musculoskeletal involvement under ERT. Surgical treatment is indicated in distinct cases. Further investigation is required to evidence the effect of surgical spine stabilization in PD.
doi:10.1155/2014/963861
PMCID: PMC3910124  PMID: 24523658
2.  Orthopaedic Disorders in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: descriptive clinical study of 21 patients 
Background
Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is the most common form of hereditary myopathy presenting in adults. This autosomal-dominant systemic disorder is caused by a CTG repeat, demonstrating various symptoms. A mild, classic and congenital form can be distinguished. Often the quality of life is reduced by orthopaedic problems, such as muscle weakness, contractures, foot or spinal deformities, which limit patients’ mobility.
The aim of our study was to gather information about the orthopaedic impairments in patients with DM1 in order to improve the medical care of patients, affected by this rare disease.
Methods
A retrospective clinical study was carried out including 21 patients (11 male and 10 female), all diagnosed with DM1 by genetic testing. All patients were seen during our special consultations for neuromuscular diseases, during which patients were interviewed and examined. We also reviewed surgery reports of our hospitalized patients.
Results
We observed several orthopaedic impairments: spinal deformities (scoliosis, hyperkyphosis, rigid spine), contractures (of the upper extremities and the lower extremities), foot deformities (equinus deformity, club foot, pes cavus, pes planovalgus, pes cavovarus, claw toes) and fractures.
Five patients were affected by pulmonary diseases (obstructive airway diseases, restrictive lung dysfunctions). Twelve patients were affected by cardiac disorders (congenital heart defects, valvular heart defects, conduction disturbances, pulmonary hypertension, cardiomyopathy).
Our patients received conservative therapy (physiotherapy, logopaedic therapy, ergotherapy) and we prescribed orthopaedic technical devices (orthopaedic custom-made shoes, insoles, lower and upper leg orthoses, wheelchair, Rehab Buggy). We performed surgery for spinal and foot deformities: the scoliosis of one patient was stabilized and seven patients underwent surgery for correction of foot deformities.
Conclusions
An orthopaedic involvement in DM1 patients should not be underestimated. The most common orthopaedic impairments are contractures, foot deformities and spinal deformities. Contractures are typically located distally in the lower extremities, but can also occur in the hip or shoulder joints. Foot deformities could be treated with orthopaedic custom-made shoes, orthoses or insoles. Surgery is indicated for severe foot deformities or contractures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-338
PMCID: PMC4219587  PMID: 24289806
Myotonic dystrophy type 1; Curschmann-steinert disease; Orthopaedic disorders; Spinal deformities; Foot deformities; Contractures; Fractures; Orthopaedic treatment; Cardiac involvement; Pulmonary involvement
3.  Natural course of scoliosis in proximal spinal muscular atrophy type II and IIIa: descriptive clinical study with retrospective data collection of 126 patients 
Background
Progressive scoliosis, pelvic obliquity and increasing reduction of pulmonary function are among the most significant problems for patients with SMA type II and SMA type III once they have lost the ability to walk. The aim of this study was to examine and document the development and natural course of scoliosis in patients with spinal muscular atrophy type II and IIIa.
Methods
For the purposes of a descriptive clinical study, we observed 126 patients, 99 with SMA II and 27 with SMA IIIa and the data of scoliosis, pelvic obliquity and relative age-dependent inspiratory vital capacity were evaluated.
Results
Scoliosis and pelvic obliquity were regularly observed already in children under 4 years old in the group with SMA II. The severity and progression of both conditions were much more pronounced in the SMA II group than in the IIIa group. There was already a distinct reduction in relative vital capacity in the group of 4- to 6-year-olds with SMA II.
Conclusions
The differences between the two SMA types II and IIIa described in this study should be taken into consideration when developing new treatments and in management of scoliosis in the childhood years of these patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-283
PMCID: PMC3850509  PMID: 24093531
Spinal muscular atrophy; Scoliosis; Pelvic obliquity; Pulmonary function; Natural course
4.  Surgical treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients in Germany: the present situation 
Acta Myologica  2012;31(1):21-23.
In 1988, we familiarised ourselves at Poitiers with the concept of operative treatment of the lower limbs and the spine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients which Yves Rideau and his collaborators (1, 2) had developed there in the early 1980s. Thereupon, we immediately established the techniques at our home universities, first at the Technische Universität Aachen and, from 1999 on, at the Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Germany. Since then, we have applied the technique to more than 500 DMD patients in total by performing more than 800 operations on the lower limbs and/or spine. In support of findings reported by Professor Rideau in this issue (3) we observed that, where patients are still ambulatory at the time of operation, the operation delays the point at which patients become wheelchair-bound by about two years. Likewise, patients receiving this treatment were/are also able to perform the Gowers' manoeuvre for around two years longer (4-6).
PMCID: PMC3440800  PMID: 22655513
Duchenne muscular dystrophy; prophylactic surgery; prevention of scoliosis

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